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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2  Part 1 • Date April 2000

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 72
  • Network shared memory framework for the BELLE data acquisition control system

    Page(s): 267 - 271
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB)  

    We have developed a framework called network shared memory (NSM) to control the data acquisition of the Belle experiment at the KEK B-factory. The NSM provides a distributed shared memory, along with request and message type protocols. A synchronized operation of the data acquisition system is possible using the NSM framework. For central monitoring and recording, information on the detector conditions is collected using the shared memory from devices connected to a network segment. We have built a reliable system which has been successfully implemented into the Belle data acquisition scheme. It has been in full operation for half a year and we anticipate several years of successful running. View full abstract»

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  • Conference Author Index

    Page(s): 386 - 388
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Performance and scalability of the back-end sub-system in the ATLAS DAQ/EF prototype

    Page(s): 244 - 249
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (356 KB)  

    The DAQ group of the future ATLAS experiment has developed a prototype system based on the trigger/DAQ architecture described in the ATLAS Technical Proposal to support studies of the full system functionality, architecture as well as available hardware and software technologies. One sub-system of this prototype is the back-end which encompasses the software needed to configure, control and monitor the DAQ, but excludes the processing and transportation of physics data. The back-end consists of a number of components including run control, configuration databases and message reporting system. The software has been developed using standard, external software technologies such as OO databases and CORBA. It has been ported to several C++ compilers and operating systems including Solaris, Linux, WNT and LynxOS. This paper gives an overview of the back-end software, its performance, scalability and current status View full abstract»

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  • The level 1 central tracking trigger for the DØ upgrade

    Page(s): 381 - 385
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (256 KB)  

    The DØ level 1 tracking trigger uses data from the scintillating fiber tracker, the central and forward preshower detectors, the muon system and the calorimeter. Tracks are found in the scintillating fiber tracker with transverse momentum greater than 1.5 GeV/c. The tracks are matched with hits in the central preshower detector and the muon system for electron and muon tagging. Preshower dusters are also used for identifying photon candidates. These multi detector triggers are then sent to the level 1 Trigger Framework where they are further combined with the calorimeter to create the final level 1 trigger. This paper presents an overview of the level trigger system with emphasis on the use of large programmable logic devices (PLD's) in an extensible system architecture that allows complex, multi detector triggers View full abstract»

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  • RT99. Eleventh Conference on Real-Time Computer Applications in Nuclear, Particle, and Plasma Physics

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    Real time computer applications in nuclear, particle and plasma physics are discussed including: Data acquisition; control systems; software and software development; data transfers and fast networks; distributed computing and trigger systems View full abstract»

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  • Data acquisition system for the Belle experiment

    Page(s): 56 - 60
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB)  

    We built a data acquisition system for the Belle experiment at the KEK B-factory. The system is designed to record the signals from the detectors at 500 Hz trigger rate with a less than 10% dead time fraction. A typical event size is 30 kbyte, which corresponds to a data transfer rate of 15 Mbyte/s. Main components are two kinds of detector readout systems, an event builder, an online computer farm and a data storage system. The system has been reliably in operation at the design performance for a half year. We have completed cosmic-ray data taking for 2.5 months and have started physics data taking on Jun. 1, 1999 View full abstract»

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  • Real-time diagnostic and performance monitoring in a DAQ environment

    Page(s): 162 - 165
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    This paper describes hardware architectures and software solutions for real-time performance monitoring in a data acquisition system. A specific hardware design allows a software package to fully characterise the timing of the data taking process with negligible overhead. The measured performances in a field application are presented View full abstract»

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  • The detector control system for BABAR

    Page(s): 181 - 185
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB)  

    The hardware/software system for the control of the BABAR detector at PEP-II is described. The contributions of a large and diverse collaboration were channeled into a standard hardware selection (VME crate, embedded CPU, fieldbus, etc.) and a uniform software environment, EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System). These choices, with a judicious naming convention in place, allowed a distributed and modular development of the control system, which was then integrated within the Online System in the Interaction Hall. The design of the software to complement the EPICS layer is presented. The coordination of controls activities with the rest of the Online is overseen by Run Control; the interface and functionality that controls supports is described. The archival storage, retrieval and analysis/display of the process control data is described, as well as the interface that allows access to this data with the same API as for our physics data. We also describe our modifications to the online-wide messaging system (“cmlog”) and our interface to the accelerator, PEP-II. Finally, we present our operational experiences with the control system View full abstract»

