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Components, Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date March 1990

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 36
  • Comments, with reply, on "Metallurgic and contact resistance studies of sleeve connectors in aluminum cable splices" by C. Dang and M. Braunovic

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    The commenter discusses the difficult conditions imposed by IEEE-404 testing, which make connection performance very difficult to evaluate and asks for more detail from the authors of the above-titled paper (ibid., vol.13, no.1, p.74-80, March 1990) on the sample construction and preparation. The commenter maintains that it is difficult to substantiate the authors' conclusions from the information presented. The commenter notes that three reference works cited by the authors to substantiate their belief in the correlation between microstructure phenomena and contact resistance changes relate primarily to 60-40 Sn-Pb alloys and asks whether the authors have considered the applicability of the published information to the 5-93.5-1.5 Sn-Pb-Ag alloy actually used in their soldered connection. The authors provide additional detail and discussion, including the applicability of the three references.<> View full abstract»

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  • Direct chip interconnect using polymer bonding

    Page(s): 229 - 234
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    Polymer bonding methods for the direct high-density, fine-pitch interconnection of integrated circuit (IC) components are discussed. Emerging approaches using polymer materials engineered for direct mechanical and electrical connection of ICs are covered. Polymer thick-film (PTF) technology, which has only recently moved from the simple membrane switch arena to the more complex and demanding realm of circuitry, is discussed. Innovative combinations of advanced polymeric materials and techniques with traditional processes have made PTF a leading-edge interconnect technology. Several new polymer bonding methods for directly interconnecting ICs to the circuit are explored, focusing on anisotropic conductive adhesive technology, both for tape automated bonding (TAB) and flip-chip bonding strategies. The use of isotropically conductive and nonconductive polymer bonding agents for direct mechanical and electrical connection of bare die to circuit boards is also examined. Although some of these technologies remain experimental, anisotropic conductive adhesive bonding of electronic components has reached high-volume production status View full abstract»

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  • Solder bumper formation using electroless plating and ultrasonic soldering

    Page(s): 119 - 123
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    Aluminium electrodes on a Si wafer were surface-treated in a sequence involving palladium activation, Ni-P electroless plating, ultrasonic soldering with Pb-1Sn solder, and dipping in Sn-37Pb to form second-stage solder bumps. The average bump height and the shear force were 20.3 μm and 26.8 g/pad, respectively. The shear force did not decrease after a heating test (150°C fore 1000 h) or thermal cycle test (-65°C&rlarr2;room temperature&rlarr2;150°C, 300 cycles). Aluminum diffused to amorphous Ni-P through the Pd layer. Ni-Sn intermetallic compounds were formed at the Pb-1Sn/Ni-P interface. Low-cost polyester tab-automated bonding was utilized to melt low-temperature second solder on inner lead bonding. No bridge occurred when this work process was applied to an LSI with 376 electrodes, 100-μm wide with 105-μm pitch View full abstract»

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  • Switching performance of AgW-Ag(Sn,In)O and AgW-AgSnO2 contact pairs

    Page(s): 2 - 12
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    Experiments were conducted to determine the switching performance of Ag-W contacts when operated in combination with Ag-(Sn,In)O and Ag-SnO2 materials. Contact pairs for each combination were evaluated in an experimental actuator at a current of 150 A. The Ag-W contact was always the moving contact. The new contacts were closed, a steady current of 150 A was passed, and the voltage drop (Vc) across the contacts and the temperature rise ( Tr) of the back of the fixed contact was measured. The contacts then switched a 150-A, 600-V (RMS) circuit for 2000 operations, and the above measurements were repeated. Both the Ag-W versus Ag-(Sn,In)O and the Ag-W versus Ag-SnO2 contact pairs gave low values of Vc when new, a characteristic of good Ag to Ag contact. After 2000 operations, the Vc values for both contact combinations were very high and variable. Metallurgical examination of the contacts showed arc-resistant oxide surfaces containing complex oxides of Ag, Sn, and In alloys as well as complex tungstates formed from combinations of Ag, Sn, and In View full abstract»

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  • The corrosion of copper and porous gold in flowing mixed gas environments

