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Personal Communications, IEEE

Issue 5 • Date Oct. 2000

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Displaying Results 1 - 15 of 15
  • Smart spaces and environments [Guest Editorial]

    Page(s): 3
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Workshop on smart spaces [Guest Editorial]

    Page(s): 35
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Final report on the inter-agency workshop on research issues for smart environments

    Page(s): 36 - 40
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    Presents the final report summarizing some of the major outcomes of the July 25-26 DARPA/NIST/NSF inter-agency workshop on smart environments, which took place on the campus of Georgia Tech. in the College of Computing. We are beginning to see a proliferation of small, portable information appliances for individuals and powerful sensors that can be embedded and networked in environments. As we attempt to compose these devices into sophisticated, an hoc and cooperative computational and communications structures, significant research issues arise, from both technological and human-centered perspectives. The purpose of this workshop was to identify those issues from two distinct perspectives: human-centered: what can and should we expect for human interaction within a smart environment? Technology-centered: what new requirements do smart environments place on technology infrastructure, specifically networking infrastructure? What new advances in programming or system construction must accompany this paradigm shift? We summarize findings from breakout discussions representing these two perspectives. We then summarize discussions of inter-disciplinary research issues and the need for effective testbeds for researching smart environments View full abstract»

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  • DataSpace: querying and monitoring deeply networked collections in physical space

    Page(s): 4 - 9
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    We introduce a new conception of three-dimensional DataSpace, which is physical space enhanced by connectivity to the network. DataSpace is addressed geographically as opposed to the current logical addressing scheme of the Internet. Here, a local area network is replaced by a room, a street, a mountaintop, and so on. Billions of objects populate DataSpace, each aware of its own geographic location. These objects move through DataSpace, and produce and locally store their own data. They can be selectively queried, monitored, and controlled based on their properties. We propose two architectures for DataSpace. We describe mechanisms to use the network as a DataSpace engine in order to perform querying and monitoring operation in a highly scalable way View full abstract»

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  • A communication infrastructure for smart environments: a position article

    Page(s): 54 - 58
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    With today's state-of-the-art technology, miniature sensors and actuators can be manufactured and integrated with electronics onto extremely small footprint devices. Such devices could be embedded into different platforms, creating a highly controllable, supportive, and cooperative environment. Applications of this technology can easily be envisioned in nearly every aspect of our life: in the workplace, at home, in a supermarket, in a department store, in a car, on the battlefield, and so on. Of course, to realize this vision, a network is necessary that enables communication among these devices. Since the main characteristics of these devices are that their power supply is extremely restricted and the span of the network is limited, conventional algorithms and protocols need to be adapted to this “micro” networking environment. This position article addresses some key issues in the creation of such a network. It concentrates mainly on the issue of routing in a network that will support communication among a large collection of small-sized, possibly mobile nodes, operating in an environment with continually changing conditions. Because of its very small coverage area, we term such a network a micronetwork View full abstract»

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  • Querying the physical world

    Page(s): 10 - 15
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    In the next decade, millions of sensors and small-scale mobile devices will integrate processors, memory, and communication capabilities. Networks of devices will be widely deployed for monitoring applications. In these new applications, users need to query very large collections of devices in an ad hoc manner. Most existing systems rely on a centralized system for collecting device data. These systems lack flexibility because data is extracted in a predefined way. Also, they do not scale to a large number of devices because large volumes of raw data are transferred. In our new concept of a device database system, distributed query execution techniques are applied to leverage the computing capabilities of devices, and to reduce communication. We define an abstraction that allows us to represent a device network as a database and we describe how distributed query processing techniques are applied in this new context View full abstract»

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  • Ubiquitous computing and the role of geometry

    Page(s): 41 - 43
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    M. Weiser (<http://www.ubiq.com/hypertext/weiser/UbiHome.html>) described ubiquitous computing as “invisible, everywhere computing that does not live on a personal device of any sort, but is in the woodwork everywhere”. The EasyLiving project at Microsoft Research is focused on those aspects of ubiquitous computing that are relevant to smart environments, including work in distributed computing, geometric world modeling, computer vision and user interfaces. Though the need for research in distributed computing, perception and interfaces is widely recognized, the importance of an explicit geometric world model for ubiquitous computing has not been well-articulated. This article elucidates the role of geometry in ubiquitous computing, offering example scenarios that require or benefit greatly from geometric knowledge, and describing four primary benefits of a geometric model View full abstract»

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  • Managing context data for smart spaces

    Page(s): 44 - 46
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    Describes our on-going efforts to construct a service infrastructure to support smart environments. We characterize “fusion services”, which extract and infer useful context information from sensor data, using evidential reasoning techniques. We specify sensing services as Bayesian networks and use information-theoretic algorithms to optimize the resources consumed by the rendering of a service. We define a “quality-of-information” metric to characterize sensing service performance. We have implemented an infrastructure for supporting a dynamic set of sensors and services in a smart space. Using this infrastructure and an IEEE 802.11 network, we implemented a probabilistic indoor location system that optimizes the number of sensors consulted when determining the location of a user while maintaining a high degree of accuracy View full abstract»

