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Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan.-Feb. 2001

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 40
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  • Author index

    Page(s): 1 - 34
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  • Subject index

    Page(s): 35 - 110
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Using a Debye polarization cell to predict double-layer capacitor performance

    Page(s): 4 - 9
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    Many different circuit models have been proposed for double-layer capacitors (DLCs). Presented in this paper is an evaluation of the Debye polarization cell as a model for a double-layer capacitor (DLC). In comparison to other circuit models, the primary advantage of this model is that the circuit elements can be related to chemical reactions which occur inside the DLC. The circuit element values are found from AC impedance measurements for a DLC and a computer program which utilizes a nonlinear least-squares fitting technique. Variations in circuit element values with DC bias level and manufacturing have been investigated. The performance of the Debye polarization cell in slow discharge and pulse load applications has been compared to actual circuit measurements and to simulated results using a classical equivalent circuit View full abstract»

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  • Wheeling charge under a deregulated environment

    Page(s): 178 - 183
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    Today's electric power industry is undergoing many fundamental changes due to the process of deregulation. Traditionally, electric power systems in many countries were structured in a single vertically integrated company for providing electric power to their customers based on cost of service. However, a number of countries have implemented or are implementing a free market deregulated industry in recent years. It is strongly believed that deregulation will have profound and important implications on technology within the electric power industry and the operation of industrial systems. Therefore, industrial sectors need to reevaluate potential impacts and strategies of operation under a deregulated environment. One of the most exciting opportunities for the customer is the implementation of wholesale and retail wheeling. With this change, customers will have the option to purchase services and energy from different sources. However, before exercising this right, one has to understand the possible costs and risks associated with this right. From the economic point of view, lower energy cost does not necessarily mean lower utility cost. The cost of wheeling charges and other factors have to be figured into the calculation. Since it is impossible to color the electron, there is no standard formula to calculate wheeling charges within the utility industry. This paper discusses several commonly used wheeling calculation methods used by utility companies. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the vector absolute mega-watt mile method that is used by the Electric Reliability Council of Texas View full abstract»

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  • Mass reduction and propulsion control for a permanent-magnet linear synchronous motor vehicle

    Page(s): 67 - 72
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    This paper deals with fundamental research on a new container transport system utilizing a permanent-magnet (PM) linear synchronous motor (LSM), and proposes a concept of mass reduction and propulsion control for container transfer operation. By applying the repulsive lift force in the PM LSM, a large percent of vehicle weight is compensated for, and it needs less thrust force to propel the vehicle. An experiment which involved propelling the test vehicle by reducing its weight by about 85% was conducted successfully View full abstract»

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  • An approach for selecting switching devices for CFL ballasts

    Page(s): 268 - 275
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    This paper discusses a method for switching device selection for lowest overall compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) ballast cost while satisfying product life requirements. The inputs to the selection process are lamp power, expected product life, and a range of semiconductor devices that satisfy electrical requirements of conventional half-bridge series-resonant ballast topology. The selection process is illustrated with the example of an n-channel MOSFET pair, complementary pair of an n- and p-channel MOSFETs, bipolar junction transistor pair, and a pair of insulated gate bipolar transistors. While this paper addresses switching device selection for CFL applications, the outlined approach is more universal and can be applied to electronic equipment in general View full abstract»

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  • Elegant ground-fault solutions for impossible problems

    Page(s): 117 - 128
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    Low-voltage power distribution systems are typically grounded by one of two generally accepted methods, high-resistance grounded systems (a derivative of the ungrounded system) and solidly grounded systems. High-resistance grounded systems have gained in popularity due to the fact that the first line-to-ground fault does not cause a disruption of service and is favored for continuous processes or critical loads. For power systems that cannot be monitored by qualified maintenance personnel, or for other reasons, the solidly grounded system still has widespread use. A four-wire solidly grounded system can become very complex, involving many sources, points of grounding, and networks of distributed power. This paper discusses a method of providing equipment ground-fault protection to seemingly impossible systems View full abstract»

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  • Self-oscillating electronic ballast analysis using the relay systems approach

