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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 7 • Date Jul 2001

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • A sparse-matrix/canonical grid method for analyzing densely packed interconnects

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1221 - 1228
    Cited by:  Papers (32)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (256 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a fast numerical method called the sparse-matrix/canonical-grid (SM/CG) method is employed to analyze densely packed microstrip interconnects that involve a large number of unknowns. The mixed-potential integral equation is solved by using the method of moments in the spatial domain. The closed-form expressions of the spatial Green's functions of microstrip structures are obtained from the combination of the fast Hankel transform and the matrix pencil method. The Rao-Wilton-Glisson triangular basis functions are used to convert the integral equation into a matrix equation. The matrix equation is then solved by using the SM/CG method, in which the far-interaction portion of the matrix-vector multiplication in the iterative solution is performed by the fast Fourier transforms (FFTs). This is achieved by the Taylor series expansions of the spatial Green's functions about the uniformly spaced canonical grid points overlaying the triangular discretization. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method. The SM/CG method has computational complexity of O(NlogN). Furthermore, being FFT-based facilitates the implementation for parallel computation View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical and experimental waveguide characterization of small wire scatterers

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1266 - 1269
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (92 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A simple method is presented in this paper that allows us to verify numerically obtained polarizability tensors of electrically small scatterers by waveguide measurements. To this end, a model of the scattering process within the waveguide is developed. Measurements performed on a small helix in two different waveguide setups are compared to the theoretical data obtained from the model. A good agreement is demonstrated. Furthermore, the measured data are highly sensitive to the orientation of the scatterer within the waveguide. Thus, the polarizability tensors can be verified View full abstract»

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  • Wide-band MMIC Kowari mixer/phase shifters

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1229 - 1234
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (108 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A series of wide-band image-reject monolithic-microwave integrated-circuit mixer/phase shifters were designed, fabricated, and tested for operation in the microwave and millimeter-wave bands. Mixers based on diode and resistive-high electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) nonlinear elements are presented and compared in this paper. The diode-based Kowari mixers have a bandwidth of approximately 45%, with up- and down-conversion loss [RF to/from IF (in this paper, we use “IF,” “LO,” and “RF” to label the ports associated with particular signals, not necessarily to describe the nature of the signals themselves)] less than 10 dB and up-conversion output power greater than 0 dBm. At band center, the down-conversion loss is approximately 7 dB. The novel resistive-HEMT-based Kowari mixers have a measured IF-to-RF up-conversion loss of approximately 2 dB and LO-to-RF conversion loss of approximately 13 dB over 17-25.5 GHz. While both circuit types realize wide-band 360° phase shifters when appropriate control voltages are applied, the resistive-HEMT-based Kowari has better linearity and a smaller insertion loss View full abstract»

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  • Ultrawide-band fiber-optic control of a millimeter-wave transmit beamformer

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1248 - 1253
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (152 KB)  

    An ultrawide-band fiber-optic true time-delay millimeter-wave array transmitter is fully characterized and demonstrated in this paper. The beamformer is based on dispersive-prism optical-delay lines and exhibits squint-free ±60° steering in azimuth across the entire Ka-band (26.5-40 GHz). This is believed to be the first fully functioning demonstration of a photonically controlled wide-band millimeter-wave transmitter system View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of membrane support structures for integrated antenna usage on two-dimensional photonic-bandgap structures

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1254 - 1261
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (356 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The study of the transmission of electromagnetic waves through a photonic crystal with various membranes placed over the surface is presented in this paper. A difference in performance is observed even for a membrane thickness that is unable to support guided substrate modes through total internal reflection. The transmittance has been investigated for two crystal orientations, assuming normally incident external plane waves on a finite thickness two-dimensional (2-D) photonic crystals both with and without a membrane. The angular transmission response is characterized by scanning the incidence angle of the impinging plane wave to cover all available angles within the 2D periodic plane of the structure View full abstract»

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  • Dual-mode stepped-impedance ring resonator for bandpass filter applications

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1235 - 1240
    Cited by:  Papers (110)  |  Patents (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (204 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is well known that two orthogonal resonant modes exist within a one-wavelength ring resonator. In this paper, we focus on a ring resonator possessing an impedance step as a form of perturbation. A convenient analyzing method for obtaining the resonance characteristics of this resonator structure is presented. Furthermore, generation of attenuation poles obtained by the dual-mode ring resonator is discussed. In addition, a filter design method based on this resonator is explained, followed by experimental results, which prove the validity of the proposed design method View full abstract»

