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Industry Applications Magazine, IEEE

Issue 3 • Date May-June 2001

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Displaying Results 1 - 9 of 9
  • Formation of ceramic thin films using electrospray in cone-jet mode

    Page(s): 46 - 52
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5602 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The electrospray technique has been developed to generate fine droplets of SiC and ZrO2 ceramic suspensions and to deposit these ceramic thin films and their bilayer on alloy substrates. SEM examinations of the microstructures of these thin films show that the films are very homogenous with a uniform particle size less than 10 μm. The deposition of a very thin bilayer with an abrupt interface indicates that the electrospray process can be well controlled. The theoretical prediction of droplet size and electric current is in good agreement with experimental results, indicating that fine suspension droplets can be generated in the cone-jet mode. Therefore it can be concluded that electrospray is a promising technique for the preparation and controllable distribution of uniform ceramic thin films and coatings with the added advantage of low cost. It could find a wide range of industrial applications in the future. View full abstract»

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  • Managing aviation safety through inspection information technology

    Page(s): 40 - 45
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2264 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article discusses aircraft airworthiness management, which can now take place for the commercial air carrier fleet as a result of the FAA certification of intact aircraft nondestructive inspection (NDI) and information technologies systems that were originally developed for the Air Force. The merit of aircraft airworthiness management has proven extremely successful for the government fleet for more than a decade. The inspection and information management technologies are particularly effective for rapid fault detection and fault assessment when hidden structural corrosion, hidden structural cracks, internal engine blade cracks, or composite disbonding occurs View full abstract»

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  • A battery management system for stand-alone photovoltaic energy systems

    Page(s): 67 - 72
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1256 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is estimated that about 80% of all photovoltaic (PV) modules are used in stand-alone applications. Continuous power is obtained from PV systems by using a storage buffer, typically in the form of a lead acid battery. Batteries used in PV applications have different performance characteristics compared with batteries used in more traditional applications. In PV applications, lead acid batteries do not reach the cycle of lead acid batteries used in other applications such as uninterruptible power supplies or electric vehicles. The shortened battery life contributes significantly to the costs of a PV system. In some PV systems the battery accounts for more than 40% of the life cycle costs. An increase in the lifetime of the battery will result in improved reliability of the system and a significant reduction in operating costs. The life of a lead acid battery can be extended by avoiding critical operating conditions such as overcharge and deep discharge. This paper presents a battery management system for such applications View full abstract»

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  • A survey of rural utility safety issues and practices

    Page(s): 53 - 66
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (216 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electric energy is one of the most versatile and widely used forms of energy. Generation and delivery of this energy form requires diligence in safe work practices and procedures that are best established through proper training. This article reports on a survey of rural electric utilities and the responses provided on issues and practices relating to job training and safety for rural utility employees. A total of 3,075 surveys were mailed to rural utilities throughout the United States. Responses were received from 675 utilities, representing a 22% response rate View full abstract»

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  • Lockout energy control placarding for power distribution equipment

    Page(s): 33 - 39
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1652 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The use of lockout techniques is required in most facilities, including power distribution facilities, but is often established in many different ways. Often times flags, tags, the instructions of a system operator, or other means are utilized in power distribution facilities to approximate the same level of safety is afforded by use of actual physical locks. Extensive training is required to maintain the integrity of these alternate systems, but the chance of error is greater than in the systems where locks are used. Use of personal locks also squarely places the responsibility of achieving the electrically safe condition of the equipment upon the worker or employee. The tool discussed in this article, called a placard, has been used in some industrial facilities to enhance the federal requirements of a lockout energy control program. This tool has been applied to power distribution equipment. This article discusses the development and implementation of placards along with the advantages and difficulties encountered during the process View full abstract»

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  • Arcing fault hazards and safety suggestions for design and maintenance

    Page(s): 23 - 32
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2856 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Significant progress has been made in understanding the hazards of arcing faults to maintenance personnel working on electrical equipment. The National Electrical Code (NEC) requires that equipment be installed the way it is listed and labeled. However, the NEC and product standards do not address the hazards associated when the equipment doors are open and a maintenance worker accidentally creates an arcing fault. Numerous workers are injured and killed each year while working on energized equipment. To address this, the IEEE Petroleum and Chemical Industry Committee formed an ad-hoc working group within their safety committee with the intent to raise awareness of electrical personnel to the hazards associated with arcing faults. Tests were run at a high-power test lab and analytical information was gathered to quantify the hazards associated with arcing faults. Arcing faults have many variables and the predictability is not certain. However, the work by many on this subject provides some good engineering analytical tools. These efforts have also resulted in industry awareness, safety training program materials, and guidelines for electrical systems design. This article highlights some of these findings and also presents some design considerations that will help reduce the hazards of arcing faults View full abstract»

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  • Partnerships for electrical safety

    Page(s): 17 - 22
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The authors present a case study of the successful development of an educational partnership between industrial collaborators and university researchers to promote electrical safety. For industrial and academic organisations considering a similar approach, we identify a development methodology to align people and resources to implement electrical safety education. Educational partnerships offer a bridge to speed the movement of technologies and concepts between different communities like those represented by a plant and a local hospital. This case study reviews the development of a direct R&D technology transfer educational project targeting electrical safety. Motives to partner were: to become more creative; to identify the best process and best practice; to facilitate the availability of the best care/treatment for those injured on the job through rapid technology transfer; and to specifically move electrical safety principles to a higher level of awareness for individuals, their workplaces, and their communities View full abstract»

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  • NFPA 70E 2000: updating electrical safety requirements for employee workplaces

    Page(s): 9 - 16
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (248 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The authors describe NFPA 70E, which is intended primarily for those who commission, start up, operate and maintain electrical systems and equipment. Safe condition of electrical facilities and equipment is best achieved by adherence to NFPA 70, the National Electrical Code, during the design, procurement, and installation phases of such equipment. Following the policies, principles, practices and procedures advocated by NEPA, 70E provides a reasonable and effective approach to the safe conduct of electrical work by employees in the workplace View full abstract»

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  • Toward alignment of safety levels concerning electrical installations in the EU

    Page(s): 73 - 82
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (224 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The European Standard EN 50110-1 “Operation of Electrical Installations” is applicable to all operation of and work activity on, with, or near electrical installations. In Europe, there are many national laws, standards and internal rules dealing with the matters coming within the scope of this standard, and these practices have been taken as a basis for this standard. The standard is believed to be a first decisive step to the gradual alignment in Europe of the safety levels associated with electrical installations. This article acknowledges the present different national requirements for safety, summarizes Standard EN 50110-1's definitions and terms, and compares these definitions and terms with those adopted in the IEEE Standard 902 View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Industry Applications Magazine reports on the development and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; the encouragement of energy conservation; and the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices.

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Editor-in-Chief
H. Landis "Lanny" Floyd