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Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date July-Aug. 2001

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 33
  • Input and reverse transfer capacitance measurement of MOS-gated power transistors under high current flow

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1062 - 1066
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (160 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The measurement principle of the input and reverse transfer capacitance is shown. Function, stability, and operation of the measurement circuits are discussed. The on-state capacitances of a power DMOS transistor were measured under high current conditions of up to 250 A. A strong nonlinear characteristic is observed. View full abstract»

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  • Improved analytical modeling of conductive losses in gapped high-frequency inductors

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1045 - 1054
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An improved method to predict conductive losses in gapped high-frequency inductors is presented and used for parametrization of an equivalent small-signal circuit model. The method is based on the superposition of power losses resulting from the well-known one-dimensional (1-D) field calculation and losses due to eddy currents caused by the fringing field of air gaps determined from novel analytical two-dimensional field calculations. Losses due to reactive currents in the windings caused by self capacitances are also considered. A greatly improved accuracy compared to 1-D analysis is proved by measurements View full abstract»

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  • Calculation of losses in ferro- and ferrimagnetic materials based on the modified Steinmetz equation

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1055 - 1061
    Cited by:  Papers (115)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (128 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses the influence of nonsinusoidal flux waveforms on the remagnetization losses in ferro- and ferrimagnetic materials of inductors, transformers, and electrical machines used in power electronic applications. The nonsinusoidal changes of flux originate from driving these devices by nonsinusoidal voltages and currents at different switching frequencies. A detailed examination of a dynamic hysteresis model shows that the physical origin of losses in magnetic material is the average rate of remagnetization rather than the remagnetization frequency. This principle leads to a modification of the most common calculation rule for magnetic core losses, i.e., to the “modified Steinmetz equation” (MSE). In the MSE, the remagnetization frequency is replaced by an equivalent frequency which is calculated from the average remagnetization rate. This approach allows, for the first time, the calculation of the losses in the time domain for arbitrary waveforms of flux while using the available set of parameters of the classical Steinmetz equation. DC premagnetization of the material, having a substantial influence on the losses, can also be included. Extensive measurements verify the MSE presented in this paper View full abstract»

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  • Applying drive performance specifications to systems applications. I. Speed performance

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1082 - 1087
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (140 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper provides guidelines for the useful interpretation of AC/DC drive speed performance specifications from a drive system's application perspective View full abstract»

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  • NFPA 70E changes for year 2000

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1167 - 1173
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (56 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The recognized and generally accepted good engineering practice covering electrical safety in the workplace was adopted in the fall of 1999. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) accepted several significant changes to Standard 70E entitled “Electrical Safety Requirements for Employee Workplaces”. The changes resulted from public proposals and comments based on new technology and developments, substantiated by testing. Each recommendation was reviewed, discussed and approved by the NFPA 70E Technical Committee during actions on the proposals and comments over the past two years. Text was updated to conform to the 1999 National Electrical Code. All definitions were placed in one section under Introduction. All training requirements and qualifications were placed in one chapter. Additional methods were provided for identifying the level of electrical arc flash hazard, determining safe approach distances, and selecting personal protective equipment appropriate for the degree of hazard available at the work place. Part IV was added to provide guidance for safe work practices around special electrical equipment and systems such as electrolytic cells, batteries, lasers and power electronic equipment View full abstract»

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  • In-mold electromagnetic stirring in continuous casting

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1098 - 1104
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB)  

    To get the optimal operation of in-mold electromagnetic stirring through the fundamental characteristics, a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic calculation model was used, taking into consideration heat transfer and solidification as well as free surface. Comparison between measured velocity and calculated velocity is in agreement. A shadow method that calculates electromagnetic force in consideration of free surface transition is proposed to reduce computing time and maintain sufficient accuracy. A calculated free surface of mercury under a 200-Hz magnetic field shows an adequate agreement with the experimental one. Calculation results applied to the continuous casting process taking into consideration heat transfer and solidification are in good agreement with operation data. This model shows that electromagnetic stirring makes the solidified shell uniform and dynamic deviation of temperature stable View full abstract»

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  • A primer on capacitor bank protection