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  • Protocols for self-organization of a wireless sensor network

    Page(s): 16 - 27
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    We present a suite of algorithms for self-organization of wireless sensor networks in which there is a scalably large number of mainly static nodes with highly constrained energy resources. The protocols further support slow mobility by a subset of the nodes, energy-efficient routing, and formation of ad hoc subnetworks for carrying out cooperative signal processing functions among a set of the nodes View full abstract»

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  • Component-based software systems for smart environments

    Page(s): 60 - 61
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    The article focuses on the role component-based software may play in realizing smart environments. A scenario describes a future smart environment in a university campus setting. The scenario illustrates how software components might contribute to the various phases of development, deployment and use of smart environments. Key research areas identified include: development of component frameworks, component interface standards, addressing schemes, and protocols View full abstract»

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  • Environment management for hybrid user interfaces

    Page(s): 50 - 53
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    As computers proliferate, becoming smaller, more mobile, more powerful and more diverse, how will the ways in which we interact with them change? In this article, we describe research in developing “hybrid user interfaces” that tie together the diverse displays and interaction devices that a user may encounter in a mobile, shared environment. Controlling such a dynamically changing, heterogeneous mix of computers is a problem that we refer to as “environment management”. We sketch some ways in which publicizing semantic information about computational objects and tasks can make it possible to automate environment management operations, and we describe research testbeds we are developing within which to explore these ideas View full abstract»

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  • GPS-less low-cost outdoor localization for very small devices

    Page(s): 28 - 34
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    Instrumenting the physical world through large networks of wireless sensor nodes, particularly for applications like environmental monitoring of water and soil, requires that these nodes be very small, lightweight, untethered, and unobtrusive. The problem of localization, that is, determining where a given node is physically located in a network, is a challenging one, and yet extremely crucial for many of these applications. Practical considerations such as the small size, form factor, cost and power constraints of nodes preclude the reliance on GPS of all nodes in these networks. We review localization techniques and evaluate the effectiveness of a very simple connectivity metric method for localization in outdoor environments that makes use of the inherent RF communications capabilities of these devices. A fixed number of reference points in the network with overlapping regions of coverage transmit periodic beacon signals. Nodes use a simple connectivity metric, which is more robust to environmental vagaries, to infer proximity to a given subset of these reference points. Nodes localize themselves to the centroid of their proximate reference points. The accuracy of localization is then dependent on the separation distance between two-adjacent reference points and the transmission range of these reference points. Initial experimental results show that the accuracy for 90 percent of our data points is within one-third of the separation distance. However, future work is needed to extend the technique to more cluttered environments View full abstract»

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  • Ubiquitous sensing for smart and aware environments

    Page(s): 47 - 49
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    As computing technology continues to become increasingly pervasive and ubiquitous, we envision the development of environments that can sense what we are doing and support our daily activities. In this article, we outline our efforts toward building such environments and discuss the importance of a sensing and signal-understanding infrastructure that leads to awareness of what is happening in an environment and how it can best be supported. Such an infrastructure supports both high- and low-end data transmission and processing, while allowing for detailed interpretation, modeling and recognition from sensed information. We are currently prototyping several aware environments to aid in the development and study of such sensing and computation in real-world settings View full abstract»

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  • Wireless communications and coexistence for smart environments

    Page(s): 66 - 68
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    Technology is emerging that will support the pervasive deployment of small intelligent devices that serve their owner and communicate using wireless transmissions. Collectively, these devices would provide a smart environment. Before this vision can become a reality, significant challenges must be overcome in the design of access protocols, and in spectrum management policies. Some devices in a smart environment must be able to communicate, and all devices in a smart environment must be able to coexist without excessive mutual interference. This article discusses various methods of achieving these goals, and the fundamental trade-offs involved. Some of the alternative methods include the allocation of unlicensed spectrum for this purpose, establishment of an etiquette that constrains access protocol designs, adoption of a full standard for access protocols, and the creation of a spectrum band manager View full abstract»

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  • Using multiple devices simultaneously for display and control

    Page(s): 62 - 65
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    The Pebbles research project (http://www.cs.cmu.edu~pebbles) has been studying the use of hand-held personal digital assistants (PDAs) along with other kinds of hand-held computers, at the same time as other computing devices. A key focus of our research is that the hand-held computers are used both as output devices and as input devices to control the activities on the other computers. Our previous articles have described parts of the project in detail. The article presents four scenarios that illustrate some of the capabilities we are already investigating View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Magazine ceased publication in 2001. The current retitled publication is IEEE Wireless Communications.

Full Aims & Scope