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Engineering Management, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date Aug 2000

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Displaying Results 1 - 10 of 10
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  • Drivers for software development method usage

    Page(s): 360 - 369
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    In this research, the authors examine factors affecting the use of product development methods. Based on established behavioral theories, they develop and test a model that can explain, and hence predict, the extent of use of development methods. Although their model can be adapted to any development process, they apply it to software development. To test their model, they examine the combined effects of a number of important usage factors that contribute to the depth and breadth of use of two software development approaches: the waterfall model and prototyping. Two main constructs, process quality and facilitating conditions, are found to be the drivers of method usage. The dominating “facilitating conditions” and “process quality” indicators vary from one method to another product quality was not found to be a statistically significant factor in explaining usage. The authors' results are consistent with the view taken by the software process improvement movement, i.e., that a quality process will result in a quality product View full abstract»

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  • Moving-window spectral neural-network feedforward process control

    Page(s): 393 - 402
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    Unlike reactive feedback control, feedforward control is a proactive method by which information about a measurable disturbance is fed, ahead of time, to the manipulated inputs of a process, the output of which is to be controlled, so as to counteract the effect of the disturbance. Discretized observations on the process variable are indexed to form a time series. A time-series model is fitted to the series. The ultrahigh signal-to-noise ratio fitted values are examined by a neural network, for patterns which detect when the future process is expected to become out of control. The neural-network diagnosis forms the basis for corrective action, prior to the process becoming out of control. In principle, this goes beyond SPC to achieve a process which is never actually out of control View full abstract»

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  • The effect of straight- and U-shaped lines on quality

    Page(s): 321 - 334
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    Straight lines and U-lines are two commonly used layouts for production lines. To date, no research has studied the effect of these layouts on the quality of the products produced by the line. This paper examines U-shaped lines and straight lines from the viewpoint of their effect on quality, which is organized into Juran's quality planning, quality control, and quality improvement categories. Two or more quantitative measures are developed for each quality category, the effect of the shape of the line on the values of these measures is carefully analyzed, and the implications for problems of realistic size are discussed. The authors find that U-shaped lines outperform straight lines in all of the aspects of quality they examined View full abstract»

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  • A field study of the adoption of software process innovations by information systems professionals

    Page(s): 295 - 308
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    With spiraling demand for applications software, the adoption of software development process innovations by systems developers represents a problem of considerable magnitude confronting information systems managers. We report the results of a study focused on the issue of facilitating the movement of experienced COBOL programmers to become users of the C programming language. The study, conducted at a major financial services firm, is based upon a behavioral model of the acceptance of innovations that derives its foundations from research in social psychology, information technology acceptance, and innovation adoption. The model posits a relationship between beliefs about a target new technology and the subsequent adoption of the technology. Beliefs, in turn, are hypothesized to be influenced by a variety of external factors such as training and individual characteristics. Results suggest that certain beliefs do play a central role in determining acceptance behavior. Results also point to external factors such as organizational tenure, prior technical knowledge, training experiences, and perceived job insecurity that have significant effects on these beliefs. Theoretical and practical implications that follow are discussed View full abstract»

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  • The changing position of women in engineering worldwide

    Page(s): 345 - 359
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    The preliminary results from a research project on the changing position of women engineers worldwide are presented and discussed. These results include data on women engineers in a number of different countries for the period 1960-1997. They were obtained from a survey of 130 engineering institutions in 55 different countries. As an introduction to the presentation of these results, some of the problems facing women engineers in industry and education are considered. The data are discussed in detail; a number of hypotheses to explain the data are proposed, and further investigations and additional data requirements to allow these hypotheses to be verified or disproved are identified. These hypotheses include increases in the percentage of women engineers resulting from the effects of changes in the political system, convergence of the images of women and engineers, and generally good conditions for women and their involvement in public life View full abstract»

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  • A soft-systems methodology approach for product and process innovation

    Page(s): 379 - 392
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    Soft-systems methodology (SSM) has been recommended as a tool for scientifically evaluating complex environments. One such environment is the development of organizational processes and products delivered by organizations. This paper proposes a methodology for organizational product and process innovation based on SSM theory incorporating quality function deployment (QFD) and IDEF0 (integrated definition functional modelling tool) techniques. The methodology relies on a series of phases that elicit information from complex and amorphous real-world practices, processes, and information, and develops models of these systems. The paper illustrates the utility of the methodology and tools using a case example: development of an organizational decision support system used to justify strategically important technologies for the enterprise View full abstract»

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  • Developing performance metrics for a design engineering department

    Page(s): 309 - 320
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    Performance metrics can be effectively used by design engineering organizations, to improve competitiveness, highlight areas needing improvement, help to focus design emphasis on the customer's desires and priorities, and build teamwork between engineering and the other functions of the corporation. This paper describes one organization's successful implementation of performance metrics for mechanical and electronic design View full abstract»

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  • “If only we'd known sooner” developing knowledge of organizational changes earlier in the product development process

    Page(s): 335 - 344
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    Managers of canceled innovation projects may berate themselves retrospectively for not having known about downstream organizational changes earlier in the development process. The assumption that knowledge of changes can and should be captured in the early stages of product development is prevalent in both research and practice. This paper reports on a field study of 13 innovation projects in two Fortune 500 corporations. It details 51 change initiatives that the projects challenge their organizations to undertake. Findings provide insight into the difficulties of capturing knowledge of downstream organizational changes. The paper presents a model in which informational knowledge of what new activities are required to implement a new product must be complemented with interpretive knowledge of how those activities relate to the organization and strategy of the firm View full abstract»

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  • An individual-based description of learning within an organization

    Page(s): 370 - 378
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    The authors examine the problem of selecting a model for an individual-based representation of learning within a population of learners. Individual-based representations can be used to create distributions of learning patterns in the workplace. This is an alternate theoretical view of learning in organizations whereby performance is a unique attribute of each individual within the organization. Several published learning curve models are fitted to 3874 episodes of individual performance improvement. They conclude that a three-parameter hyperbolic function outperforms the other models for this application. This approach provides managers with: (1) distributions of between-worker variability with respect to rate of learning, prior learning, and steady-state production rates; (2) a quantitative measure of workforce learning that can provide information useful for workforce task-assignments; and (3) a methodological framework for selecting a most preferred individual model such that workforce distributions may be constructed and provide such information. Results indicate that workers perform in a region between the two extremes of fast improvement to a low level of productivity and slow improvement to a high level of productivity. Also, workers with more prior experience tend to have a higher steady-state productivity level View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Management of technical functions such as research, development, and engineering in industry, government, university, and other settings. Emphasis is on studies carried on within an organization to help in decision making or policy formation for RD&E. 

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Rajiv Sabherwal
Sam M. Walton College of Business, University of Arkansas