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Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Nov.-Dec. 2000

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 33
  • IEEE Medal & Technical Field Awards and Society Awards

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 1490 - 1506
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The design of high-efficiency line-start motors

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 1555 - 1562
    Cited by:  Papers (48)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (116 KB)  

    In this paper, techniques for improving the efficiency of small line-start motors are investigated. Through a combination of formal optimization methods and standard design techniques, the efficiency of an induction motor is increased by 4%. This motor is then used as a basis for the design of a line-start permanent-magnet (LSPM) motor. Steady-state and dynamic finite-element analysis of the LSPM motor indicate that significant efficiency improvements are obtained and that the motor will start when fully loaded. View full abstract»

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  • Application of fuzzy logic to spatial thermal control in fusion welding

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 1523 - 1530
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (220 KB)  

    This paper considers the problem of sensing and controlling torch position in the pulsed gas metal arc welding (P-GMAW) process. The attitude and positional control described is essential to the production of quality welds with a specified geometry. For constant current arc welding processes, as normally employed with P-GMAW, the arc voltage signal variations that occur as a function of changes in the contact-tube-to-work distance can be used to automatically control the welding system with respect to bead placement and proper sidewall fusion. However, the arc voltage signals are uncertain and noisy because of many inherent disturbances associated with the electrode tip, droplet formation, droplet detachment, and droplet transfer through the arc. To deal with the nonlinear time-varying process with its inherent stochastic disturbances associated with the metal transfer, the theory of fuzzy sets was used as a general framework to interpret the uncertain arc signals and provide logic for control. The fuzzy logic controller weld joint tracking system was implemented and tested with pulsed gas metal arc welds under a variety of conditions. The goal was to obtain quick and accurate response to tracking errors in the presence of disturbances. A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the performance of the fuzzy logic controller. The experimental results show that the fuzzy logic controller was found to be suitable for these purposes and better than methods based on signal averaging and bipolar decision levels under these criteria. View full abstract»

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  • Behavior of N2 and nitrogen oxides in nonthermal plasma chemical processing of hazardous air pollutants

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 1507 - 1514
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (148 KB)  

    Nonthermal plasma chemical behavior of N2-O2 mixed gases and nitrogen oxides such as N2O, NO, and NO2 was investigated to obtain baseline information on the generation of active oxygen species and the formation of inorganic byproducts in the nonthermal plasma chemical processing of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) with a ferroelectric packed-bed reactor. Ozone concentrations were too low, even in air, to oxidatively decompose 300-1000 ppm of HAPs. The O2 concentration in N2-O2 was the determining factor in the formation of all the nitrogen oxides. N2O formation was enhanced with increases in O2 concentration and in specific energy density, while a threshold value was observed at around 5% of O2 concentration in the formation of NO and NO2. Rate-suppressing effect by O2, detailed byproduct analyses, and thermochemical data suggest that NOx decomposes in its reactions with nitrogen atoms derived from N2 dissociation, and that the unimolecular N-O cleavage predominantly occurs for N2O. The behavior of nitrogen oxides and their precursors was not affected by hydrogen atoms evolved from hydrogen-rich HAPs such as ethylene and benzene. Halogenated HAPs enhanced NOx formation and NO2 selectivity. Different additive effects of chlorinated and brominated HAPs were observed in the formation of NOx and N2O, indicating the involvement of different active oxygen species. View full abstract»

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  • The variation of cage motor losses with skew

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 1563 - 1570
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (124 KB)  

    A study on the effect of skew on the losses in three different induction motors is presented in this paper. It is shown that skew alters the balance of losses in the motor and that, in larger machines, this can result in an increase in the total losses in the motor. View full abstract»

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  • Performance of current controllers for VSI-fed IPMSM drive

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 1531 - 1538
    Cited by:  Papers (30)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (220 KB)  

    The current-controlled voltage-source-inverter-fed interior permanent-magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) has received widespread interest in high-precision industrial drive applications. This paper presents a detailed comparison of various current controller schemes, particularly hysteresis and ramp comparator controllers for the IPMSM drive based on performance at different speeds. The hysteresis and the ramp comparator controllers are getting more attention due to their simplicity and high dynamic responses. In this paper, fixed, sinusoidal, and mixed-band hysteresis current controllers, as well as conventional ramp and improved ramp comparator controllers, are considered. The harmonic spectra of the motor line currents for various current controllers are obtained using a fast Fourier transform for comparison purposes. The comparison is based on experimental results. In order to compare the performance of various controllers, the complete drive system is implemented in real time using the digital signal processor controller board DS-1102. View full abstract»

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  • The correct method of calculating energy savings to justify adjustable-frequency drives on pumps

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 1725 - 1733
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (204 KB)  

    It is easy to make a bad business decision when using electrical energy savings as a justification to install adjustable-frequency drives (AFDs) on pumps. The simple hydraulic formulas and "rules of thumb" are easily misapplied and the errors will almost always economically favor the AFD installation. To use energy savings as a justification for an AFD installation it is necessary to accurately determine these savings over the life of the equipment. These savings are not dependent upon the AFD or motor characteristics but depend upon the characteristics of the process system. This paper is a tutorial in nature and will show why AFDs save electricity, give examples of the common errors that are made in performing the savings calculations, show how to do these calculations correctly, show how to mathematically model the process to assist in performing the analysis, and show how to perform the economic calculations to arrive at a rate of return and net present value on the AFD investment. View full abstract»

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  • Design of a linear switched reluctance machine

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 1571 - 1580
    Cited by:  Papers (37)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (208 KB)  

    A standard design procedure for a single-sided and longitudinal flux-based linear switched reluctance machine is developed in this paper. The proposed design procedure utilizes the rotating switched reluctance machine design by converting the specifications of the linear machine into the equivalent rotary machine. The machine design is carried out in the rotary domain, which is then transformed back into the linear domain. Such a procedure brings to bear the knowledge base and familiarity of the rotary machine designers to design a linear machine effectively. This paper contains the illustration of the proposed design procedure for a 4.8-m-long prototype. An analysis procedure is developed with a magnetic model and results from it are verified with finite-element analysis prior to construction of the prototype. Extensive experimental correlation in the form of inductance versus position versus current and propulsion force versus position versus current to validate the analysis and design procedure is given in the paper. View full abstract»

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  • Low-cost battery-powered switched reluctance drives with integral battery-charging capability

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 1676 - 1681
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (116 KB)  

    This paper presents a low-cost battery-powered drive using switched reluctance motors. The converter topology proposed in this paper is cost effective while still maintaining an energy-efficient system for battery-powered drives. The proposed drive not only achieves cost-effective and efficient battery motoring, but also battery charging with minimal additional power semiconductor components. Charging is achieved through the windings of the switched reluctance motor, thus eliminating the need of external bulky transformers and separate charging units. View full abstract»

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  • Methods for the control of large medium-voltage motors: application considerations and guidelines

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 1688 - 1696
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (164 KB)  

    Starting and control methods available for medium-voltage (MV) induction motors (2.4-7.2 kV) in the petrochemical industry are continually changing in terms of application considerations due to the evolution of available products and changing characteristics of the machine and processes. This paper summarizes several common methods and provides application guidelines for proper choice selection considering the distribution system, driven equipment, speed-torque issues, process requirements, starter method limitations, and economics. Starting means reviewed include MV soft starters, variable-frequency drives, and autotransformer, capacitor, reactor, captive transformer, across-the-line controllers, as well as fluid couplers. View full abstract»

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  • Axial flux interior PM synchronous motor: parameters identification and steady-state performance measurements

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 1581 - 1588
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (180 KB)  

    This paper presents different measurement and identification approaches applied to a nonconventional permanent-magnet (PM) synchronous machine, namely, the novel axial flux interior PM (AFIPM) synchronous motor. The nonconventional geometry of the AFIPM motor requires a dedicated discussion on the parameter identification subject. In the paper, the standstill frequency-response test and the standstill time-response test on the AFIPM prototype are presented. On the basis of these tests, the d- and q-axes circuit parameters are chosen. To confirm the validity of the standstill tests, the load tests have also been performed. Furthermore, the load tests provide some preliminary AFIPM machine performance results and additional information on the saturation phenomena. The d- and q-axes equivalent circuits parameters obtained by the performed measurements are analyzed and compared. Finally, the most appropriate AFIPM machine model is selected. View full abstract»

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  • Multilevel inverter modulation schemes to eliminate common-mode voltages

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 1645 - 1653
    Cited by:  Papers (128)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB)  

    It is well known that conventional two-level pulsewidth modulated (PWM) inverters generate high-frequency common-mode voltages with high dv/dt. Similarly, commonly used multilevel inverter modulation schemes generate common-mode voltages. Common-mode voltages may cause motor shaft voltages and bearing currents and conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI). Premature motor bearing failures and electronic equipment malfunctions have been reported to be directly related to bearing currents and EMI. In this paper, approaches to eliminating common-mode voltage when using multilevel PWM inverters are presented. It is shown that inverters, which have an odd number of levels, will generate zero common-mode voltage by switching among certain states. Therefore, motor bearing currents will be eliminated and conducted EMI will be reduced. Both sinusoidal PWM and space-vector modulation (SVM) schemes are discussed and detailed comparative simulation results between conventional and novel modulation schemes are provided. The value of the proposed technique is demonstrated experimentally by applying the novel SVM approach to a conventional multilevel inverter. View full abstract»

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  • Distribution system reliability improvements justified by increased oil production