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1174 - 1179
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (100 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Capacitor banks are applied in power systems to provide reactive power. The reactive power results in lower current in lines upstream of the bank improving system voltage and power factor and reducing line losses. Capacitor banks can be configured as filters for harmonic reduction. The protection systems for capacitor banks include fuses, surge arresters, and protective relays. This paper focuses on protective relaying philosophies of grounded and ungrounded Y-connected shunt capacitor banks, which are commonly applied on industrial and utility power systems View full abstract»

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  • Decomposition of dilute trichloroethylene by using nonthermal plasma processing-frequency and catalyst effects

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 965 - 970
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (160 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    First Page of the Article
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  • Design of increased safety electrical machine: development activities and certification testing

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1180 - 1188
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (236 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electrical machines are used widely in the petrochemical industry. Most of the machines are operated in Class I hazardous locations and, hence, appropriate precautions must be taken to protect the machine to ensure that the explosive atmosphere cannot be ignited. There are four types of protection applicable to large machines. They are type p (purged and pressurized), type e (increased safety), type d (flameproof), and type N. Type p, type e, and type d protections are permitted in Zone 1 or Zone 2. In 1996 and 1999, two machines were designed and tested to meet IEC 60079-0 and 60079-7 standards regarding the Exe II B 200°C (T3) requirement. The machines are installed in Zone 2 locations. This paper presents the electrical and mechanical design considerations of the increased safety induction machine. Finally, the paper describes the test procedure and summarizes the results from the series of tests performed on these two machines View full abstract»

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  • Induction motor design for electric vehicle using a niching genetic algorithm

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 994 - 999
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (124 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the case of the shape or structural optimization of induction motor design, it is necessary to identify multiple optimal profiles by locating local optima as well as global. Niching methods extend genetic algorithms to domains that require the location and maintenance of multiple solutions. In this paper, optimal design of an induction motor for an electric vehicle using a niching method adopting restricted competition selection is proposed. The evaluation criteria and the standards of the best design selection are also presented View full abstract»

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  • Independent power producers (IPP) perspectives and experiences with WSCC requirements for generator model validation tests

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1210 - 1216
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (108 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Modern powerful computing tools allow precise and economical modeling of large power system dynamics. Accurate synchronous machine representation is required for such a purpose. After two regional blackouts in 1996, the Western Systems Coordinating Council (WSCC) instituted guidelines to field test data of generators connected to its integrated power system. This paper demonstrates an experience with the applications of WSCC's test guidelines to mid-size units built and commissioned by independent power producers (IPPs). The paper addresses concerns with the excitation and voltage control systems and their limitations. An example of a generation unit connected at the end of a long line is discussed to demonstrate variances associated with testing and operating under extreme conditions. The concerns and issues discussed are of importance to IPPs beyond the WSCC's system as many other reliability councils are adopting rules similar to those established by WSCC View full abstract»

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  • Advanced automation concept of runout table strip cooling for hot strip and plate mills

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1088 - 1097
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (216 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An advanced automation concept, based on operational experience with the classical concept, has been developed for the automation of cooling sections. An essential aspect is the use of the thermophysical process knowledge for setup calculation and for control during production. The cooling section is, therefore, regarded as a system through which unsteady energy flows. This system definition also allows the flexible use of the final control elements, since the temperature profile between the pyrometer of the finishing train and that of the coiler can be continuously calculated, i.e., observed during production and compared and controlled with a reference temperature profile. This has enormous advantages as the influence of process disturbances, e.g., by power speedup and speed down, is effective simultaneously at each point within the cooling section. The advanced control concept combines proven model technology with new features that provide a high degree of flexibility concerning dynamically changing process parameters and transient conditions. The advanced automation concept has already been implemented in the cooling section of two conventional hot strip mills View full abstract»

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  • Experimental study and modeling of static electrification in power transformers

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 971 - 977
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (172 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For the last 20 years, static electrification has been suspected to he responsible for failures in power transformers (electric “tree” paths, “worm holes,” etc.). The phenomenon consists in a preferential adsorption of negative ions from the oil (impurities) into the pressboard. This yields, on the one hand, a space charge in the oil which can relax in contact with grounded metallic walls and, on the other hand, a space charge in the pressboard which can accumulate depending on the leakage paths. As part of a research program by Electricite de France in the field of static electrification in transformers, an experiment has been carried out, at the Universite de Poitiers, Poitier, France, to study the most constrained parts in transformers with regard to this phenomenon: the insulated pressboards close to the oil inlet. For this, the experimental loop consists in impinging an immersed oil jet on a pressboard target in which annular insulated electrodes have been inserted to determine the charge in the pressboard. Considering the scale effect, the equipment involves taking oil from an operating transformer and making it possible to study the influence of the flow velocity and the length of the free jet. From a first modeling, compared to the authors' experimental results, it seems that the local wall current coming from the pressboard is proportional to the local wall shearing stress. Considering the magnitude of the process, it finally turned out that this new configuration increases greatly the charge generation process in comparison to a flow parallel to the pressboard View full abstract»