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  • An efficient Krylov-subspace-based algorithm to solve the dielectric-waveguide problem

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1345 - 1348
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (132 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An efficient scheme based on the bi-Lanczos algorithm has been developed for analysis of the dielectric-waveguide problem. A two-dimensional finite-difference scheme in the frequency domain is used to discretize the waveguide cross section. The resulting sparse eigenvalue problem is solved efficiently using the bi-Lanczos algorithm. Apart from solving the modes of the dielectric waveguide, a scheme to solve for the fields in the presence of a localized source is also described. Numerical results are also included to confirm the validity of the method View full abstract»

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  • AlGaAs/GaAs HBT model estimation through the generalized pencil-of-function method

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1289 - 1294
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (168 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An efficient technique of extracting the small-signal model parameters of the heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) is proposed in this paper. The relation between the extrinsic and intrinsic model parameters, which can be employed to drastically reduce the search space, is studied in depth. For the first time, the HBT transistor is characterized by describing S-parameters with a set of complex exponentials using the generalized pencil-of-function method. The reliable initial values of some extrinsic elements can be determined from the set of complex exponentials. This novel approach can yield a good fit between measured and simulated S-parameters View full abstract»

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  • Time-domain macromodel of planar microwave devices by FDTD and moment expansion

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1321 - 1328
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (196 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The microwave design of highly complex systems can be addressed by segmentation techniques. To this purpose, a subsystem macromodel, such as the impulse response matrix, needs to be computed in an accurate and efficient way. In this paper, we present a combined procedure, based on finite-difference time-domain and a moment-expansion deconvolution by which the impulse response matrix is obtained via time-domain processing only. The algorithm has been tested on microwave planar devices with satisfactory accuracy View full abstract»

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  • A high-impedance ground plane applied to a cellphone handset geometry

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1262 - 1265
    Cited by:  Papers (63)  |  Patents (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (108 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A high-impedance electromagnetic surface is a new type of metallic structure exhibiting high surface impedance and the suppression of propagating surface currents at a particular frequency band. We experimentally characterize such a high-impedance surface designed near 2.4 GHz. We describe an antenna built on such a surface, integrated into a printed circuit board that was designed for the form factor of a portable handset. Measurement shows high radiation efficiency near 2.4 GHz View full abstract»

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  • An analytic method to determine GaAs FET parasitic inductances and drain resistance under active bias conditions

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1241 - 1247
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (184 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An analytic technique to determine the parasitic inductances, source resistance, and drain resistance of the FET equivalent circuit is presented in this paper. The method exploits the frequency dependence of the extracted circuit parameters to determine the parasitic inductances and drain resistance from S-parameters measured over frequency for one active bias condition. Given a value for the parasitic gate resistance R g, all of the other equivalent-circuit parameters are uniquely extracted. The method is fast and robust, making it suitable for in-line statistical process tracking, as well as device modeling. A process tracking example for a 12-wafer 1864-device sample and FET modeling results up to 40 GHz are also presented View full abstract»

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  • Effect of reflection on gyrotron operation

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1342 - 1345
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (168 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The effect of wave reflection on the single-mode operation of a gyrotron is investigated with the help of Rieke diagrams. For this purpose, a set of self-consistent equations describing the beam-field interaction is solved, taking into account the effect of the electron beam and the reflection coefficient on the frequency and RF field profile View full abstract»

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  • On the use of SDA for the analysis of boxed planar lines with complex media

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1365 - 1368
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (128 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses the conditions under which the spectral-domain approach (SDA) can be applied to the analysis of boxed planar lines when complex materials (anisotropic dielectrics, ferrites, magnetoplasmons, chiral media, and so on) are used as substrates. It will be shown that whereas SDA can always be efficiently applied to study laterally open structures, the simultaneous presence of lateral boundary conditions and nonisotropic materials requires further study. Thus, the symmetry properties of the constitutive dyadics that makes possible a rigorous application of the SDA to those kinds of structures will be reported in this paper View full abstract»

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  • The effects of Cbc on the linearity of AlGaAs/GaAs power HBTs

