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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Aug. 2000

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • The 1999 Medical Imaging Conference

    Page(s): c3 - c5
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • New, faster, image-based scatter correction for 3D PET

    Page(s): 1587 - 1594
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    Reports on a new numerical implementation of the single-scatter simulation scatter correction algorithm for 3D PET. Its primary advantage over tile original implementation is that it is a much faster calculation, currently requiring less than 30 sec execution time per bed position for an adult thorax, thus making clinical whole-body scatter correction more practical. The new code runs on a single processor workstation CPU instead of a vector processor array, making it highly portable. It is modular and independent of any particular reconstruction code. The computed scatter contribution is now intrinsically scaled relative to the emission image and no longer requires normalization to the scatter tails in the sinogram when all activity is contained within the field of view, making it more robust against noise. The new algorithm has been verified against the original code on both phantom and human thorax studies. Initial results indicate that scatter correction may be accurately performed following, instead of prior to, either 3D reprojection or Fourier rebinning. Some evidence is presented that the single-scatter operator, when applied to an uncorrected emission image provides reasonable compensation for multiple scatter. View full abstract»

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  • Conference Author Index

    Page(s): 1681
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Reconstruction of cone-beam projections from Compton scattered data

    Page(s): 1543 - 1550
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    The problem of reconstructing a 3D source distribution from Compton scattered data can be separated into two tasks. First, the angular distribution of line projections at different observation points within the detector volume are reconstructed. Then, reconstruction techniques are applied to the resulting cone-beam projections to synthesize the 3D source distribution. This paper describes an analytic solution for the first, yet unsolved, task. Building on the convolution theorem in spherical coordinates, a back-projection and inverse filtering technique in terms of spherical harmonics is formulated, The rotation invariance of the point response of the back-projection in spherical coordinates is proved; and the corresponding inverse filter function is derived. The resulting filtered back-projection algorithm then consists of a summation over all detected events of fixed and known event response functions. Measurement errors, which for Compton scatter detectors are typically different for each detected event, can easily be accounted for in the proposed algorithm. The computational cost of the algorithm is O(NT2), where N is the number of detected events and π/T is the desired angular resolution View full abstract»

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  • Recent results of the TierPET scanner

    Page(s): 1665 - 1669
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    At the Forschungszentnum Julich a high resolution positron emission tomograph (TierPET) for imaging small laboratory animals, especially rats, has been constructed. The scanner is based on arrays of YAP crystals. As a special feature the detector distances can be varied continuously from 16 to 58 cm. Due to the variable detector distances the performance of the scanner has to be evaluated in various configurations. Special attention was paid to dedicated data acquisition protocols and adequate applications with regard to the system sensitivity View full abstract»

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  • Automatic registration of postmortem brain slices to MRI reference volume

    Page(s): 1607 - 1613
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    A new strategy to register each slice of the postmortem brain to anatomically corresponding in-vivo MRI slices is presented. The approach relies on a recursive reslicing of the FVIRI volume using non-linear polynomial transformations. Simulation studies to validate the approach and results using real data are presented. The results suggest the feasibility and practicability of second- and third-order polynomials to register postmortem images on a slice-by-slice basis to corresponding MRI sections. Using this method, it is possible to investigate the pathology of a disease through routinely acquired MRIs and postmortem brain images View full abstract»

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  • Transmission CT reconstruction for offset fan beam collimation

    Page(s): 1602 - 1606
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    Offset fan beam collimation has shown to be an effective means of obtaining transmission CT (TCT) data for SPECT attenuation correction. This paper compared three methods for handling the truncation problem and reconstructing this TCT data: iterative Os-FM and filtered backprojection (FBP) with two different pre-processing approaches. The first approach (FBP1) extends the fan beam projection by sinogram interpolation, and the second (FBP2) uses parallel beam rebinning. With a TCT spatial resolution phantom, FBP2 demonstrated a small degree of resolution loss which was equalized across methods after post-reconstruction filtering. With a thorax phantom, all methods performed adequately at high count level; however, at low count level, FBPI showed degraded image quality due to its handling of zero count projection bins. This finding was corroborated in patient images. It is concluded that at practical count levels, the iterative OS-FM method offers a clear advantage in TCT image quality compared to FBP methods View full abstract»

