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Networking, IEEE/ACM Transactions on

Issue 5 • Date Oct 2000

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Displaying Results 1 - 12 of 12
  • Multiconfiguration multihop protocols: a new class of protocols for packet-switched WDM optical networks

    Page(s): 631 - 642
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (252 KB)  

    Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) local-area networks based on the optical passive-star coupler have traditionally been classified as being either single-hop or multihop. A single-hop network provides a direct connection between the source and the destination of a packet during the packet transfer duration, but may require some amount of coordination between the nodes which may involve tuning of the transmitters or receivers at each node. Since the time required to tune a tunable optical transmitter or receiver may be high, a single-hop network may incur significant overhead. On the other hand, a typical multihop network requires little or no tuning, but a packet may traverse a number of intermediate nodes between the source and destination nodes. Each hop incurs additional queueing delays at each node and also increases the overall load on each link and on the network. In this paper, we propose a new class of multiconfiguration multihop protocols (MMPs) which use tunable transmitters and receivers to cycle through a number of configurations which together make up a multihop logical topology. This class of protocols offers a trade-off between the tuning required in a single-hop network and the number of hops required in a multihop network. We present a generalized framework for comparing the proposed protocols with existing single-hop and multihop protocols, and we show that these protocols may offer significant performance gains for systems with high tuning delays and a limited number of transmitters and receivers at each node View full abstract»

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  • Dimensioning bandwidth for elastic traffic in high-speed data networks

    Page(s): 643 - 654
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (256 KB)  

    Simple and robust engineering rules for dimensioning bandwidth for elastic data traffic are derived for a single bottleneck link via normal approximations for a closed-queueing network (CQN) model in heavy traffic. Elastic data applications adapt to available bandwidth via a feedback control such as the transmission control protocol (TCP) or the available bit rate transfer capability in asynchronous transfer mode. The dimensioning rules satisfy a performance objective based on the mean or tail probability of the per-flow bandwidth. For the mean objective, we obtain a simple expression for the effective bandwidth of an elastic source. We provide a new derivation of the normal approximation in CQNs using more accurate asymptotic expansions and give an explicit estimate of the error in the normal approximation. A CQN model was chosen to obtain the desirable property that the results depend on the distribution of the file sizes only via the mean, and not the heavy-tail characteristics. We view the exogenous “load” in terms of the file sizes and consider the resulting flow of packets as dependent on the presence of other flows and the closed-loop controls. We compare the model with simulations, examine the accuracy of the asymptotic approximations, quantify the increase in bandwidth needed to satisfy the tail-probability performance objective as compared with the mean objective, and show regimes where statistical gain can and cannot be realized View full abstract»

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  • The cache location problem

    Page(s): 568 - 582
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB)  

    This paper studies the problem of where to place network caches. Emphasis is given to caches that are transparent to the clients since they are easier to manage and they require no cooperation from the clients. Our goal is to minimize the overall flow or the average delay by placing a given number of caches in the network. We formulate these location problems both for general caches and for transparent en-route caches (TERCs), and identify that, in general, they are intractable. We give optimal algorithms for line and ring networks, and present closed form formulae for some special cases. We also present a computationally efficient dynamic programming algorithm for the single server case. This last case is of particular practical interest. It models a network that wishes to minimize the average access delay for a single web server. We experimentally study the effects of our algorithm using real web server data. We observe that a small number of TERCs are sufficient to reduce the network traffic significantly. Furthermore, there is a surprising consistency over time in the relative amount of web traffic from the server along a path, lending a stability to our TERC location solution. Our techniques can be used by network providers to reduce traffic load in their network View full abstract»

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  • Wavelength-routed optical networks: linear formulation, resource budgeting tradeoffs, and a reconfiguration study

    Page(s): 598 - 607
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (216 KB)  