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1270 - 1276
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (284 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is well known that Cbc is the dominant nonlinear element in heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). To study its behavior, an analytical nonlinear HBT equivalent-circuit model has been developed. The present model includes the effect of the ionized donor charge in the depleted collector region compensated by the injected mobile charge. The model-based simulation shows that, at a small-signal range, the third-order intermodulation (IM3) of the normal HBT has the normal 3:1 gain slope generated by the nonlinearity of Cbc. At a large-signal level, the load line passes through some regions with constant Cbc because its collector is fully depleted by the injected free carriers, and the growth rate of the IM3 is decreased. The punch-through collector HBT has constant Cbc during the whole RF cycle, and the IM3, which is generated by gm nonlinearity, has the normal 3:1 gain slope for the all input signal level. Therefore, the IM3 level is significantly lower for the punch-through HBT at a low-power level, but the IM3s of both devices are comparable at a high-power level. The experiment supports our proposed model View full abstract»

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  • A low-power-consuming SOM for wireless communications

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1348 - 1351
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (116 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents theoretical and experimental results of a low-power-consuming hybrid push-pull self-oscillating mixer (SOM) circuit at the UHF frequency band. The frequency-stable SOM circuit is designed and fabricated using matched-pair Si bipolar junction transistors and high-Q resonators, where measured phase noise of this free-running voltage-controlled oscillator is -101.2 dBc/Hz at 100-kHz offset. A 20-dB up-conversion gain, a compression dynamic range (CDR) of 65 dB·MHz, and a spurious-free dynamic range of 50 dB·MHz 2/3 are also measured for the mixer portion of this SOM. Moreover, a down-conversion gain of ≈-2 dB with a CDR of 100 dB·MHz is also measured View full abstract»

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  • High-order mixed RWG basis functions for electromagnetic applications

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1295 - 1303
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (276 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present an explicit form of high-order mixed Rao-Wilton-Glisson basis functions for electromagnetic (EM) simulation of curved conductor surfaces. Basis functions for combinations of curved triangular and quadrilateral patches can be used. Several applications of EM simulations in multilayered media, such as three-dimensional discontinuities in very large scale integration design, multilayered RF components, and multilayered antennas, are provided to show the feasibility and efficiency of the mixed basis functions View full abstract»

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  • General design equations, small-sized impedance transformers, and their application to small-sized three-port 3-dB power dividers

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1277 - 1288
    Cited by:  Papers (41)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (348 KB)  

    In this paper, design equations for three-port power dividers have been derived. These design equations are available for both arbitrary power divisions and arbitrary termination impedances, and many sets of design equations are possible. Therefore, the design equations may be called general design equations and an arbitrary design impedance A is introduced to describe them. On the basis of the derived general design equations, a coplanar three-port power divider with a power split ratio (3 dB) terminated by 50, 60, and 70 Ω is designed with A=33.33 Ω, so that a commercially available resistor 100 Ω can be used for the isolation resistance. Additionally, to reduce the size of transmission-line impedance transformers, two types of small-sized impedance transformers are designed, named a constant VSWR-type transmission-line impedance transformer (CVT) and a constant conductance-type transmission-line impedance transformer (CCT) and compared with conventional reduced-sized impedance transformers. These impedance transformers are designed in the low-Q region on the Smith chart. Therefore, they show wide-band properties. To make sure that the derived design equations of CVTs and CCTs are reasonable, four 1;6:1 impedance transformers, CVT 20°, CVT 30°, CCT 15°, and CCT 20° have been fabricated in microstrip technology and measured. The measured results show the expected tendency. Based on the CVTs and CCTs, small-sized three-port 3-dB power dividers are constructed and named a constant VSWR-type three-port 3-dB power divider (CVT3PD) and a constant conductance-type three-port 3-dB power divider (CCT3PD). For the CVT3PD and CCT3PD, perfect isolation conditions are derived, and it is shown that the perfect isolation circuit (I.C) must be composed of resistance combined with capacitance or inductance in the case that the length of transmission lines is not λ/4. These I.Cs are quite different from conventional ones composed of only resistance. Finally, on the basis of the derived perfect isolation impedance, CVT3PD and CCT3PD are designed and simulated, giving the possibility that a CCT3PD can be realized with the electrical length 15.30° of the transmission lines View full abstract»

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  • A memory-efficient formulation of the finite-difference time-domain method for the solution of Maxwell equations