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  • Shaft current in AC induction machine. An online monitoring system and prediction rules

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1189 - 1196
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (184 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper looks at a system for online shaft current monitoring. The proposed method of shaft current monitoring is noninvasive, reliable, portable, and low cost. Causes of the shaft current are described and prediction rules introduced. Fault conditions such as air-gap eccentricity, slot harmonics and broken rotor bars or end rings result in an asymmetrical flux pattern around the shaft, hence, resulting in shaft voltage. Bearing failures can occur when the voltage level exceeds the threshold of the oil film. The importance of the oil film is described View full abstract»

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  • Virtual-flux-based direct power control of three-phase PWM rectifiers

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1019 - 1027
    Cited by:  Papers (238)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (340 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, direct power control (DPC) of three-phase pulsewidth-modulated rectifiers without line voltage sensors is presented. The new system is based on virtual flux (VF) estimation. Theoretical principles of this method are discussed. The steady-state and dynamic behavior of VF-DPC are presented that illustrate the operation and performance of the proposed system compared to a conventional DPC method. Both strategies are also investigated under unbalance and predistorted grid. It is shown that the VF-DPC exhibits several advantages, particularly providing sinusoidal line current when the supply voltage is not ideal. Test results show the excellent performance of the proposed system View full abstract»

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  • The design of equalizer windings for lap-wound DC machines

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1000 - 1011
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (216 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The design of equalizer windings for DC machines is generally of an empirical nature. This paper presents an analytical technique for the design of equalizer windings. Use is made of a modern computer-aided analysis and design tool called finite-element analysis and machine circuit theory. The analysis is limited to simplex lap-wound DC machines, but should equally well apply to multiplex windings. The technique was successfully applied to a 4.1 MW DC generator. The generator's equalizer windings burned out, after the machine was rebuilt due to a mechanical failure View full abstract»

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  • Physical modeling and control of dynamic foaming in an LD-converter process

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1067 - 1073
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (156 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with physical modeling and control of dynamic foaming in the LD-converter process. An experimental setup consisting of a water model, digital signal processor, and PC hardware is built and shown to be useful for studying dynamic foaming. Furthermore, a foam height estimation algorithm is presented and validated through experiments. Finally, sound signals from the LD-converter and water model are compared and similarities between them are found View full abstract»

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  • Removal of dilute benzene using a zeolite-hybrid plasma reactor

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 959 - 964
    Cited by:  Papers (35)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (184 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The decomposition of benzene was carried out using a plasma reactor packed with a mixture of BaTiO3 and zeolite pellets, the zeolite-hybrid reactor. The reactor performance was characterized by measuring COx formed during plasma discharge and COx adsorbed on the solid surface, The decomposition efficiency of benzene in the hybrid reactor was 1.4-2.1× higher than that in a conventional plasma reactor packed with BaTiO3 alone. Benzene existing outside a zeolite crystalline pore was found to decompose more easily than that inside a zeolite pore. In addition, the presence of zeolites suppressed the formation of NOx View full abstract»

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  • Electrohydrodynamic induction pumping of a stratified liquid/vapor medium in the presence of volumetric and interface electric charges

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 950 - 958
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (188 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) pumping of two-phase media has potential applications related to both pure pumping as well as heat transfer enhancement. Utilization as pumping mechanism is attractive for terrestrial and outer space systems. Augmentation of mass flow rate in two-phase heat transfer applications, such as boiling and condensation, leads to enhanced heat transfer coefficients, thus making EHD pumping an attractive candidate for these situations. A theoretical model is presented for EHD induction pumping of a stratified liquid/vapor medium accounting for electric shear stresses due to interfacial and bulk charges. Bulk charges are a result of temperature gradient in the liquid phase of the fluid. Conditions are established under which the bulk effect plays a significant role in the pumping process View full abstract»

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  • Operating temperature considerations and performance characteristics for IEEE 841 motors