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  • Algebraic PET image reconstruction with pre-computed reconstruction operators using subsets of sensitivity functions

    Page(s): 1670 - 1675
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    Algebraic reconstruction methods have been successfully used to improve quality of positron emission tomography (PET) images by accurate modeling of measurement system, but they have computational burden. The authors propose a fast PET image reconstruction method based on an algebraic technique. In this method, reconstruction operators are pre-computed approximately using subsets of sensitivity functions. The subsets contain the sensitivity functions that contribute significantly to each point to be reconstructed. The proposed method was applied to simulated data and experimental data for the ECAT EXACT HR+ (Siemens/CTI) scanner operating in 2D mode. These results show that the proposed method produces images with almost the same quality as the conventional algebraic methods do and has a similar computation time to the filtered backprojection method View full abstract»

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  • FPGA based front-end electronics for a high resolution PET scanner

    Page(s): 1676 - 1680
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    A high resolution PET scanner requiring processing electronics for 936 block technology channels and just under sixty-thousand crystal elements has been developed. With the advances in flexibility, number of gates, lower costs and speed of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), an FPGA implementation of the front-end processing electronics was chosen over the traditional discrete logic or Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). The FPGA architecture reduced the development time and risks compared to a mask-based ASIC architecture while keeping costs and electronics packing density comparable. The extensive use FPGAs enables much faster circuit realization and a very efficient logic utilization by allowing re-configuration of the electronics functionality to support system setup, self-diagnostics, and several calibration modes for detector setup. Logic realized within the FPGAs performs the crystal selection, energy qualification, time correction, depth of interaction determination, and event counting functions. Since the FPGAs are in-circuit re-configurable (ICR), the functionality of the electronics is easily modified to support the different modes of operation. Thus the development time is reduced as well as the amount of electronics required, saving board area, power consumption and costs View full abstract»

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  • A fast algorithm for computer aided collimation gamma camera (CACAO)

    Page(s): 1541 - 1542
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    The computer aided collimation gamma camera is aimed at breaking down the resolution sensitivity trade-off of the conventional parallel hole collimator. It uses larger and longer holes, having an added linear movement at the acquisition sequence. A dedicated algorithm including shift and sum, deconvolution, parabolic filtering and rotation is described. Examples of reconstruction are given. This work shows that a simple and fast algorithm, based on a diagonal dominant approximation of the problem can be derived. Its gives a practical solution to the CACAO reconstruction problem View full abstract»

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  • Effect of shielding the radioactivity outside the field of view on image quality in a dual head coincidence [PET camera]

    Page(s): 1561 - 1566
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    Limited count rate ability and open geometry make the image quality obtained from dual head cameras very sensitive to radioactivity outside the camera field of view. The spatial distribution of non true events, scatter and randoms, originating from radioactivity outside the FOV was investigated. The image quality quantified with the noise equivalent count rate, improved by up to 58% as a consequence of shielding. Radioactivity in the first 10 cm outside the FOV was found to contribute most significantly to the detected events. A modular and easily movable patient body shield was designed View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of a data acquisition system for SPECT (PET)

    Page(s): 1655 - 1659
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    A fully digital data acquisition (DAQ) system for a cylindrical (NaI(Tl)) SPECT camera has been developed and tested. This system digitizes pulses of the scintillation events from the closest (7 or 5) PMTs to the interaction point. The digitized pulse waveforms are processed to obtain estimates of amplitude and time of arrival. The authors describe various processing methods based on both simulated and real data. The results obtained from a set of three neighboring PMTs using 99mTc was 5.2 as std. dev. in timing resolution, 12.6% energy resolution and about 7 μs computing time per pulse View full abstract»

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  • A Monte Carlo simulation study to investigate the potential of diffraction enhanced breast imaging

    Page(s): 1581 - 1586
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    Recent studies have demonstrated that image contrast in X-ray mammography could be enhanced by making use of both the transmitted and scattered radiation. At small angles coherently scattered photons undergo interference effects which can be used as a means of tissue characterisation. Several form factor data from X-ray diffraction measurements are now available. The authors implemented these data in the EGS4 code so as to use realistic breast tissues (both tumour and healthy tissue) for a Monte Carlo simulation. A breast imaging system which makes use of a combined scatter/transmission signal has been modelled. Results of the authors' simulation confirmed that the contrast between healthy and tumour tissue provided by small-angle scatter radiation is greater than that of primary image for object thicknesses of mammographic interest. Analysis of beam polychromaticity effects in coherent scattering showed that material discrimination is still possible with the conventional X-ray sources currently used. In the design of a diffraction enhanced breast imaging system signal-to-noise ratio performance must be considered in order to fully assess the increase in diagnostic capability effected by this approach View full abstract»