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 1697 - 1703
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (148 KB)  

    Due to increasing competitive pressures, as well as customer demands, there is renewed service reliability interest in the electric power industry. This paper discusses the reliability improvement of overhead distribution feeders serving oil-pumping facilities. Instantaneous tripping of the substation circuit breaker, followed by immediate reclosing, can be effective in restoring service for temporary faults on the line. However, any fault on the overhead system results in significant lost production since all pumps served by the feeder are interrupted, and some of the deep well pumps have long restart times. An effective means of improving reliability is the use of an additional level of sectionalization. By designing the system with optimized layers of reliability zones, the total barrels of oil produced in a given year will increase due to the reduction in average down time per pump. The engineering study cost justified additional equipment installation to improve reliability based on the value of the increased production. In addition to the reliability improvement study methodology, a discussion of the economic justification is included in the paper. View full abstract»

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  • Generic torque-maximizing design methodology of surface permanent-magnet vernier machine

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 1539 - 1546
    Cited by:  Papers (42)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (196 KB)  

    A surface permanent-magnet vernier machine (SPMVM) has a toothed-pole structure, and its highly nonlinear relationship between its dimensions and magnetic field makes its design cumbersome. This paper presents a generic design methodology for the machine which brings out its torque-maximizing structure in a convenient manner. Various suggestions concerning the design of the SPMVM are also set forth. View full abstract»

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  • Sensorless initial rotor position estimation of surface permanent-magnet synchronous motor

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 1598 - 1603
    Cited by:  Papers (47)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (140 KB)  

    This paper presents a method of estimating the initial rotor position of a surface permanent-magnet synchronous motor without a position sensor. The estimation is performed by using the nonlinear magnetization characteristics of the stator core caused by the magnet of the rotor. This method is based on the principle that the d-axis current value for the voltage vector applied to the motor under some conditions increases as the voltage vector generated from the inverter approaches the N pole of the rotor. During the estimation process, the rotor is practically at standstill. The experimental results show that the average of the estimation error is ±3.8 electrical degrees. View full abstract»

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  • Application and safety issues for transient voltage surge suppressors

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 1734 - 1740
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (180 KB)  

    This paper is intended as a guide to users and manufacturers of transient voltage surge suppressor devices based on metal-oxide varistor semiconductors. Many current designs and applications can result in safety problems, including short circuits, explosions, and energized panels and grounding conductors. If the recommendations contained in this paper are followed, then electrical system safety and reliability will be enhanced. The subjects of fusing, connections, grounding, and component compatibility are explored as they pertain to surge suppressor design and application. View full abstract»

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  • Online optimal flux-weakening control of permanent-magnet brushless AC drives

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 1661 - 1668
    Cited by:  Papers (36)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (340 KB)  

    An enhanced online optimal control strategy, which maximizes the flux-weakening performance of a brushless AC motor, is described, and applied to motors having different rotor topologies: interior (radial or circumferential), inset, and surface-mounted magnet. It enables the maximum inherent power capability of a brushless AC motor to be achieved independent of any variation in its parameters, and facilitates maximum efficiency over the entire speed range. It also results in good transient dynamic performance, since it is coupled with feedforward vector control based on optimal current profiles. View full abstract»

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  • Medium-voltage adjustable-speed-drive retrofit of an existing eddy-current clutch extruder application

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 1750 - 1755
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (80 KB)  

    This paper describes a case study of replacing an eddy-current clutch with a modern medium-voltage adjustable-speed drive (ASD) for a 2250 hp extruder application. It covers key issues, justification, factory and field measurements of torque-speed profile from 0.5 to 60 Hz, as well power quality analysis. The paper reviews manufacturers' capability to build medium-voltage ASDs that produce very high and stable torque at very low speed. View full abstract»

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  • Rotor loss in permanent-magnet brushless AC machines

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 1612 - 1618
    Cited by:  Papers (147)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (188 KB)  

    The eddy-current loss in the permanent magnets of brushless AC machines is usually neglected, since the fundamental air-gap field usually rotates in synchronism with the rotor, and time harmonics in the current waveform and space harmonics in the winding distribution are generally small. However, an important category of brushless AC machine design is emerging in which the fundamental component of the stator MMF has fewer poles than the rotor, the torque being developed by a higher order MMF harmonic. The fundamental and lower order MMF harmonics can then give rise to significant rotor eddy currents. An analytical model is developed to predict rotor-induced eddy currents in such machines, and to quantify the effectiveness of circumferentially segmenting the permanent magnets in reducing the rotor loss. View full abstract»

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  • Systematic practical approach to the study of bearing damage in a large oil-ring-lubricated induction machine