    Page(s): 40 - 45
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    Experiments were conducted on the corrosion of materials in a broad variety of single- and multicomponent flowing mixed gas environments. One purpose of the experiments was to document in a consistent manner the corrosion rates and effects which may be expected for different gas mixtures. A second objective was to demonstrate the importance of standardized control materials for documenting environmental tests. The results confirm that flowing mixed gas environments based upon the use of sulfide-chloride synergisms will produce relevant corrosion with useful acceleration factors. Nonchloride environments were shown to be relatively benign. Two materials were demonstrated to be useful for documenting the conditions actually obtained during environmental tests. These are copper and porous gold. Neither alone can present an adequate descriptor of the test conditions actually achieved. Used together, however, they may provide a sensitive indicator of corrosion rates and mechanisms View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of polyimides as dielectric materials for multichip packages with multilevel interconnection structure

    Page(s): 207 - 213
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    Using a temperature-humidity-bias (THB) screening test, nine commercial polyimides were evaluated for applications to multichip packages with a multilevel interconnection structure. Among these polyimides, DuPont PI2555 performed best under the test condition, i.e. 85°C/85%RH (relative humidity)/180-V DC bias over 3-mil spacing. However, a slow increase of leakage current was observed in situ on TiPdAu triple-track test samples coated with PI2555. This THB performance was improved by modifying PI2555 with a proprietary additive. However, the thermal stability of PI2555 was degraded by the additive. The dielectric constant of the modified PI2555 was 3.4 at 1 kHz, which is similar to that of PI2555 View full abstract»

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  • Stiffness of `gull-wing' leads and solder joints for a plastic quad flat pack

    Page(s): 124 - 130
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    A 12×12 stiffness matrix was obtained for the gull-wing lead and solder joint in a plastic quad flat pack (PQFP) surface-mount assembly, using a three-dimensional finite element method. Deformation of the composite structure for each imposed unit displacement (or rotation) was then obtained. It is shown that the whole-field stress distributions in the gull-wing lead provide a better understanding of their mechanical characteristics. The metallurgical response of the solder joints was not measured in this study View full abstract»

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  • Polymeric optical mixing rod coupler

    Page(s): 144 - 146
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    Optical mixing rod couplers have been fabricated using extruded plastic tubing filled with optically transparent casting resins to form a waveguide-type mixing region. Asymmetric (1×19) splitter/combiners with plastic fiber and plastic-clad silica fiber pigtails have been made with efficiencies greater than 60% and power uniformities within 1-dB standard deviation. Tested as a combiner, the coupler had an average loss of -1.6 dB with a standard deviation of 0.71 dB. Tested as a splitter, it had an average loss of -14.9 dB with a standard deviation of 0.9 dB, and the excess loss was -2.0 dB. The results suggest that the coupler would be useful in a variety of short-distance optical interconnection applications where multimode step-index fiber is appropriate. It may also offer a higher yield than some competing, more complex techniques View full abstract»

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  • Erosion behavior and `erodibility' of Ag/CdO and Ag/SnO2 contacts under AC 3 and AC 4 test conditions

    Page(s): 56 - 64
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    Contact erosion depends on both duration and efficiency of interaction between arc and contacts. Arc motion in a magnetic field was recorded and the material loss caused by arc erosion was determined by weighing. The material loss related to 1 ms of arc interaction-named erodibility-was evaluated for the contact materials Ag/CdO and Ag/SnO 2. All tests were performed in one type of commercial contactor (rated current 110 A). The erodibility was determined for new and for partly eroded contacts prestressed during life tests under AC 3 and AC 4 conditions according to IEC Test Specification 158-1, AC 4 erosion was caused by break arcs mainly, the effect of make arcs being negligible, whereas AC 3 erosion was due to both break and make arcs; the latter was more effective in Ag/SnO2 contacts. After AC 3 life tests the erodibility values determining the erosion of Ag/SnO2 contacts at the site of arc formation were higher than those of Ag/CdO; after AC 4 life tests, however, there was hardly any difference between the erodibilities of the two materials View full abstract»

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  • The influence of circuit parameters and contact materials on the reignition of high-frequency vacuum arcs

    Page(s): 69 - 73
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    The extinction or reignition of high-frequency (HF) transients plays an important role in the generation of voltage surges. Investigations with currents of several hundred amperes peak and current frequencies from 100 kHz up to 1 MHz were made to examine the reignition behavior of short vacuum gaps using different contact materials. The experiments were carried out in an UHV test chamber connected to an L-C test circuit with voltages in the 10-kV range. Data on the statistical distribution of reignition voltages and their dependence on the parameters as well as on different TRV conditions are presented View full abstract»

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  • Developing a decision support system for optimizing automated wafer fabrication

