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Consumer Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date Aug. 2000

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 70
  • Errata: A wireless home network and its application

    Page(s): 920 - 921
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (132 KB)  

    Corrected figures for Fujieda et al. "A Wireless Home network and Its Application," which appeared in the IEEE Transactions of Consumer Electronics, vol. 46, no. 2, pp 283-290, are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Speech synthesis software with a variable speaking rate and its implementation on a 32-bit microprocessor

    Page(s): 887 - 895
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB)  

    This paper describes a new speech synthesis system that produces speech at a controllable rate. The method is based on the oscillator model in which output speech of a desired length can be obtained without extracting pitch synchronous positions. This model has been applied to a residual-excited vocoder to improve the sound quality of synthesized speech. The proposed method is based on the duration of phonemes in natural speech. Phonemes are classified for the time-scale modification algorithm, and this made it possible to easily control the duration of phonemes various speaking rates. Sound quality evaluation tests confirmed that the quality of sound produced by this new method is better than that produced by existing methods. The method was verified by implementing it as real-time synthesis software. The software required 8 MIPS of CPU power and ran on a 32-bit microprocessor View full abstract»

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  • Iterative equalization-detection algorithm using trellis-based equalizer and RSC code for high density optical recording systems

    Page(s): 597 - 602
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB)  

    This paper proposes an iterative equalization and detection algorithm using trellis-based equalizer and recursive systematic convolutional code without modulation coding for high density optical recording systems. The results show that the partial response approach cannot have the desired performance because of the severe intersymbol interference and jitter noise as the density is increased, but the proposed scheme can. The densities simulated are S=4.6 and S=7. The code rates tested are 8/9 and 16/17, and the block size of random interleaver is 624bits. The RSC code polynomial is (7,5) View full abstract»

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  • A low-complexity and high-speed detection method for high-density d=1 optical recording

    Page(s): 562 - 571
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (724 KB)  

    We propose a novel bit-detection method which is applicable to high-density optical recording systems which use d=1 runlength-limited codes. The method detects and corrects sign-reversals caused by playback imperfections in the samples of the shortest recorded domains in the sampled playback signal. The new method is very simple computationally, and offers the potential of implementation at very high speeds, since it does not involve bit-recursive operations. Theoretical analysis, simulation results, and application to experimentally derived playback signals demonstrate the performance of the proposed method, which attains acceptable levels over a wide range of recording densities View full abstract»

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  • Shape adaptive padding for MPEG-4

    Page(s): 514 - 520
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB)  

    In MPEG-4, the boundary blocks of reference video objects are padded by replicating the boundary samples towards the exterior. This scheme does not make use of the trend of pixel value variation often present near object boundaries in padding the exterior pixels of the reference video object. Rather, it results in a break of this trend at the video object boundary, resulting in higher prediction errors for those pixel locations that are within the shape of the current block, but are outside that of the predicted block. In this paper, we propose a novel shape distortion adaptive hybrid padding technique to minimise prediction errors and improve compression efficiency. We show that this technique results in boundary block coding gains of up to 9% as compared to that of the MPEG-4 scheme View full abstract»

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  • An innovative, high quality and search window independent motion estimation algorithm and architecture for MPEG-2 encoding

    Page(s): 697 - 705
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (696 KB)  

    This paper describes an innovative, pipelined, cache-based architecture for a motion estimation coprocessor. The coprocessor is based on a predictive/recursive algorithm whose computational complexity is low and not dependent on the search window. The synergies between the architecture and algorithm's features allow a high quality, low-area, low-bandwidth, search window implementation for standard resolution (PAL/NTSC), low resolution (CIF/QCIF) or high resolution (ATSC) sequences View full abstract»

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  • Design of an interface on PDA for Korean

    Page(s): 834 - 838
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (252 KB)  

