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Robotics and Automation, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 5 • Date Oct. 2000

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Displaying Results 1 - 18 of 18
  • Corrections to "choosing good distance metrics and local planners for probabilistic roadmap methods"

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 621
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  • Part transfer mode selection in a cyclic mixed-model line

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 588 - 592
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    Considers the transfer mode selection problem (TMSP) in a mixed-model assembly line which is operated under a cyclic scheduling policy. Assembly lines are mostly designed for the synchronous transfer mode. There is a change in the assembly technology toward the nonsynchronous transfer mode which offers higher production rates than its synchronous counterpart. In the paper, a model for determining the cycle time of a mixed-transfer mode assembly line is presented. The TMSP in a mixed-model assembly line is then formulated as a mixed-integer program. Computational results on performance comparisons of different transfer mode configurations are presented View full abstract»

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  • A novel stereo camera system by a biprism

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 528 - 541
    Cited by:  Papers (33)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB)  

    We propose a novel and practical stereo camera system that uses only one camera and a biprism placed in front of the camera. The equivalent of a stereo pair of images is formed as the left and right halves of a single charge coupled device (CCD) image using a biprism. The system is therefore cheap and extremely easy to calibrate since it requires only one CCD camera. An additional advantage of the geometrical setup is that corresponding features lie on the same scanline automatically. The single camera and biprism have led to a simple stereo system for which correspondence is very easy and accurate for nearby objects in a small field of view. Since we use only a single lens, calibration of the system is greatly simplified. Given the parameters in the biprism-stereo camera system, we can reconstruct the three-dimensional structure using only the disparity between the corresponding points View full abstract»

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  • New potential functions for mobile robot path planning

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 615 - 620
    Cited by:  Papers (146)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (208 KB)  

    The paper first describes the problem of goals unreachable with obstacles nearby when using potential field methods for mobile robot path planning. Then, new repulsive potential functions are presented by taking the relative distance between the robot and the goal into consideration, which ensures that the goal position is the global minimum of the total potential View full abstract»

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  • DT-bottlenecks in serial production lines: theory and application

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 567 - 580
    Cited by:  Papers (32)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (348 KB)  

    The bottleneck (BN) of a production line is a machine that impedes the system's performance in the strongest manner. It has been shown in previous work that the so-called downtime bottlenecks (DT-BNs) are of main industrial importance. In this paper, a method for DT-BN identification is developed in the framework of serial production lines with unreliable (Markovian) machines and finite buffers. The identification tool derived is based on the probabilities of machine blockages and starvations. To evaluate these probabilities, a novel aggregation technique is proposed. The results obtained are applied to the design of a production line at an automotive component plant View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive tracking control of a nonholonomic mobile robot

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 609 - 615
    Cited by:  Papers (186)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (224 KB)  

    A mobile robot is one of the well-known nonholonomic systems. The integration of a kinematic controller and a torque controller for the dynamic model of a nonholonomic mobile robot has been presented (Fierro and Lewis, 1995). In this paper, an adaptive extension of the controller is proposed. If an adaptive tracking controller for the kinematic model with unknown parameters exists, an adaptive tracking controller for the dynamic model with unknown parameters can be designed by using an adaptive backstepping approach. A design example for a mobile robot with two actuated wheels is provided. In this design, a new kinematic adaptive controller is proposed, then a torque adaptive controller is derived by using the kinematic controller View full abstract»

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  • Minimal realization of an arbitrary spatial stiffness matrix with a parallel connection of simple and complex springs

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 603 - 608
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (164 KB)  

    Presents a method for determining a minimal realization of an arbitrary spatial stiffness matrix K through the use of a mechanism constructed of a parallel connection of springs. The springs are of two types: simple and screw. The term simple spring refers to a purely translational or purely rotational passive spring, while a screw spring couples translational and rotational components. Any spatial stiffness matrix can be realized with a parallel connection of such springs. However, as the names suggest, simple springs are much easier to implement than screw springs. Thus, to reduce the compliance mechanism's complexity, it is desirable to minimize the number of screw springs. The article presents a method for determining minimal realizations for any symmetric positive definite or semidefinite spatial stiffness matrix. These realizations are minimal in the sense that they minimize both the number of screw springs and the total number of springs View full abstract»