    We present algorithms for the design of optimal virtual topologies embedded on wide-area wavelength-routed optical networks. The physical network architecture employs wavelength-conversion-enabled wavelength-routing switches (WRS) at the routing nodes, which allow the establishment of circuit-switched all-optical wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) channels, called lightpaths. We assume packet-based traffic in the network, such that a packet travelling from its source to its destination may have to multihop through one or more such lightpaths. We present an exact integer linear programming (ILP) formulation for the complete virtual topology design, including choice of the constituent lightpaths, routes for these lightpaths, and intensity of packet flows through these lightpaths. By minimizing the average packet hop distance in our objective function and by relaxing the wavelength-continuity constraints, we demonstrate that the entire optical network design problem can be considerably simplified and made computationally tractable. Although an ILP may take an exponential amount of time to obtain an exact optimal solution, we demonstrate that terminating the optimization within the first few iterations of the branch-and-bound method provides high-quality solutions. We ran experiments using the CPLEX optimization package on the NSFNET topology, a subset of the PACBELL network topology, as well as a third random topology to substantiate this conjecture. Minimizing the average packet hop distance is equivalent to maximizing the total network throughput under balanced flows through the lightpaths. The problem formulation can be used to design a balanced network, such that the utilizations of both transceivers and wavelengths in the network are maximized, thus reducing the cost of the network equipment. We analyze the trade-offs in budgeting of resources (transceivers and switch sizes) in the optical network, and demonstrate how an improperly designed network may have low utilization of any one of these resources. We also use the problem formulation to provide a reconfiguration methodology in order to adapt the virtual topology to changing traffic conditions View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic multicast routing based on mean number of new calls accepted before blocking for single rate loss networks

    Page(s): 679 - 688
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (212 KB)  

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamic multicast routing problem for single rate loss network and briefly discuss the dynamic multicast routing algorithm called least load multicast routing (LLMR). We propose a new multicast routing algorithm called maximum mean number of new calls accepted before blocking multicast routing (MCBMR), which can more accurately capture the current and future loading of a network. Simulation results show that this algorithm, compared with LLMR, not only has a smaller network revenue loss, but also results in smaller call blocking probabilities for all classes of traffic. We also discuss the implementation issues of our proposed algorithm and develop two approximation methods, state approximation and curve fitting, which can reduce the measurement complexity significantly with only a slight performance degradation View full abstract»

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  • TCP/IP performance with random loss and bidirectional congestion

    Page(s): 541 - 555
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB)  

    With the growth in Internet access services over networks with asymmetric links such as asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) and cable-based access networks, it becomes crucial to evaluate the performance of TCP/IP over systems in which the bottleneck link speed on the reverse path is considerably slower than that on the forward path. In this paper, we provide guidelines for designing network control mechanisms for supporting TCP/IP. We determine the throughput as a function of buffering, round-trip times, and normalized asymmetry (defined as the ratio of the transmission time of acknowledgment (ACK) in the reverse path to that of data packets in the forward path). We identify three modes of operation which are dependent on the forward buffer size and the normalized asymmetry, and determine the conditions under which the forward link is fully utilized. We also show that drop-from-front discarding of ACKs on the reverse link provides performance advantages over other drop mechanisms in use. Asymmetry increases the TCP already high sensitivity to random packet losses that occur on a time scale faster than the connection round-trip time. We generalize the by-now well-known relation relating the square root of the random loss probability to obtained TCP throughput, originally derived considering only data path congestion. Specifically, random loss leads to significant throughput deterioration when the product of the loss probability, the normalized asymmetry and the square of the bandwidth delay product is large. Congestion in the reverse path adds considerably to TCP unfairness when multiple connections share the reverse bottleneck link. We show how such problems can be alleviated by per-connection buffer and bandwidth allocation on the reverse path View full abstract»

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  • Cost-effective traffic grooming in WDM rings

    Page(s): 618 - 630
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (308 KB)  

    We provide network designs for optical add-drop wavelength-division-multiplexed (OADM) rings that minimize overall network cost, rather than just the number of wavelengths needed. The network cost includes the cost of the transceivers required at the nodes as well as the number of wavelengths. The transceiver cost includes the cost of terminating equipment as well as higher-layer electronic processing equipment, which in practice can dominate over the cost of the number of wavelengths in the network. The networks support dynamic (i.e., time-varying) traffic streams that are at lower rates (e.g., OC-3, 155 Mb/s) than the lightpath capacities (e.g., OC-48, 2.5 Gb/s). A simple OADM ring is the point-to-point ring, where traffic is transported on WDM links optically, but switched through nodes electronically. Although the network is efficient in using link bandwidth, it has high electronic and opto-electronic processing costs. Two OADM ring networks are given that have similar performance but are less expensive. Two other OADM ring networks are considered that are nonblocking, where one has a wide-sense nonblocking property and the other has a rearrangeably nonblocking property. All the networks are compared using the cost criteria of number of wavelengths and number of transceivers View full abstract»

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  • An effective and comprehensive approach for traffic grooming and wavelength assignment in SONET/WDM rings

    Page(s): 608 - 617
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB)  