    Page(s): 94 - 102
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    A decision support system (DSS) was developed to help managers and engineers select the most appropriate solutions to strategic and operational problems that are encountered when they try to automate wafer fabrication processes. The primary objective of the DSS was to help identify and select from among the many alternatives those options that provide the highest manufacturing improvements and cost effectiveness for automation. The DSS was developed by a project team drawn from various disciplines of design, manufacturing, automation and finance. The team first identified critical issues that influence manufacturing. A sensitivity analysis was performed on the influencing factors, and the variations in results were interpreted. The results were evaluated using risk analysis and value engineering principles, which caused some alternatives to be discarded. The team recommended manufacturing plans based only on the remaining, viable alternatives. The steps carried out for the development of the decision support system are explained View full abstract»

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  • Enhanced surface segregation in sliding wear tracks

    Page(s): 52 - 55
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    The effect of sliding wear on the rate of surface segregation of sulfur from an oxygen-free, high-conductivity (OFHC) copper sample was investigated. The study was carried out in an ultra-high-vacuum system having a residual gas pressure of 5×10-11 torr. Wear tracks were formed on OFHC Cu that had previously been annealed and argon-ion sputter cleaned. A bent pin (palladium-based alloy, ASTM B540) was made to slide across the surface with a contact force of 25 g for 9000 cycles. Auger electron spectroscopy was used to characterize the composition of the surface on and off the wear track. No surface segregation was observed to occur as a result of forming the wear track. Subsequent in situ isothermal annealing between 310°C and 470°C produced S enhancement on the specimen surface. It was observed that the rate of S segregation on the wear track was much faster than off track up to approximately 390°C, where this rate decreased significantly. At higher temperatures, the rate of S segregation on-track approximately equaled the off-track rate. The drop in the rate of S segregation on the track of 390°C is attributed to annealing-out of the short-circuit diffusion paths associated with the defects formed when the wear track was made. The subsequent increase in S concentration at higher temperatures is due to the normal surface segregation phenomenon which occurs in annealed samples View full abstract»

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  • Enhanced moisture protection of electronic devices by ultra-thin polyimide films

    Page(s): 214 - 218
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    Thin films of polyimide which exhibit enhanced resistance to moisture have been fabricated using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. LB films are ultrathin organic coatings of thicknesses ranging from tens of angstroms to a micrometer, characterized by high molecular density and a high degree of structural order. The adhesion strength of both LB and spin-coated films of several different polyimides, deposited on fused silica, has been measured by subjecting these films to steam or water, followed by a tape test, and monitoring changes in their UV spectra. The results demonstrate that LB films of polyimide adhere better to fused silica than the spin-coated films. In addition, measurements of water vapor transmission rate through Kapton sheet coated by a monolayer of any of the polyimides show that a monolayer forms a moisture barrier, decreasing the water vapor transmission through the Kapton. Based on these results, the electrical performance of polyimide films has been tested at 85°C, 85% humidity, by measuring leakage current between conducting paths under 180-V bias, on samples which are coated with various combinations of LB and spin-coated polyimide films. Composite films of polyimide consisting of an LB monolayer either underneath or on top of a thick, spin-coated film exhibit superior electrical performance to either a spin-coated or LB film by itself. This may be explained by the improved adhesion and/or decreased water permeability of polyimide LB films View full abstract»

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  • Index-matching elastomers for fiber optics

    Page(s): 133 - 136
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    Silicone elastomers have been prepared to match the index of refraction of the core of optical fiber. The system is composed of a vinyl-terminated dimethyldiphenylsiloxane copolymer crosslinked with tri- or tetrafunctional silanes in the presence of a chloroplatinic acid catalyst. The refractive index of the copolymer was determined as a function of diphenyl content and temperature. By measuring the reflected power from the elastomer-encapsulated end of a single-mode optical fiber it was found that a copolymer with 15% diphenyl content crosslinked with 1,3-diphenyl-1,1,3,3-tetrakis(dimethylsiloxy)disiloxane with a hydride/vinyl stoichiometry of unity has a perfect index match at about 30°C. Environmental testing under 85/85 conditions has shown the material to be capable of protecting biased positive-intrinsic-negative (p-i-n) devices for more than 5000 h. Some other advantages of the system are that it is relatively nontoxic, environmentally stable, and can be easily cured at temperatures below 120°C View full abstract»

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  • A transmission electron microscopy study of ultrasonic wire bonding

    Page(s): 176 - 181
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    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to examine ultrasonic bonding of aluminum wire to various metal substrates. A special technique for preparing cross-sectional TEM specimens that involves embedding the sample in epoxy, dimpling, and electropolishing is described. The materials systems examined were Al wire bonded to Al foil, and Al wire bonded to Al foil onto which copper or gold was evaporated. Examination of the bond interface in the TEM revealed that in some areas the surface oxides and contaminants were dispersed, allowing the bare metals to contact, whereas in nearby areas the bond interface was filled with debris. The debris could be oxides, surface contaminants, or sheared metal particles. It also appears that the debris is dispersed to low-lying regions between asperities. In studies of the Al/Au/Al and Al/Cu/Al interfaces, microchemical analysis showed no evidence for diffusion or melting along the interface. Therefore, it is concluded that ultrasonic wire bonding does not involve significant heating along the bonding interface. However, it is shown that dynamic annealing of aluminum wire can occur during bonding. The experimental results are compared with previously proposed theories on the mechanism of bonding in ultrasonic welding View full abstract»

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  • Corrosion of Pb-50In flip-chip interconnections exposed to harsh environment

    Page(s): 188 - 193
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    Lead-indium alloys are an alternative to lead-tin solders commonly used. Lead-indium alloys with 25 to 50 wt.% In provide a substantially lower process temperature advantage and overall exhibit a much lower tendency to scavenge gold compared to high Pb-Sn solders. However, a corrosion concern has been identified in relation to Pb-50In solder, an alloy of interest owing to its thermal-fatigue resistance. The results and observations of a study conducted to gain a fundamental understanding of the nature and path of corrosion in Pb-50In flip-chip connections exposed to an accelerated hostile-environment test simulating harsh industrial ambients are described. Among the five major industrial pollutants comprising the test environment, only chlorine corroded the Pb-50In solder-joint metallurgy under the test conditions, and chlorine was the only pollutant species found in the corrosion products. Attack was initially local, forming a product with modular morphology, consisting mostly of In and Cl (probably InCl3). Lateral growth impingement resulted in the formation of a continuous, quasi-protective surface crust which significantly reduced the bulk corrosion rate. Joint electrical and mechanical integrity depended on the galvanic driving force and hindrances due to space and geometric considerations, etc. which govern the rate of inward corrosion along the ball-limiting metallurgy/solder interface. Successive autocatalytic conversion along the corrosion path likely proceeds via Lewis acid hydrolysis of indium chlorides to corresponding hydroxides and hydrogen chloride. The top surface metallurgy was not attacked. Interface corrosion of C-4 joints was favored over bulk corrosion when chloride was present as part of the corrosion-causing environment View full abstract»

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  • The effect of high-temperature intermetallic growth on ball shear-induced cratering

    Page(s): 167 - 175
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    The effect of the growth of additional gold-aluminum intermetallics at elevated temperatures on ball shear-induced silicon cratering is investigated. A mechanism that explains the high incidence of silicon cratering when thermosonic gold ball bonds are sheared from aluminum metallized pads over silicon and SiO2 is proposed. The mechanism is based on the transmission of energy from the ball shear ram through the rigid intermetallic weld to the underlying dielectric. The concentration of this transmitted energy in the form of stress concentrators was estimated, using finite-element modeling, to be highly dependent on ball and weld geometry. This failure mode does not require that the substrate be cracked initially through the use of improper bonding conditions, as cratering was observed to occur even though the range of bonding parameters used in this study produced no visible damage to the underlying dielectric material. The mechanism may be partly responsible for shear-induced cratering in plastic-encapsulated packages. Recommendations are made regarding steps that can be taken to reduce this effect by altering bonding parameters, pad metal thickness, and cure schedule View full abstract»

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  • System life cycle engineering and DF`X'

    Page(s): 83 - 93
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    A perspective is presented on a conceptual relationship of design for assembly, design for manufacture, and design for the life cycle. System life-cycle engineering is defined and needed research initiatives proposed. It is stressed that it is important to keep a perspective that considers the total life cycle of the product (and manufacturing process) in continual view and focus. This is even more important today when the planning of new products includes second, and third, etc. generation product follow-on's, where the support to and through product lives must be part of an integrated life-cycle strategy. The importance of planning for and addressing this systems life cycle, first-generation, second-generation, etc. technology plateau approach is highlighted even for new technologies such as artificial intelligence and expert systems where finite life versus modification and change will even be more important View full abstract»

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  • A holographic measurement of microscopical sliding of electrical contact due to contact spring thermal deformation