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  • Discrete-time Markov reward models of automated manufacturing systems with multiple part types and random rewards

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 553 - 566
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (348 KB)  

    We consider the discrete-time version of performability modeling of automated manufacturing systems (AMSs) capable of producing multiple part types, when the Markov rewards are random. The discrete-time approach is well suited for the performance studies of AMSs in the presence of failures, repairs, and reconfigurations, AMSs exist in various configuration states and this transitional behavior is modeled using discrete-time Markov chains. In addition, the performance in each configuration state is modeled by a Markov reward structure. The random reward structure models the behavior of real systems more accurately than the deterministic models used in the earlier literature. We derive recursive expressions for the conditional densities and moments of the cumulative performance function and study their asymptotic properties, when the underlying Markov chain describing the evolution of the configuration states is homogenous. Recursions are also derived for the computation of the cross correlation of the productivity of different part types. Examples are provided to illustrate the methods obtained in the paper View full abstract»

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  • Configuration manifolds and their applications to robot dynamic modeling and control

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 517 - 527
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (280 KB)  

    This paper presents a configuration manifold (C-manifold) embedding model for robot dynamic systems analysis and control algorithms development from a geometrical and topological perspective. The concepts of C-manifolds and their isometric embeddings are introduced, and the explicit forms of their representations are then developed. For an open serial-chain robotic system, a topological equivalence is found and demonstrated to be useful for dynamic model reduction. The study further shows that kinematics of a dynamic system determines the topology of its C-manifold so that the kinematics becomes a structure of the dynamics. By taking advantage of adaptive control, developing a kinematic model is shown to be sufficient for dynamic control purpose. Furthermore, we discover that the entire dynamic model of a robot can be significantly reduced, and the lower bound of the model reduction is a sub-system with the minimum embeddable C-manifold in the sense of topology. The paper also gives examples to illustrate the procedure of determining their C-manifold embedding models View full abstract»

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  • An extension to operational space for kinematically redundant manipulators: kinematics and dynamics

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 592 - 596
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (156 KB)  

    An extension to operational space (EXOS) is presented for the explicit representation of the null-space (NS) dynamics and its interaction with the operational-space dynamics. First, the EXOS Jacobian is formed by augmenting the Jacobian matrix with a minimum number of its NS vectors. Based on the EXOS Jacobian, free of algorithmic singularity, the kinematics, statics, and dynamics of a redundant manipulator are derived in a compact form. In particular, the resulting EXOS dynamics is able to identify the inner dynamic structure. Its efficacy and efficiency have been demonstrated through comparative analysis and simulation View full abstract»

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  • On dynamic control of finger sliding and object motion in manipulation with multifingered hands

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 469 - 481
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB)  

    Dynamic control of a three-fingered robot hand manipulating an object in 3D space, while allowing one of the three fingers to slide in order to change its grasp location on the object surface, is formulated. The static and dynamic friction between the sliding finger and the object surface are explicitly considered and their effects regarding the behavior of the finger and object are discussed. Motion equations of the whole system are derived and a dynamic control law for realizing the desired object motion, as well as the desired finger sliding and the desired grasping force, is proposed. The realizability of the given trajectories under the constraints of maximal static friction and dynamic friction at the grasp points, and of joint driving torque, are also discussed. A simulation example to demonstrate the use of the proposed control law is given. The results of this work will have useful application to a multifingered robot hand in performing certain tasks involving the re-grasping and re-orientation of an object without interrupting the grasp View full abstract»

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  • Geometrical matching for mobile robot localization

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 542 - 552
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (252 KB)  

    Deals with an absolute mobile robot self-localization algorithm given a two-dimensional cartography of the robot's environment. The proposed method only requires the goniometrical observations. We present an original solution to compute the robot's pose estimation by an interpretation tree (IT) search. Our approach introduces the subdivision of the robot's evolution field into rectangles. The matching between the observations and the visual landmarks is effected by judicious angular tests (heuristics for the IT). Moreover, we show that our matching method implicitly takes uncertainties and inaccuracies into account. Finally, some experimental results with real noisy omnidirectional images, provided by our omnidirectional vision sensor SYCLOP, are shown View full abstract»

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  • Transfer line design with uncertain machine performance information

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 581 - 587
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (196 KB)  