    Page(s): 255 - 261
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    In this paper, the authors analyze the self-oscillating LC parallel resonant inverter for electronic ballast applications from a control system point of view. It is observed that the self-oscillating parallel resonant inverter with lamp loads can be naturally modeled as a relay system with negative hysteresis. Based on this formulation, the self-oscillating frequencies of the circuit are found via the time-domain-based Hamel locus. Also, the predicted self-oscillating frequencies via the describing function approach and the Hamel locus approach are compared with the prototype measurement results. It turns out that the accuracy of the frequency prediction via the Hamel locus approach is high, while the accuracy via the describing function approach is circuit Q-value dependent View full abstract»

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  • Current and flux regulation in field-weakening operation [of induction motors]

    Page(s): 42 - 50
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    Field-weakening techniques have been developed which provide maximum torque capability above rated speed. Unfortunately, most of these techniques are valid only for steady-state operation and show significant sensitivity to DC-bus voltage and machine parameters. This paper analyzes the requirements of dynamically providing maximum torque under field-weakening operation. Three major issues are addressed: current regulator design; saturation techniques for current regulators in order to ensure best performance under voltage constraints; and flux regulator design to minimize transient errors when varying flux. Maximum DC-bus utilization through the proper use of saturation techniques, dynamic response and reduced sensitivity are the advantages of the proposed solution View full abstract»

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  • Improved analysis of a bearingless switched reluctance motor

    Page(s): 26 - 34
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    Bearingless switched reluctance motors, which can control rotor radial positions with magnetic force, have been proposed. Bearingless switched reluctance motors have combined characteristics of switched reluctance motors and magnetic bearings. Production of radial force for rotor shaft magnetic suspension is explained with differential stator windings. Mathematical relations between motor currents and radial force are derived by considering cross coupling and fringing fluxes. Theoretical relationships are verified with experimental results at partial overlap positions View full abstract»

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  • Economic analysis for demand-side hybrid photovoltaic and battery energy storage system

    Page(s): 171 - 177
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    This paper examines the cost analysis of a hybrid photovoltaic and battery energy storage system (PV-BESS) for demand-side applications in southern Taiwan, R.O.C. The forms of input data and output data for three different investment plans are proposed and discussed. A sensitivity analysis to understand those affecting parameters to the investment is also investigated. The analysis results can support the users with a tradeoff among economic, operational and environmental factors. This paper establishes a potential and practical tool for cost analysis of most energy conversion applications View full abstract»

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  • Application of a sliding-mode observer for position and speed estimation in switched reluctance motor drives

    Page(s): 51 - 58
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    A sliding-mode observer is applied toward the operation of a switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive. The sliding-mode observer estimates rotor position and velocity to control the conduction angles of the machine. Conventional on-off control with hysteresis current control is included with the position estimation scheme. The particular case of an automotive brake system motor is considered in detail where the conduction angles are modified with velocity feedback to provide optimum time response to brake system commands. Nonlinear modeling of a SRM is described and a computer simulation is developed based on data from an experimental SRM system. The sliding-mode observer is implemented with fixed-point and floating-point digital signal processors (DSPs) and the discrete-time implementations first examined under locked-rotor conditions. A comparison is also made between the implementation in two different types of DSPs. After confirming the accuracy of the computer simulation with experimental data, the design considerations in selecting observer coefficients with regard to sampling time, convergence rate, and transient stability are discussed. In conclusion, the effects of flux estimation errors on the system time response during a startup transient are examined View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic analysis of synchronous motor using vector diagrams-an intuitive approach

    Page(s): 21 - 25
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    Vector diagrams have been used for many years to help understand the physical behavior of electric machines and to give geometrical answers to a number of machine operating problems. Vector diagrams for a synchronous machine in steady operational conditions or even at the first instant of a transient state are a quite common means of analyzing the machine performance. This paper shows the application of vector diagrams to represent the behavior of a synchronous motor during a transient process. As an example, the dynamic power diagram is introduced, showing the oscillation of the rotor following a sudden change in the motor operation. The intention of the paper is also to point out the contribution of the intuitive mind to the solution of technical problems, usually neglected in our educational system. It is the author's belief that the visualization obtained from geometric constructions is particularly useful for teaching purposes, since nowadays, the widespread use of computers to solve numerically the machine equations tends to divert the student's attention from the actual physical phenomenon occurring during the performance of the electrical machines View full abstract»

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  • Stability study of PC power system

    Page(s): 73 - 80
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    In this paper, the computer power system is studied from the point of view of system integration stability. The voltage regulator module (VRM) and silver-box are modeled and analyzed. The computer power system is unlikely to have stability problems based on today's structure, although there can be strong interactions between the VRM and silver-box in multiple VRM systems. Future trends of the PC power system are also analyzed. With power level increases, VRMs will have stronger interactions at lower frequencies. An example of conditional stability is shown to challenge the impedance stability criterion of integrated systems. Possible solutions to this problem are provided View full abstract»

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  • Causes and effects of unbalanced voltages serving an induction motor

    Page(s): 165 - 170
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    A common requirement of a distribution system is to serve a combination of single-phase lighting loads and a three-phase induction motor. Two transformer connections for providing this combination service are the ungrounded wye-delta and the open wye-open delta. Each connection has its good points and bad points. Of concern are the three-phase voltages provided the induction motor. If the voltages are unbalanced, depending upon the degree of unbalance, the induction motor is subject to overheating. Sources of the voltage unbalance can be the unequal spacing between conductors of the primary and secondary lines, the transformer ratings and connection, and the amount of single-phase load relative to the three-phase load. This paper utilizes previously published models of the primary and secondary lines, transformer connections, and induction motors. A simple system is developed to demonstrate the voltage unbalance created by these components under normal and abnormal conditions and the effect of the resulting unbalances on the induction motor. The system model also provides an insight into the voltages that can appear across the transformer terminals during abnormal operating conditions View full abstract»

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  • Web machine coordinated motion control via electronic line-shafting

    Page(s): 247 - 254
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    Most current multi-axis web machine controllers are not designed to possess the inter-axis stiffness properties that were the inherent coordinating force in historical mechanically coupled “line-shafted” multi-axis web machines. As a result, these controllers cannot maintain coordination for all operating conditions. This paper presents the development of an “electronic line-shafting” control technique which serves to replicate and even improve on the historical mechanical line-shafted properties. This technique was implemented on a five-axes filament winding machine to evaluate such control during periods when the drive was in torque limit, velocity limit, or simply responding to asymmetric load-induced disturbances. The results demonstrate that the “electronic line-shafting” technique significantly improves the coordination, robustness, and overall stability of multi-axis web-handling machines subjected to realistic physical limitations View full abstract»

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  • Induction motor parameter tuning for high-performance drives

    Page(s): 35 - 41
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    A new approach to the parameter tuning of induction motors in the course of drive commissioning is proposed. Usually, the motors originate from different manufacturers, and so the parameters are not known prior to startup of the drive. The control system of the drive utilizes the parameters obtained by extraneous tests and based on a number of assumptions that are not valid under all operating conditions. Therefore, completion of the tuning of all motors at an industrial site is quite time consuming, and it is a very difficult job, even to skilled engineers. To overcome these problems, the proposed tuning procedure is sensitive to detuning and independent of information on other parameters. The state of detuning is clearly noticeable in the shape of the controller output signal of the drive system. The proposed scheme has the advantage of being general and readily applicable to a wide range of other systems, such as AC/DC boost converters, surface-mounted permanent-magnet synchronous motors, interior permanent-magnet synchronous motors, etc. Experimental results are offered to validate the feasibility of the proposed tuning algorithm View full abstract»

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  • Starting high-inertia loads

    Page(s): 137 - 144
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    Common methods used to start AC induction motors driving high-inertia loads include across-the-line starting and reduced-voltage starting by autotransformer, wye-delta, or resistor/reactor. Application of these methods is generally well documented and understood. However, with the increased use of electronic soft starters and variable-frequency drives, applications can be markedly different. This paper reviews the aforementioned methods and explains the benefits and limitations of each. The effect of high-inertia loads on both acceleration time and motor heating is examined. A case history of starting a centrifuge with an electronic soft starter is studied. Finally, a comparison of all of the methods is presented with recommendations on choosing the proper starter given View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic sag correctors: cost-effective industrial power line conditioning