    We present an on-line recognition system of cursive Korean character on a PDA. Because of the limited storage capacity and small size of the PDA, a more compact and more convenient design is needed in an embedded user interface, like the on-line character recognition system. To make a convenient interface, the character recognition system has to recognize the cursive type of Korean characters. We define a cursive type of Korean characters as the connection of primitive strokes. We use the path discriminant HMM (PDHMM). The initial structure of the PDHMM is designed from the hand-printed characters and then it is expanded to the cursive case. When new strokes for the cursive type are defined, we can easily extend the PDHMM by inserting proper edges. To save the storage space of the PDA, character recognition is done simply with traversing a single PDHMM. We make smaller states for the PDHMM than the ones for other HMMs. We implemented it on a handheld PC (HPC) and got a good recognition rate View full abstract»

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  • Techniques for channel estimation, DC-offset compensation, and link quality control in Bluetooth system

    Page(s): 682 - 689
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB)  

    This paper presents a channel estimation and a DC-offset estimation techniques, and two error control methods in a short-ranged Bluetooth system. Each of the Bluetooth devices in the connection state knows the access codes used in the ad-hoc networks, which is utilized as a reference signal for the parameter estimation. Also, the access correlation output can help the error correction schemes of the Bluetooth networks because the correlation output reflects the radio channel environments. The proposed estimators can be implemented without degradation of frame and spectral efficiency thanks to using the access code specified for the Bluetooth system View full abstract»

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  • Robust image transmission over CDMA channels

    Page(s): 664 - 672
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (884 KB)  

    The transmission of real-time images and video over wireless communication channels is a challenging problem. Digital compressed images are sensitive to bit errors which are typical in wireless communications. Moreover, the bandwidth at the air interface is currently a limiting factor because the first and second generation of mobile phone standards mainly support voice communications. We present a study of real-time image traffic over a radio link-the aim of this research is for videophone applications. We use the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to compress images and a code division multiple access (CDMA) link to transfer images over wireless communications network. The experiment results indicate that it is possible to transfer 9-12 QCIF gray scale images per second over a CDMA link with graceful degradation in image quality View full abstract»

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  • A method for removing blocking effects in MPEG-2 video by applying a block classification technique using stream information

    Page(s): 872 - 878
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (472 KB)  

    This paper proposes a method for removing the blocking effects that become evident when decoding MPEG-2 video data. The method classifies each block and detects blocking effects by using the information obtained from the MPEG-2 video bitstream, including DCT coefficients and motion vectors. Blocking effect removal is achieved by applying a filter to the decoded images in response to the detected result. The effectiveness of the method has been verified by computer simulation. Based on subjective judgment results, the image quality encoded at 3 Mbps by using this method was confirmed to be closely comparable with the quality of images encoded at 4 Mbps. Because this method carries out noise elimination by only using the information obtained from the MPEG-2 video bitstream, it can be applied to any application, including storage, broadcasting, communications, etc View full abstract»

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  • New frame rate up-conversion using bi-directional motion estimation

    Page(s): 603 - 609
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (516 KB)  

    We propose a new frame rate up-conversion algorithm for high quality video. In the proposed scheme, bi-directional motion estimation (ME) is performed to construct the motion vector (MV) field for the frame to be interpolated. Unlike conventional motion-compensated interpolation (MCI) algorithms, the proposed technique does not produce any overlapped pixel and hole region in the interpolated frame, and thus can utilize the overlapped block motion compensation technique to reduce the blocking artifacts. The proposed algorithm is very simple to implement on consumer products when compared to conventional MCI methods. Computer simulation shows a high visual performance of the proposed frame rate up-conversion algorithm View full abstract»

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  • High efficiency optical system design for a liquid crystal projector

    Page(s): 851 - 856
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (428 KB)  

    This paper presents a high efficiency optical system for a liquid crystal projector. The F number of the illumination system with or without a micro lens array on the LCD panels, and color separation system has been optimized and the system provides a bright and high quality image View full abstract»

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  • Middleware architecture for supporting both dynamic reconfiguration and real-time services

    Page(s): 795 - 801
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (500 KB)  

    This paper presents middleware architecture that can support both dynamic reconfiguration and real-time services in a home network. The proposed middleware provides a special software architecture that can simultaneously establish a service channel between an application server and various consumer devices with small computing power and accommodate the real-time requirements of home network services View full abstract»

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  • The robustness verification of the D-VHS trick play using dynamic measurement method for evaluating mechanism