    Page(s): 20 - 26
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    Contact spring deflection occurs with environmental temperature change or Joule heating due to current flow, causing a microscopic slide of the contact point and sometimes so-called fretting corrosion. To analyze the microscopic deformation due to thermal stress, a holographic pattern measuring system (HPMS) that combines holography and graphic image processing has been developed for measuring the contact point displacement in a noncontact way. The HPMS was applied to a thermally deformed contact spring, and the distribution was shown automatically as a three-dimensional graphic image. For an electric contact thermally excited by current flow, a quantitative correlation between the slide of the contact point and the thermal deformation of the spring was obtained, and some irregularity in contact voltage was found. From the deformation analysis the relationship between the contact voltage and the deformation of the spring due to current flow was made clear View full abstract»

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  • Role of the metallic phase arc discharge on arc erosion in Ag contacts

    Page(s): 13 - 19
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    The influence of a metallic-phase arc discharge on contact phenomena was experimentally studied in breaking Ag contacts. The parameters that were measured were the total arc duration (metallic phase plus gaseous phase), metallic-phase arc duration, contact resistance, bridge energy, and electrode material loss. Some experiments were performed for various air pressures and contact currents. It was found that the contact resistance was low in the metallic-phase arc region, and high and almost constant in the gaseous-phase arc region. The relationship between material loss and transfer and the accumulated metallic-phase arc duration was log-proportional, irrespective of air pressure, which led the authors to the conclusion that the electrode material loss is closely related to the metallic-phase discharge duration View full abstract»

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  • Inductance calculation and optimal pin assignment for the design of pin-grid-array and chip carrier packages

    Page(s): 147 - 153
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    A methodology for the calculation of self- and mutual inductance of various electrical paths in a pin-grid array (PGA) or a chip carrier package is described. An N×N inductance matrix is generated for a package, where N is determined by the number of pins, power, and ground planes. Theory, algorithms, and software have been developed to compute the effective inductance of multiply coupled inductors. The software estimates the number of pins for a specified value of inductance and computes the effective inductance for sets of pins chosen for various functions. In this manner, several groups of pin assignments can be evaluated to obtain the smallest effective inductance. The design software computes a 132×132 inductance matrix in about 45 min on an HP 9040 computer. Illustrative examples of pin assignments for power and ground pins in single- and multilayer packages are provided. Good agreement between calculation and experiment was found for packages with pin counts varying from 68 to 289. Design guidelines for pin assignments and placement of power distribution planes in a single- or multilayer package are given for low-inductance package design View full abstract»

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  • Brazing to low-temperature-fired thick films

    Page(s): 219 - 221
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    The development of materials and processes for brazing leads, pins, and heat sinks to alumina ceramic substrates is presented. The substrates are metallized using either copper-, silver-, or gold-based thick-film pastes that are fired in the 850-950°C temperature range. The metal ceramic joint strengths obtained are comparable to those achieved using high-temperature fired tungsten- or molybdenum-based metallizations View full abstract»

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  • Metallurgic and contact resistance studies of sleeve connectors in aluminum cable splices

    Page(s): 74 - 80
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    Two types of sleeve connector used in aluminum cable splices were examined after being tested in a series of accelerated aging experiments. The connectors differed in working principle as well as design. Diagnostic techniques such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were applied to reveal the microstructure of the contact. The observations correlate well with measurements of the contact resistance. Corrective measures are suggested to improve the performance of the cable splices View full abstract»

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  • Simulation of transients in VLSI packaging interconnections

    Page(s): 160 - 166
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    An approach to electrical analysis of VLSI packaging interconnections using computer simulation is presented. The corresponding simulation software developed during the course of research on VLSI interconnections conducted at the University of Arizona is described. Examples of application to prototypical interconnections (two transmission line systems joined by a lumped parameter network of bipolar and MOS transistors) are provided. The simulation results for the above examples are presented and analyzed. The current status of the work is discussed and directions of future research delineated View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of printed wiring board assembly system

    Page(s): 109 - 118
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    A model for predicting the cost of manufacturing printed wiring boards is presented. The model represents manufacturing systems currently in use in the industry. It concentrates on surface-mount technology and considers a mixture of automatic, programmable assembly, and manual assembly techniques. The model includes elements to account for inventory, assembly, and test and rework costs. It also considers the effect of introducing a new component type on total manufacturing cost. Results of a simulation using typical data found in batch manufacturing of printed wiring assemblies are presented View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transaction ceased production in 1993. The current publication is titled IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology.

Full Aims & Scope