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1310 - 1320
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With the increase in speed and memory storage in modern computer systems, the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for the solution of electromagnetic problems is rapidly becoming an attractive choice due to its programming simplicity and flexibility in the analysis of a wide range of structures. However, this technique has the drawback of high computer memory requirements and computational power, when analyzing large geometries. In this paper, a modified version of the FDTD method with increased memory efficiency is presented and applied to the calculation of the resonant frequencies of a dielectric resonator coupled to a microstrip line. In this novel approach, the divergence relationship, which spatially links the three electric-field and three magnetic-field components, is used to eliminate one component each of E and H. This leads to a more memory-efficient formulation, where only four field components are stored in the whole domain, with a direct memory reduction of 33% in the storage of the fields View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of coupled inset dielectric guide structure

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1329 - 1332
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (172 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The propagation and coupling characteristics of the inset dielectric guide coupler are theoretically considered in this paper. Rigorous solutions for the dispersion relation and the coupling coefficient are presented in a rapidly convergent series. Numerical computations illustrate the behaviors of dispersion, coupling, and field distribution in terms of frequency and coupler geometry View full abstract»

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  • Efficient and accurate full-wave analysis of the open-ended coaxial cable

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1304 - 1309
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (144 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An efficient implementation of the full-wave open-ended-coaxial-line analysis is presented in this paper. The involved integrals are approached in such a way that the admittance is accurately calculated. Moreover, the calculus time is noticeably reduced. This technique is particularly useful when repeated analysis are performed as occurs, e.g., when measuring permittivity View full abstract»

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  • Circular cylindrical waveguide filled with uniaxial anisotropic media electromagnetic fields and dyadic Green's functions

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1361 - 1364
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (128 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electromagnetic fields in a circular cylindrical conducting waveguide filled with uniaxial anisotropic media are formulated in this paper by using Fourier transformations. These fields are obtained as a superposition of the TE (or ordinary) and TM (or extraordinary) modes satisfying, respectively, different characteristic equations. Lastly, the dyadic Green's function is derived using the Ohm-Rayleigh method and represented by vector wave functions expansion View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of FECTED performance for millimeter-wave applications

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1333 - 1341
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (176 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The potential of GaAs, Ga0.47In0.53As, and InP field-effect cathode transferred-electron device (FECTED) oscillators is theoretically investigated at millimeter wave. The modeling relies on a general time-domain electronic circuit simulator including a quasi-two-dimensional bipolar hydrodynamic FECTED model. Pure sine simulations have been performed to optimize the device structure and performance at various typical frequencies in a self-consistent manner, together with thermal and electronic limitations. The optimization is focused on a reliable and high negative resistance level device based on a dipolar-layer single transit mode. By means of transient simulations, we next demonstrate the feasibility of simple front-end FECTED circuits for short-range pulsed and frequency-modulation continuous-wave millimeter-wave radars View full abstract»

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  • Wide-band balanced active HEMT mixer

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1359 - 1361
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (116 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The design and characteristics of a balanced active high electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) mixer operating in the 4.5-10-GHz frequency band are described in this paper. It consists of two parts implemented as independent hybrid circuits, namely, an microwave part fabricated by using a uniplanar technology and comprising a 180° hybrid ring coupler, HEMTs, and input-output matching circuits, and a low-frequency part consisting of an L-C balun and a low-pass filter built of discrete elements. The design of the microwave part of the mixer ensures a high degree of isolation between the signal and local-oscillator (LO) inputs within a wide frequency band at low IF. The measurements show a conversion gain of 5-7 dB, noise figure of 5-7.5 dB, and isolation between the signal and LO ports greater than 20 dB within the 4.5-10-GHz range View full abstract»

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  • Numerical investigation of the field and current behavior near lossy edges

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1355 - 1358
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (136 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Real circuits involve metallic edges with finite conductivity and nonideal dielectrics. Usually it is more or less implicitly assumed that fields and induced currents behave as if conductors and dielectrics were ideal. In this paper, we show that this assumption is partially erroneous and that the presence of real conductors and dielectrics seems to lead to a simpler and more physical picture, where longitudinal currents are shown to be nonsingular View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of thermal and frequency-dispersion effects in GaAs MESFET devices

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1352 - 1355
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (120 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    New simple and accurate measurement procedures that enable the dispersion and thermal effects in GaAs MESFETs to be observed independently are presented in this paper. The results indicate that the differences observed between the static and pulsed characteristics of the device are not solely due to thermal effects, as is sometimes thought. Electrical and thermal measurements also show the GaAs MESFET to take a relatively long time before the effect of self-heating manifests itself on the IV characteristics of the device View full abstract»

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The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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