    Page(s): 212 - 217
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    Voltage sags, transients, and momentary interruption of power together constitute 92% of the power quality problems encountered by typical industrial customers. The series-parallel-connected dynamic sag corrector (DySC) provides statistically significant protection at greatly reduced cost. The DySC is rated from 1.5 kVA one phase to 2000 kVA three phase and features a patented single-stage power conversion circuit with minimal stored energy. A unique circuit allows operation with an opened upstream circuit breaker. This paper presents a detailed discussion of DySC operating principles and validation of performance. It also provides conditions under which this new category of product can be applied View full abstract»

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  • Low-voltage power system surge overvoltage protection

    Page(s): 223 - 229
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    The unpredictable threat of transient overvoltages is ever increasing in today's low-voltage power supplies for every aspect of industry. To calculate the magnitude, duration and energy of such transient overvoltages is not an easy task. Some loads are becoming very sensitive to such overvoltages, thereby creating a challenge for the application engineer to design a reliable power supply system. To apply surge overvoltage mitigation devices requires technical knowledge to understand their application limitations and configuration within a power system. A technical overview of the fundamentals of transients and associated noise is presented. The importance of understanding applicable UL, IEEE, and IEC Standards, and a thorough review of manufacturers' data on transient voltage surge suppressors (TVSSs) is included. TVSS testing requirements per the second edition of UL 1449 is presented. An overview of how to design a low-voltage power supply system to suppress transient overvoltages is included View full abstract»

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  • Detection of AC machine winding deterioration using electrically excited vibrations

    Page(s): 10 - 14
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    Presented in this paper is a theoretical review of the relationships that should exist between electrical winding parameters and the mechanical vibration of AC machine elements under normal and faulted operating conditions. Also included are data from an experimental study that relate stator vibration and bearing vibration to selected winding faults in a synchronous machine. Consideration of these results indicates a significant relationship between electrical deterioration and mechanical vibration and, thus, provides the motivation for additional study and a basis for future applications View full abstract»

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  • Eliminating starting hesitation for reliable sensorless control of switched reluctance motors

    Page(s): 59 - 66
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    Novel methods for rotor position estimation both at standstill and during running conditions are presented for a switched reluctance machine (SRM) starting free of position sensor and hesitation. By applying a DC pulse to the stator phase windings for a short moment (0.5 ms), the initial rotor position can be accurately detected. Combining the accurate initial rotor position with a novel rotor position estimation algorithm during running, the SRM can be started at any initial rotor position without starting hesitation. Critical issues related to optimal model selection as the virtual sensor are discussed in detail. Computer simulation and experimental results are included View full abstract»

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  • Application of radio-frequency identification systems to collision avoidance in metal/nonmetal mines

    Page(s): 112 - 116
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    Collisions between haulage equipment and pedestrian workers or other vehicles claim an average of five lives each year in surface and underground metal/nonmetal mining operations. Many more workers are severely injured, Although technologies exist that could prevent these collisions, (radar, closed-circuit TV, and backup alarms), they do have limitations and are not being used widely. New developments in radio-frequency identification (RFID) systems show promise for reducing the number of collisions. This paper, originally presented in 1998, describes tests conducted on off-the-shelf RFID systems and the subsequent development of a custom RFID system that could be used for both surface and underground mining equipment View full abstract»

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  • Pitch-controlled variable-speed wind turbine generation

    Page(s): 240 - 246
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    This paper covers the operation of variable-speed wind turbines with pitch control. The system the authors considered is controlled to generate maximum energy while minimizing loads. The maximization of energy was only carried out on a static basis and only drive train loads were considered as a constraint. In low to medium wind speeds, the generator and the power converter control the wind turbine to capture maximum energy from the wind. In the high-wind-speed regions, the wind turbine is controlled to maintain the aerodynamic power produced by the wind turbine. Two methods to adjust the aerodynamic power were investigated: pitch control and generator load control, both of which are employed to regulate the operation of the wind turbine. The authors' analysis and simulation show that the wind turbine can be operated at its optimum energy capture while minimizing the load on the mind turbine for a wide range of wind speeds View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The scope of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS includes all scope items of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, that is, the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical and electronic engineering in the development, design, manufacture, and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; industry leadership in energy conservation and environmental, health, and safety issues; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices; and the professional development of its membership.

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