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  • A new reconstruction methodology for computerized tomography: FRECT (Fourier regularized computed tomography)

    Page(s): 1595 - 1601
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    Presents a new regularization method for tomography, which combines features from the filtered backprojection algorithm and regularization theory. The preliminary results shown here are extremely encouraging, and seem to indicate that a substantial improvement of the stability of the reconstruction and of quality of the image can be expected. The authors learn from the Fourier Slice theorem that constraints obtained from the measurements can be read off the Fourier domain. The regularization constraints should act beyond the experimental area, so as to avoid conflicts between these two types of constraints. In addition, such regularization constraints can clearly be interpreted in terms of filtering or Point Spread Function, which makes the reconstructed images more legible. In order to account for the full complexity of the physical relationship between the distribution of interest and the data acquired by the camera, more refined models of the acquisition system and the underlying physical processes should be produced and tested. This is currently under study, and will form the subject of further publications View full abstract»

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  • Scatter and cross-talk corrections in simultaneous Tc-99m/I-123 brain SPECT using constrained factor analysis and artificial neural networks

    Page(s): 1573 - 1580
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    Simultaneous imaging of Tc-99m and I-123 would have a high clinical potential in the assessment of brain perfusion (Tc-99m) and neurotransmission (I-123) but is hindered by cross-talk between the two radionuclides. Monte Carlo simulations of 15 different dual-isotope studies were performed using a digital brain phantom. Several physiologic Tc-99m and I-123 uptake patterns were modeled in the brain structures. Two methods were considered to correct for cross-talk from both scattered and unscattered photons: constrained spectral factor analysis (SFA) and artificial neural networks (ANN). The accuracy and precision of reconstructed pixel values within several brain structures were compared to those obtained with an energy windowing method (WSA). In I-123 images, mean bias was close to 10% in all structures for SFA and ANN and between 14% (in the caudate nucleus) and 25% (in the cerebellum) for WSA. Tc-99m activity was overestimated by 35% in the cortex and 53% in the caudate nucleus with WSA, but by less than 9% in all structures with SFA and ANN. SFA and ANN performed well even in the presence of high-energy I-123 photons. The accuracy was greatly improved by incorporating the contamination into the SFA model or in the learning phase for ANN. SFA and ANN are promising approaches to correct for cross-talk in simultaneous Tc-99m/I-123 SPECT View full abstract»

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  • Scintillator identification and performance characteristics of LSO and GSO PSPMT detector modules combined through common X and Y resistive dividers

    Page(s): 1640 - 1645
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    Combining signal channels from detector arrays can reduce complexity and minimize cost but, potentially, at the expense of other performance parameters. The authors evaluated a method that reduces the number of signals by combining the anode outputs of three position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMTs) through a common X resistive charge divider and three individual Y resistive charge dividers. Field flood images at 511 keV of two LSO modules combined with a single GSO module were compared to images obtained when the modules were illuminated separately. At moderate count rates only a small reduction in position detection accuracy was observed in the combined tubes. Event mis-positioning was minimal for total count rates <300,000 cps. At higher rates, pulse pileup degraded accuracy. Delayed charge integration, a method for identifying scintillators by differences in their light decay times, allowed the LSO and GSO arrays to be distinguished from one another and also reduced the effect of pulse pileup. Thus, combining PSPMTs anodes through common X and common Y resistive dividers may be useful in reducing signal number from PSPMT detector modules while maintaining good event localization and scintillator identification accuracy at reasonable event rates View full abstract»

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  • Covariance approximation for fast and accurate computation of channelized Hotelling observer statistics