    In high-speed SONET rings with point-to-point WDM links, the cost of SONET add-drop multiplexers (S-ADMs) can be dominantly high. However, by grooming traffic (i.e., multiplexing lower-rate streams) appropriately and using wavelength ADMs (WADMs), the number of S-ADMs can be dramatically reduced. In this paper, we propose optimal or near-optimal algorithms for traffic grooming and wavelength assignment to reduce both the number of wavelengths and the number of S-ADMs. The algorithms proposed are generic in that they can be applied to both unidirectional and bidirectional rings having an arbitrary number of nodes under both uniform and nonuniform (i.e., arbitrary) traffic with an arbitrary grooming factor. Some lower bounds on the number of wavelengths and S-ADMs required for a given traffic pattern are derived, and used to determine the optimality of the proposed algorithms. Our study shows that using the proposed algorithms, these lower bounds can he closely approached in most cases or even achieved in some cases. In addition, even when using a minimum number of wavelengths, the savings in S-ADMs due to traffic grooming (and the use of WADMs) are significant, especially for large networks View full abstract»

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  • A game theoretic framework for bandwidth allocation and pricing in broadband networks

    Page(s): 667 - 678
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (252 KB)  

    In this paper, we present a game theoretic framework for bandwidth allocation for elastic services in high-speed networks. The framework is based on the idea of the Nash bargaining solution from cooperative game theory, which not only provides the rate settings of users that are Pareto optimal from the point of view of the whole system, but are also consistent with the fairness axioms of game theory. We first consider the centralized problem and then show that this procedure can be decentralized so that greedy optimization by users yields the system optimal bandwidth allocations. We propose a distributed algorithm for implementing the optimal and fair bandwidth allocation and provide conditions for its convergence. The paper concludes with the pricing of elastic connections based on users' bandwidth requirements and users' budget. We show that the above bargaining framework can be used to characterize a rate allocation and a pricing policy which takes into account users' budget in a fair way and such that the total network revenue is maximized View full abstract»

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  • Fair end-to-end window-based congestion control

    Page(s): 556 - 567
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (316 KB)  

    In this paper, we demonstrate the existence of fair end-to-end window-based congestion control protocols for packet-switched networks with first come-first served routers. Our definition of fairness generalizes proportional fairness and includes arbitrarily close approximations of max-min fairness. The protocols use only information that is available to end hosts and are designed to converge reasonably fast. Our study is based on a multiclass fluid model of the network. The convergence of the protocols is proved using a Lyapunov function. The technical challenge is in the practical implementation of the protocols View full abstract»

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  • Channel access algorithms with active link protection for wireless communication networks with power control

    Page(s): 583 - 597
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB)  

    A distributed power-control algorithm with active link protection (DPC/ALP) is studied in this paper. It maintains the quality of service of operational (active) links above given thresholds at all times (link quality protection). As network congestion builds up, established links sustain their quality, while incoming ones may be blocked and rejected. A suite of admission control algorithms, based on the DPC/ALP one, is also studied. They are distributed/autonomous and operate using local interference measurements. A primarily networking approach to power control is taken here, based on the concept of active link protection, which naturally supports the implementation of admission control. Extensive simulation experiments are used to explore the network dynamics and investigate basic operational effects/tradeoffs related to system performance View full abstract»

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  • Connection splitting: an efficient way of reducing call blocking in ATM

    Page(s): 655 - 666
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (272 KB)  

    In this paper, we propose a technique for reducing asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) call blocking which is achieved by splitting wide-band connections into multiple low-bandwidth subconnections and routing them independently through the network. The essence of the mechanism is to use fragmented network bandwidth for supporting calls which are otherwise blocked by conventional routing. ATM bandwidth fragmentation may take place in a situation when a connection occupies a part of a link bandwidth and the rest of it is not sufficient for another connection. The unused bandwidth becomes fragmented. We provide a detailed cell-level design for the split-scheduling algorithms, which use a special type of ATM resource management cell for maintaining cell ordering. The analysis and simulation of the scheduling algorithms show that connection splitting is capable of delivering acceptable cell-level quality of service to multiple traffic classes. We also deliver a solution for implementing splitting without requiring any protocol changes within the network. We show that it is sufficient to modify the data and control plane protocols only within the end stations. Finally, a set of routing-level simulations for splitting demonstrates that splitting can reduce blocking by up to 45% for high-bandwidth calls in a moderately loaded network. Considering that it does not incur any network expenses or protocol changes, we propose splitting as an efficient means for reducing connection blocking View full abstract»

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The IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking’s high-level objective is to publish high-quality, original research results derived from theoretical or experimental exploration of the area of communication/computer networking.

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Editor-in-Chief
R. Srikant
Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering
Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign