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Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, IEEE

Issue 1 • Date Jan.-Feb. 2001

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Displaying Results 1 - 12 of 12
  • Automated regulation of hemodynamic variables

    Page(s): 24 - 38
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1888 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Experimental studies of two control methodologies for regulating multiple variables in critical care patients are described. The control strategies for the regulation of mean arterial pressure and cardiac output use vasoactive and inotropic drugs. Corresponding experimental results from the evaluation of the controllers with canines are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Multitasked closed-loop control in anesthesia

    Page(s): 39 - 53
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1177 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Automatic controllers capable of regulating multiple patient outputs for higher-quality anesthesia treatment are described. The first steps toward the development of an autonomous anesthesia system at the authors' laboratory are presented. The controllers are implemented on a real-time platform and tested on humans to quantify the benefits that may result from their use in routine practice. To date, the staff at the University Hospital in Bern can rely on controllers that regulate six different patient outputs. Overall, more than 150 patients were treated with closed-loop controllers during general anesthesia. These controllers regulate O 2, CO 2, and inspired and expired anesthetic gas concentrations in the breathing system, as well as mean arterial pressure and depth of hypnosis through bispectral index. View full abstract»

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  • Cloning biological synergies improves control of elbow neuroprostheses

    Page(s): 74 - 81
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2066 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The control method proposed in this article is based on the following hypotheses: once the task and preferred strategy for movement are selected, then the voluntary (natural) control drives the proximal segment (shoulder joint), and the synergistic (artificial) control drives the distal segment (elbow joint). This concept relies on a simulation of the natural control of the extremities. The literature suggests, and the authors confirmed in experiments, that reproducible synergies between shoulder and elbow joint movement exist. The authors describe a method that uses an applied inductive learning (IL) technique for determining synergies between movement of joints while reaching. This method relies on an hierarchical mutual information classifier algorithm. The synergy is shown in a map of flexion/extension (F/E) angular velocities at the shoulder and elbow joints. Two other shoulder joint rotations (abduction/adduction and humeral rotation) are independent of the F/E synergy, thus indicating that the results of this study are applicable to three-dimensional (3-D) movement. View full abstract»

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  • Robotic assistants aid surgeons during minimally invasive procedures

    Page(s): 94 - 104
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4992 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Presents the design and implementation of a new robotic system for assisting surgeons in performing minimally invasive surgical procedures. This system is designed for collaborative operation between the surgeon and the robot. In addition, it has the following attributes: quick interchangeable end tools, programmable collaboration with the surgeon, and coordinated motion of multiple robotic devices for performing complex procedures. Two such devices have been built, with a variety of end-tools. The system has demonstrated direct manual operation and surgeon-supervised autonomous stitching and knot tying. In addition to the mechanical design and kinematic analysis, several autonomous knot-tying algorithms and the associated kinematic requirements are discussed. Note that, as the focus here is on the robot design and control, other important aspects on the clinical deployment of surgical robots such as safety, fault detection and amelioration, man-machine interface design, etc., are not addressed here. View full abstract»

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  • Cellular/tissue engineering-promises and challenges in tissue engineering

    Page(s): 117 - 126
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (103 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Promising approaches to regenerate corneas, heart valves, and thymus have been presented in recent press releases. These are described here: Tsai et al. in The New England Journal of Medicine presented a promising technology to reconstruct damaged ocular surfaces; CryoLife wants to conduct clinical trials for the use of its Synergaft tissue-engineered replacement heart valves in heart reconstruction surgery for children requiring replacement of the pulmonary heart valve; NIST Researchers at Cytomatrix and Massachusetts General Hospital have generated an "artificial thymus" that can efficiently generate large quantities of a wide range of human T-lymphocyte cells, a key element of the body's immune system. View full abstract»

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  • Retrospectroscope-contributions of the vacuum tube to early electrophysiological research

    Page(s): 118 - 126
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (401 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Modern-day bioelectric recorders such as the ECG and EEG are common, providing useful clinical information. However, their present-day perfection had to await the generation of knowledge about fundamental bioelectric events, which required the creation of sensitive and rapidly responding potential recorders. Despite the initial lack of such devices, a considerable amount of electrophysiological knowledge was acquired with quite primitive instruments. However, addition of the vacuum tube amplifier to these early instruments and to the Braun (cathode-ray) tube provided the first clinical electrographic instruments. This article recounts some of this early background and traces the evolution of the amplifier from the Edison lamp to the Fleming valve (diode) to the DeForest Audion (triode) and to the first amplifiers used for electrocardiography and electroencephalography. View full abstract»

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  • Patents-how much do you need to know to sue?

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    How much does the owner of a method patent need to know about a competitor's manufacturing process before bringing a patent infringement suit? Not much-according to the Court of the Appeals for the Federal Circuit (CAFC) in the recent case of Hoffman-La Roche and Syntex (Roche) v. Invamed et al. The case involved the continuing battle between name-brand and generic drug manufacturers. Roche sued eight generic drug manufacturers who were coming out with generic versions of Roche's TICLID(R) brand anti-stroke medicine. The basic patent on TICLID(R) had expired but there were still patents on improved methods for making its active ingredient. Roche's problem was that it could not tell from the finished product whether its patented methods had been used or not View full abstract»

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  • Surface-stimulation technology for grasping and walking neuroprostheses

    Page(s): 82 - 93
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1664 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Deals with improving the quality of life in stroke/spinal cord injury subjects with rapid prototyping and portable FES systems. Portable grasping and walking neuroprostheses, developed by the Automatic Control Laboratory at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETHZ) and the Paraplegic Center at the University Hospital Balgrist (ParaCare) are discussed. Both neuroprostheses employ surface stimulation technology and are currently used by a number of subjects in daily living activities View full abstract»

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  • The intravenous route to blood glucose control

    Page(s): 65 - 73
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1544 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article discusses closed-loop blood glucose regulation algorithms that use the intravenous route for insulin delivery to insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Classical control methods and advanced algorithms using implicit knowledge or explicit models (empirical, fundamental, or “gray-box”) of the diabetic patient are examined. Current research on characterizing patient variability is presented, in the context of a model predictive controller able to adjust to changes in patient glucose and insulin sensitivity View full abstract»

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  • The subcutaneous route to insulin dependent diabetes therapy

    Page(s): 54 - 64
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Discusses closed-loop and partially closed-loop control strategies for insulin delivery and measuring glucose concentration. The authors review the subcutaneous closed- and partially closed-loop strategies that have been proposed and tested in recent years for insulin-dependent diabetes therapy. Focus is on control, modeling, and information technology aspects, and future directions of research are also outlined. This survey complements earlier reviews concerning control approaches and application of computers in diabetes care View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine contains articles on current technologies and methods used in biomedical and clinical engineering.

 

This Magazine ceased publication in 2010. The current retitled publication is IEEE Pulse.

Full Aims & Scope