    Page(s): 481 - 486
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (628 KB)  

    In the D-VHS MPEG-2 mode, tape-running fluctuation is a serious problem, because trick play data are allocated in an exclusive area. We have developed a new method for evaluating the mechanism. It enables defining the ideal distribution of the D-VHS trick play data on the tape. The ideal balance of both mechanism accuracy and data distribution secures enough robustness and facilitates mass production View full abstract»

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  • Fast object tracking in digital video

    Page(s): 785 - 790
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB)  

    This paper presents a fast semi-automatic semantic object-tracking algorithm for digital video. The proposed method consists of two steps, namely, intra-frame object extraction and the inter-frame object tracking. For the intra-frame segmentation, we try to minimize the human intervention by exploiting the automatic homogenous region segmentation. Then, to achieve a fast inter-frame object tracking, we propose to use 1-D projected motion estimation and an improved flooding method for the watershed algorithm View full abstract»

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  • A new approach to VHF/FM broadcast receiver using digital signal processing techniques

    Page(s): 751 - 757
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB)  

    This paper describes the development of a new VHF/FM broadcast receiver using digital signal processing (DSP) techniques. The developed method gives improved receiver performance, and enables it to be integrated into general digital signal processing. This receiver realizes FM demodulation, a stereo decoder and noise reduction by using DSP. We adopted a quadrature type FM demodulator for its simple structure, and combined it with a newly developed AM (amplitude modulation) cancellation process, to reduce the demodulated signal distortion. We have also developed an extended sampling rate conversion technique to synchronize the sampling rate with the broadcast pilot signal utilizing interpolation-decimation filtering, while the stereo decoder process itself has been based on a synchronous sampling type operation View full abstract»

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  • An algorithm for integrated noise reduction and sharpness enhancement

    Page(s): 474 - 480
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1020 KB)  

    Noise reduction and image sharpening are techniques to improve video image quality. However, noise filters tend to blur image detail, while filters for image sharpening tend to increase noise. So, cascading the two filters does not always give the best performance. We present an integrated filter that reduces noise and sharpens details in a noisy video signal depending on local image statistics. This allows both features to be maximally exploited View full abstract»

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  • The use of video sample rate converters to achieve three-dimensional effects

    Page(s): 728 - 734
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (540 KB)  

    This paper presents a method of performing high-quality video scaling and advanced video juggling to achieve three-dimensional video effects. This method does not rely on an expensive three-dimensional graphics rendering unit but smartly combines simple geometric and perspective transformations with advanced video sample rate conversion. The key is to start from two-dimensional video sample rate conversion, instead of graphics accelerators, for these three-dimensional effects. Results show that the picture quality using this method greatly exceeds that with state-of-the-art 3D graphics rendering units. Furthermore, the complexity is only in the order of video sample rate converters, which are usually already part of a high-end TV set View full abstract»

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  • Audio processing on AV decoder LSI for DVD-Audio

    Page(s): 578 - 585
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB)  

    DVD-Audio exceeds the CD in sound quality, the number of channels, recording time and copyright protection, and it is expected as the new audio media. We have developed an AV (audio and video) decoder LSI for both DVD-Audio and DVD-Video standard. In this paper, we describe the architecture of the LSI, and the audio software algorithms for real-time decoding of high quality audio contents (192 Hz 24 bit stereo, 96 kHz 24 bit multi-channel, etc.) with still picture, and the improvement for the LSI (bitstream transfer control, the time-sharing of audio and video decoding and the optimization of audio processing for DVD-Audio) View full abstract»

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  • A study for the optical wireless module based on IEEE1394

    Page(s): 839 - 846
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (388 KB)  

    We are currently developing a 125 Mbps optical wireless module for a proposed infrared-based IEEE1394/S100 system. So as to avoid the effect of reflections, the module is implemented using IEEE1394 arbitration for a half-duplex optical link between the transmitter and receiver. One possibility is to develop a compact module for future use in handheld equipment View full abstract»

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  • Robust and scalable matching pursuits video transmission using the Bluetooth air interface standard

    Page(s): 673 - 681
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1084 KB)  