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 1715 - 1724
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    The demand for self-contained hydrodynamic bearing assemblies has increased as a result of their lower cost and increased reliability compared to bearings with an external lubrication system. The oil-ring lubrication system is the most popular lubricant circulating system used in self-contained bearings. Motors with such a lubrication system tend to experience bearing damage when the shaft current is sufficiently large. An industry-university research partnership program was instituted to study the shaft current phenomenon in an eight-pole 2611-kW oil-ring-lubricated sleeve bearing induction machine. The study reviewed all the possible causes of the bearing damage. A series of experimental tests was carried out to determine the cause(s) of the shaft current. These tests included oil analysis, bearing damage analysis, and no-load running tests. The tests were conducted using a novel method of shaft current measurement. In addition to the test results, this paper presents a simplified pictorial representation of the significance of joints due to lamination segmentation on the occurrence of shaft current. The paper also includes shaft voltage prediction rules. View full abstract»

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  • DC motor brush life

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 1682 - 1687
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (148 KB)  

    This paper looks at brush life, why brushes wear, and what can be done to achieve longer brush life. It is meant to provide an understanding of the factors and conditions that contribute to brush wear in order that problem areas can be avoided and existing problems identified and resolved. This, however, is not an instruction manual on how to fix problems. The motor manufacturer should be contacted for help in resolving brush and commutation problems. The following applies to medium- and large-horsepower industrial DC motors and generators. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental and finite-element analysis of an electronic pole-change drive

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 1637 - 1644
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (188 KB)  

    The theory and modeling of an electronic pole-change drive for the purpose of extending the constant power speed range of a four-pole induction machine have been previously reported. This paper presents verification of the power capability characteristics of the proposed drive through experimental implementation. An indirect field-oriented controller is developed for the pole-change drive with the estimated rotor open-circuit time constant and d-axis-current commands dependent on the mode of operation. It is demonstrated that, for a constant power load, the drive can operate at 6340 r/min in two-pole mode without exceeding either the voltage or current limits at 3600 r/min in four-pole mode. A finite-element method is also utilized to examine the influence of magnetic saturation on the pole-change drive performance. The nature of the magnetic flux distribution and saturation progression is investigated in both four-pole and two-pole modes. The saturation-induced inductance variation is also studied and its influence on the dq inductance matrix is quantified. View full abstract»

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  • Robust magnetic bearing control using stabilizing dynamical compensators

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 1654 - 1660
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (168 KB)  

    This paper considers the robust control of an active radial magnetic bearing system, having a homopolar, external rotor topology, which is used to support an annular fiber composite flywheel rim. A first-order dynamical compensator, which uses only position feedback information, is used for control, its design being based on a linearized one-dimensional second-order model which is treated as an interval system in order to cope with parameter uncertainties. Through robust stability analysis, a parameterization of all first-order robustly stabilizing dynamical compensators for the interval system is initially obtained. Then, by appropriate selection of the free parameters in the robust controller, the H2 norm of the disturbance-output transfer function is made arbitrarily small over the system parameter intervals, and the H norm of the input-output transfer function is made arbitrarily close to a lower bound. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate both stability and performance robustness of the developed controller. View full abstract»

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  • A novel stator resistance estimation method for speed-sensorless induction motor drives

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 1619 - 1627
    Cited by:  Papers (43)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (204 KB)  

    A method for online estimation of the stator resistance of an induction machine is presented and a speed-sensorless field-oriented drive equipped with the proposed estimator is built. The drive is particularly suitable for low-speed operation. Resistance estimation is based on a two-time-scale approach, and the error between measured and observed current is used for parameter tuning. The simple full-order observer in use allows for direct field orientation in a wide range of operation. The system can drive active load and generate stall torque, as confirmed by numerical simulations and experimental tests on a general-purpose 7.5 kW induction machine. View full abstract»

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  • The use of low-voltage current-limiting fuses to reduce arc-flash energy

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 1741 - 1749
    Cited by:  Papers (35)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB)  

    Current-limiting fuses, in their current-limiting range, reduce the available short-circuit current and clear faults in one-half cycle or less. Available fuse test data, such as let-through I2t and peak let-through current, is based upon single-phase bolted-fault tests at full voltage. Currently, there is no data available that relates single-phase current-limiting fuse test data with energy released by downstream three-phase arcs. A three-phase 600 V test program was conducted using Class L and RK1 fuses to determine the let-through arc energy and the incident energy produced 18 in away from a three-phase arc in a 20 in cubic box. Incident energy produced by the downstream arc is correlated with the degree of current limitation and fuse bolted-fault test data. The benefit provided by current-limiting fuses in reducing arc-flash energy is quantified. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The scope of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS includes all scope items of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, that is, the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical and electronic engineering in the development, design, manufacture, and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; industry leadership in energy conservation and environmental, health, and safety issues; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices; and the professional development of its membership.

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Carlton E. Speck