    We consider production line design where the information available for equipment under consideration is unreliable, incomplete, or erroneous. We develop an analytic procedure for information gathering, which reduces uncertainty by systematically improving the information critical for overall design performance. We report test results using real design cases from General Motors View full abstract»

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  • Control of contact via tactile sensing

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 482 - 495
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (276 KB)  

    We present our approach to using tactile sensing in the feedback control of robot contact tasks. A general framework, called tactile servo, is first introduced. We then address the critical issue of how to model the state of contact in terms that are both sufficient for defining general contacts and conducive to bridging the gap between a robot task description and the information observable by a tactile sensor. We subsequently examine techniques for deriving tactile sensor models that are required for computing the state of contact from the sensor output. Two basic methods for mapping a tactile sensor image to the contact state variables are introduced: one based on explicit inverse modeling, and the other on numerical tactile Jacobian. In both cases, moments of the tactile sensor image are used as the features that capture the necessary information about contact. The theoretical development is supported by extensive experiments, which include edge tracking, object shape construction and object manipulation View full abstract»

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  • Human-machine cooperative telemanipulation with motion and force scaling using task-oriented virtual tool dynamics

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 505 - 516
    Cited by:  Papers (26)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (276 KB)  

    We propose an alternative control algorithm for a scaled telemanipulation system using the task-oriented virtual tool dynamics. The aim of the proposed virtual tool approach is to realize the ideal relationship for the human-oriented collaboration between a human operator and a controlled robot in a human-robot environment system. In the proposed cooperative system, a telemanipulator is controlled so that it has semi-autonomous virtual tool dynamics designed appropriately for a given task. It assists a human operator semi-autonomously during the task as if it were a real mechanical tool and improves the maneuverability and the efficiency in the teleoperation. The stability is analyzed based on the passivity of the resultant system, and the total stability is guaranteed for a human operator and a passive environment with unknown dynamics. The algorithm is experimentally applied to a telemanipulator. The results illustrate the validity of the system View full abstract»

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  • Identifying single-ended contact formations from force sensor patterns

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 597 - 603
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (184 KB)  

    We present two methods of rapidly (less than 1 ms) identifying contact formations from force sensor patterns, including friction and measurement uncertainty. Both principally use force signals instead of positions and detailed geometric models. First, fuzzy sets are used to model patterns and sensor uncertainty; membership functions are generated automatically from training data. Second, a neural network is used to generate confidence levels for each contact formation. Experimental results are presented for both classifiers, showing excellent results. New insights into the data sets are discussed, and a modified training method is presented that further improves the performance. The classification techniques are discussed in the context of robot programming by demonstration View full abstract»

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  • Rolling-based manipulation for multiple objects

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 457 - 468
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (300 KB)  

    This paper discusses the manipulation of multiple objects under rolling contacts. For manipulating multiple objects, the following two key issues do not arise in the manipulation of a single object: 1) each object's motion is restricted by the other objects; and 2) the contact force among objects is not controlled directly. As for (1), we first formulate the motion constraint for the whole grasp system, and then provide a necessary condition for manipulating multiple objects uniquely. As for (2), we provide a condition for determining the contact forces among objects uniquely. We further show a sufficient condition for manipulating multiple objects within the object motion constraint. Under this sufficient condition, we propose a control scheme for object motion by taking the motion constraint into account. Simulation and experimental results are provided to confirm our idea View full abstract»

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  • Haptic discrimination of softness in teleoperation: the role of the contact area spread rate

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 496 - 504
    Cited by:  Papers (51)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (196 KB)  

    Many applications in teleoperation and virtual reality call for the implementation of effective means of displaying to the human operator information on the softness and other mechanical properties of objects being touched. The ability of humans to detect softness of different objects by tactual exploration is intimately related to both kinesthetic and cutaneous perception, and haptic displays should be designed so as to address such multimodal perceptual channel. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of surrogating detailed tactile information for softness discrimination, with information on the rate of spread of the contact area between the finger and the specimen as the contact force increases. Devices for implementing such a perceptual channel are described, and a practical application to a mini-invasive surgery tool is presented. Psychophysical test results are reported, validating the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed approach View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased production in 2004. The current retitled publications areIEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering and IEEE Transactions on Robotics.

Full Aims & Scope