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1120 - 1131
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reviews the operating temperature considerations and performance characteristics for totally enclosed fan-cooled motors as covered in the IEEE 841-2000 motor standard. NEMA MG-1-1998 motor standards are also included since they are embodied in the IEEE standard. Although the scope of product covered is for AC squirrel-cage induction motors through 500 hp, the material presented has application with many other sizes and types of motor. The paper reviews this standard as it applies to the motor operating temperature and various performance characteristics. The impact of temperature on the stator winding, rotor cage, bearings, lubrications, as well as the effects on motor efficiency and other applicable life factors, are considered View full abstract»

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  • Improving bridle low-speed regulation using cascaded current followers

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1074 - 1081
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (168 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The torque or current references to the current loops of drives providing power to helper rolls in bridles are usually slaved directly from the current reference of the master speed-regulated roll. At low line speeds the current required to overcome losses in the master speed-regulated roll will differ significantly from the current required to overcome losses in the helper rolls, resulting in overall erratic speed regulation in the bridle. A scheme based on cascaded current major loops is described and shown to provide a substantial improvement in low-speed regulation. An additional benefit is that higher speed-loop bandwidths are made possible by the decoupling effect provided by the cascaded current major loop View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of reactor performance in the nonthermal plasma chemical processing of hazardous air pollutants

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 978 - 985
    Cited by:  Papers (34)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (140 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The performance of three different types of plasma reactors such as ferroelectric packed-bed (FPR), pulsed corona (PCR), and silent discharge (SDR) were compared in the decomposition of trichloroethylene (Cl2C=CHCl, TCE), bromomethane (CH3Br), and tetrafluoromethane (CF4). Irrespective of reactors, hazardous air pollutant (HAP) reactivity in dry N2 decreased in the order: TCE>CH3Br>CF4. Similar byproducts were obtained with any of the above reactors, and similar trends were observed in the HAP decomposition rate-retarding effect by water. Only for SDR, TCE decomposition was accelerated by O2 in the background gas. The most plausible active oxygen species is considered to be the triplet oxygen atom. In the reaction systems where chemically induced decomposition of HAPs can occur, as in the case of TCE, PCR is expected to exceed FPR and SDR in performance. In the cases of CH3 Br and CF4, residence time has been the most important factor governing their decomposition rates, and FPR and SDR have shown higher performance than PCR View full abstract»

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  • Challenges encountered when expanding a world-class petrochemical facility

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1109 - 1119
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (172 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the challenges encountered when adding a new ethylene plant, a polyethylene plant, a cogeneration plant, and associated utilities to a major petrochemical facility located in Joffre, AB, Canada. It covers load estimation, power quality, reliability, common electrical specifications, and project coordination with several major engineering, procurement and construction firms. It also highlights the unique design and utility interconnection challenges of building Canada's largest cogeneration plant (rated at 420 MW) within an existing petrochemical plant. The challenges include transmission system capacity and connection, fault levels, stability, and voltage regulation. The paper makes recommendations based on the learning experienced during the implementation of this project, to assist the reader faced with a similar major plant expansion View full abstract»

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  • Application of electromagnetic force to runout table

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1105 - 1108
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (88 KB)  

    The electromagnetic application system to improve the running characteristics at the runout table of the hot strip mill in a steel-making plant by means of electromagnetic force is proposed. According to the fundamental analysis, such as electromagnetic calculation and experimental data, this system is frequently used in online operation, even in consideration of magnetic saturation and electromagnetic braking View full abstract»

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  • Near-cathode phenomena in HID lamps

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 986 - 993
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (120 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A brief review is given of the present understanding of cathode phenomena in arc discharges. A model of a near-cathode plasma region of high-pressure arcs with hot cathodes is described. Possible ways of integration of the model into numerical codes describing a lamp on the whole are discussed. An approach is suggested allowing one to estimate the upper limit of the cathode temperature and the lower limit of the temperature inside a cathode spot without detailed calculations of a temperature distribution inside the cathode. Solutions describing a diffuse and spot modes of current transfer to a thin thermionic cathode are presented and found to compare favorably with available experimental data View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The scope of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS includes all scope items of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, that is, the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical and electronic engineering in the development, design, manufacture, and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; industry leadership in energy conservation and environmental, health, and safety issues; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices; and the professional development of its membership.

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Carlton E. Speck