    Page(s): 1567 - 1572
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    Describes a method for computing linear observer statistics for maximum a posteriori (MAP) reconstructions of PET images. The method is based on a theoretical approximation for the mean and covariance of MAP reconstructions. In particular, the authors derive here a closed form for the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) statistic applied to 2D MAP images. The theoretical analysis models both the Poission statistics of PET data and the inhomogeneity of tracer uptake. The authors show reasonably good correspondence between these theoretical results and Monte Carlo studies. The accuracy and low computational cost of the approximation allow the authors to analyze the observer performance over a wide range of operating conditions and parameter settings for the MAP reconstruction algorithm View full abstract»

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  • Exact rotational weights for coincidence imaging with a continuously rotating dual-headed gamma camera

    Page(s): 1660 - 1664
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    In Dual Head Coincidence Imaging (DHCI), rotational weights must be applied to detected coincidence events to compensate for varying dwell-times. The dwell-time depends on both the transaxial and axial distance coordinates describing a coincidence line in parallel projection space. An exact formula is derived for the dwell-time of a DHCI camera with continuous detector rotation given a coincidence line described in parallel projection coordinates. The formula is verified by simulation. In addition, the boundary of the region where no data are measured is described. This missing-data region differs from that of a cylindrical PVI system whose diameter is the same as the head separation of the DHCI system and whose axial extent is the same as the axial dimension of the rotating planar detectors in the DHCI system View full abstract»

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  • An integrated PET-SPECT small animal imager: preliminary results

    Page(s): 1537 - 1540
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    The authors have successfully built and characterised a small animal PET based on 4 rotating detectors with a spatial resolution <2 mm over its field of view and a sensitivity of 640 cps/μCi at the centre. The scanner is based on four matrices of 400 YAP:Ce finger crystals (2×2×30 mm3 each) coupled to Position Sensitive PhotoMultipliers (Hamamatsu R2486-06.) The authors have now applied two high resolution collimators to two opposite detectors, hence realising an integrated PET-SPECT scanner for small animals. The collimators are made of lead with 20 mm long, 0.6 mm hexagonal holes with 0.15 mm septa. The read-out and data acquisition system are handled by NIM-CAMAC standard electronics. The Field Of View (FOV) of the tomograph has a diameter of 4 cm and an axial length of 4 cm in both PET and SPECT configuration which is appropriate for mice and rat studies View full abstract»

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  • Accurate image reconstruction using DOI information and its implications for the development of compact PET systems

    Page(s): 1551 - 1560
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    The authors study the use of a computationally efficient sinogram restoration (SR) approach for reconstruction of 2D PET data acquired by systems with depth-of-interaction capability. When the effects of scatter and randoms are ignored, the authors' preliminary results show that the proposed approach can yield images of excellent resolution uniformity for a hypothetical compact system with a field-of-view (FOV) as large as 98% of the detector-ring size. In comparison with images generated by the conventional rebinning approach, the resolution uniformity across the FOV in the image produced by incorporating SR is improved by a factor of about 10, and the spatial resolution at the edge of the FOV is improved by a factor of about 2.2. Moreover, the SR approach produces better intensity recovery and source positioning. Integration of the use of DOI detectors and SR reconstruction may thus provide a new way for developing compact PET systems. For a given FOV, such a compact system can produce images of quality better than those obtained by a conventional system that employs a detector ring approximately 50% larger than the compact system. The much reduced detector-ring size of the compact system can greatly reduce production cost, improve image resolution and resolution uniformity, and increase system sensitivity View full abstract»

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  • The effect of contraction and twist on myocardial PET and SPECT image resolution: a mathematical phantom study

    Page(s): 1646 - 1654
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    Motion of the heart blurs cardiac PET and SPECT images. A mathematical phantom was constructed that models the contractile and non-uniform twisting motions of the left ventricular myocardium as the heart beats. The phantom was used to estimate the effect of normal heart motion on ECT image resolution and quantitation in regions of interest (ROIs). The movement of mid-myocardial points was tracked, from which motion blurring was computed. Clinical PET resolution of 7 mm was degraded to 10-12 mm FWHM in the direction of motion and clinical SPECT resolution of 14 mm to 15-16 mm FWHM. Contractile motion was greater near the base and twisting motion was greater near the apex. The blur due to both motions was equivalent to 7-10 mm FWHM Gaussian smoothing in the direction of motion. Activity weight coefficients characterized how activity in source model ROIs contributed to activity in short and long axis ROIs. The effect of contraction was dependent on whether the ROIs were from short or long axis slices and on the ROI location. The activity weights for short axis slices showed the effect of twist in blurring activity to adjacent angular sectors. This effect was not seen for constant thickness long axis slices because the angular range of the slices was greater, particularly near the apex. The contrast of perfusion defects in short axis ROIs was decreased by cardiac twist. A mathematical heart phantom that models contractile and twisting motions is useful for investigating the effect of these motions on cardiac ECT studies View full abstract»