    This paper introduces an error resilient implementation of the matching pursuits algorithm for video coding. The video bitstream is transmitted using a simulation of the Bluetooth air interface standard, which recommends ARQ as a means of overcoming channel errors in the data packets. This approach may be unsuitable for real time and broadcast applications. Therefore, a modified receiver is proposed in this paper, which does not request the retransmission of erroneous packets, but instead passes them to the video decoder to exploit error resilience. This strategy is shown to be superior to a standard compliant system if ARQ cannot be applied. The work confirms that wireless communication standards should support a transparent mode for video applications View full abstract»

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  • Card-sized portable audio player using high quality audio coding technology TwinVQ

    Page(s): 907 - 913
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (452 KB)  

    This paper presents a new implementation of the solid state audio player equipped with TwinVQ decoder. TwinVQ is an advanced high quality coding technology and its basic algorithm is utilized in MPEG-4/Audio standardized by the ISO (International Standardization Organization). Using TwinVQ coding, 44.1 kHz sampled audio data can be compressed at a very low bitrate of 40 kbit/s/ch with better sound quality than conventional coding methods as MPEG-1/Audio layer-3. Another feature of the player is that it is extremely compact, business-card-sized, 10 mm thick, including battery, as a result of the efficient design. Decoding algorithms are optimized and implemented into 16 bit fixed-point DSP, and a very thin rechargeable lithium polymer battery is contained integral with the player. As a result, the new player has a very practical performance with low power consumption, and 6 hours of 44 kHz stereo audio can be continuously played when the battery is fully charged View full abstract»

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  • Video motion representation for improved content access

    Page(s): 645 - 655
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (864 KB)  

    This paper describes techniques for representing motion information in the context of multimedia description interfaces (being standardized by MPEG-7). Focusing on camera motion and object trajectories, it explains how to extract the descriptions from the content, and express them in a compact way. It also shows how such descriptions can help consumers to browse and query through large audiovisual collections View full abstract»

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  • A shift-resisting public watermark system for protecting image processing software

    Page(s): 404 - 414
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1560 KB)  

    Digital watermarking is a technique used to protect the ownership of images and their associated software. A useful watermark scheme should be visually imperceptible and must be robust to resist various attacks: such as JPEG compression, pixel-shifting, cropping, blurring, etc. In this paper, we propose a public watermarking system to protect image processing software and images. We embed a binary image as a watermark in the DCT domain and the watermarked image is imperceptible by the human visual system and robust to image shifting or cropping. We use a feature-based approach to synchronize the watermark positions during embedding and extracting. For better image quality, the more complex in a block, the more bits can be embedded. Our approach doesn't need the original image for watermark extraction, which is a useful feature in protecting software applications such as real-time generated panorama images View full abstract»

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  • Multi-resolution shape coding algorithm for MPEG-4

    Page(s): 505 - 513
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (524 KB)  

    The MPEG-4 visual standard is developed to provide users a new level of interaction with visual contents. It is the first international standard allowing for transmitting arbitrarily shaped video objects and provides technologies to view, access and manipulate objects rather than pixels. MPEG-4 scalability features enable the content providers to transmit the same content through channels with variable bandwidths. In this paper, we propose a new coding technique employing quadtree-based decomposition to obtain a shape representation at different resolution levels. Fewer bits coding the shape can be sent on a bandwidth-limited channel while sacrificing the resolution. This is convenient for browsing applications or viewing a high-resolution image on a lower-resolution display device. The proposed scheme can improve coding efficiency, and get a good tradeoff between bit-rate and distortion. The method is shown to be simple, efficient solution and suitable for hardware implementation View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The primary purpose for publishing the Transactions of the Consumer Electronics Society is to present to the membership and the engineering community in general, papers on new technology oriented to Consumer Electronics.

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
R. Simon Sherratt
School Director for Teaching and Learning, School of Systems Engineering
The University of Reading
Reading, Berkshire  RG6 6AY  RG6 6AY  U.K.
r.s.sherratt@reading.ac.uk; sherratt@ieee.org
Phone:+44 (0) 118 3788588
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