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  • Effect of detector scatter on the decoding accuracy of a DOI detector module

    Page(s): 1614 - 1619
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    Monte Carlo simulation was used to study the effect detector scatter has on the decoding accuracy of a depth of interaction (DOI) detector module and on the quantitative imaging characteristics of a DOI detector system. The detector module consisted of a 4×4 array of detector units, Each unit consisted of a 2×2 block of 2×2×20 mm LSO crystals. The detector units use light sharing and ratio information to estimate DOI. The detector system consisted of 24 detector modules. Positioning methods using different criteria to select the first interaction point in a detector module to improve decoding accuracy were investigated (e.g., maximum energy, second maximum, minimum DOI). Selecting the detector unit corresponding to the minimum DOI provided the best decoding accuracy for photons entering perpendicular to the detector. However, for photons entering at large angles of incidence (e.g., 30 degrees) the maximum energy selection criterion performed the best. The average DOI offset due to scatter within a detector unit was 1.7 mm. Detector scatter only had a minimal effect on the image resolution of the simulated DOI detector system. It had a slightly larger effect on the quantitative recovery of small regions of interest View full abstract»

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  • Regularization parameter selection for Bayesian reconstruction of attenuation maps

    Page(s): 1625 - 1633
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    Previously we developed algorithms to obtain transmission reconstructions from truncated projections and from emission data without transmission measurements. The optimal basis set derived from “knowledge set” was used to create an approximate attenuation map, and the expansion coefficients were estimated using optimization algorithms. Since a truncated expansion does not represent an image precisely, and the projections of the basis vectors are not orthogonal, the estimated coefficients may be unstable in the presence of systematic errors. In addition to this, a nonlinear problem of reconstruction of an attenuation map from emission data has a nonunique solution. A constraint based on distribution of the expansion coefficients is considered in this paper to regularize the estimation problems. The parameter selection methods based on different assumptions are applied to find the optimum regularization parameter. The selected regularization parameter obtained from a projection data set has been shown to provide satisfactory reconstruction results View full abstract»

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  • Study of light collection in multi-crystal detectors

    Page(s): 1634 - 1639
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    Phoswich detectors are currently being considered by a number of investigators for depth-of-interaction measurement in PET and multi-modality emission/transmission imaging. Many parameters affect light collection and S/N ratio from such detectors made of crystals having different emission wavelength, refractive index and light output. In this work, the effects of crystal intrinsic and extrinsic properties on light propagation and light collection efficiency were studied. Avalanche photodiode (APD) and photomultiplier tube (PMT) readouts were used to study the light output at different wavelengths. Experiments and simulations with DETECT97 have shown that light collection efficiency and energy resolution degrade steadily with distance from photodetector, mainly as a result of additional crystal interfaces. Simulations indicate that ground surfaces and high reflectivity diffuse reflectors maximise light output, but measurements tend to show that similar results are obtained with polished surfaces due to the presence of crystal defects. An excitation band at 400 nm in GSO is found to absorb a fraction of the light from LSO. This effect is more significant with the PMT photodetector, which has its maximum sensitivity in the 400-nm range. Inconsistent results observed for LSO and YSO are shown to be compatible with the presence of light scattering within these crystals View full abstract»

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  • New photostimulable phosphor materials for digital radiography

    Page(s): 1620 - 1624
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    Intense photostimulated luminescence (PSL) is observed, for the first time, in X-ray-irradiated KBr:Eu and KClxBr1-x Eu phosphor ceramics. The peak in the stimulation spectrum for the PSL red-shifted with increasing the Br content of KClxBr1-x:Eu phosphor ceramics. The intensity of the PSL with a peak of about 420 nm increases linearly with increasing X-ray irradiation dose over a wide range. The KBr:Eu phosphor exhibites better fading characteristics at room temperature (RT) in the dark, comparing with that of BaFBr:Eu phosphor. The mechanism of fading of the PSL is also discussed View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

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