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  • The LANL Neutron-Science-Center time-of-flight/position-sensitive-detect module: status and progress

    Page(s): 151 - 153
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    This paper describes the progress and current status of a joint collaboration between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Manuel Lujan Neutron Science Center (MLNSC) to develop and implement a Time-of-flight (TOF)/Position-Sensitive-Detector (PSD) VXI-based C-size neutron-event data-collection module. The LANL module, based on the ANL-developed hardware which uses field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and analog-input-signal conditioning modules for a flexible topology capable of accepting either eight or 16 input channels, has been programmed and modified to incorporate more LANL-specific features such as improved peak detection, 24-bit time stamps, and 16-bit channel identification numbers which are all part of a 64-bit event record (2 by 32-bits wide). Using a backplane 10-MHz clock, timing resolution is ±50 ns. The module uses two, frame first-in-first-out buffers (FIFOs), each 2-kwords deep, to accumulate event data at up to 330 kEvents/sec during a frame until the host computer can read it out. One FIFO is read while the other is being filled. The module does not use the ANL token-passing configuration for accessing data. Rather, it uses direct logical-address and register-based addressing modes. To interface with analog signals from the neutron detectors, the module incorporates eight 72-pin single-inline-memory-module-size plug-in boards, called SIMs, which contain differential receivers, analog threshold comparators, and 8-bit analog-to-digital converters. A total of 16-analog channels are available if used in TOF mode, or eight channels if used in PSD mode View full abstract»

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  • The Belle event building system

    Page(s): 61 - 64
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (204 KB)  

    We have built a barrel-shifter type event builder for the Belle experiment and operated it successfully. This is the first experience applying the barrel-shifter type event builder to the real experiment. The type of our event builder is a global-traffic control. The Belle event builder is required to be scalable up to 11 source nodes (detector readout subsystems) and six destination nodes (online computer farm subsystems). The average event size is estimated to be 30 kbyte and maximum trigger rate is 500 Hz. This event builder has been operated with full detectors since Dec. 1998. We have shown that the barrel-shifter type event builder is applicable for this size of experiment View full abstract»

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  • The NA48 LKr calorimeter readout electronics

    Page(s): 136 - 141
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (332 KB)  

    The NA48 experiment at the CERN SPS accelerator is making a measurement of the direct CP violation parameter ε'/ε by comparing the four rates of decay of KS and KL into 2π0 and π+π-. To reconstruct the decays into 2π0 the information from the almost 13500 channels of a quasi-homogeneous liquid krypton electromagnetic calorimeter is used. The readout electronics of the calorimeter has been designed to provide a dynamic range from a few MeV to about 50 GeV energy deposition per cell, and to sustain a high rate of incident particles. The system is made by cold charge preamplifiers (working at 120°K), low-noise fast shapers followed by digitizer electronics at 40 MHz sampling rate that employs a gain switching technique to expand the dynamic range, where the gain can be selected for each sample individually (i.e. every 25 ns). To reduce the amount of data collected the system contains a zero suppression circuit based on halo expansion View full abstract»

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  • A hardware/software environment for real-time data acquisition and control

    Page(s): 132 - 135
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (224 KB)  

    A data acquisition framework based on a RT-Linux host and several embedded processors is presented. A Constant Velocity Mossbauer Spectrometer with controlled temperature sweep is shown as real experimental application. The hardware platform consists of a standard personal computer (PC) supporting several dedicated custom boards. Each board has a microcontroller and additional hardware to interface with the experiment. A simple real-time kernel with a preemptive scheduling scheme was implemented for the microcontroller boards. Tasks are assigned to each stand-alone board during the initialization step. The PC runs the Linux operating system, with its real time extension RT-Linux. The flow of data to and from the boards is implemented with real-time tasks through real-time FIFOs in an event-driven basis. The proposed structure dramatically simplifies the implementation of sophisticated user interfaces, using high level languages like Tcl/Tk or Java, for graphical and remote applications, without degrading real-time performance View full abstract»

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  • A universal system for laboratory data acquisition and control

    Page(s): 154 - 157
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB)  

    A highly distributed system for laboratory test and experiment monitoring and control is presented. The SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) approach, as typically found in the industrial environment, was followed to base this design, leading to a rigidly structured architecture which proved to be highly manageable and robust. Ultimately, a powerful laboratory aid tool was the result of a virtuous combination of a sound modularity concept with a communication mechanism based on the CANopen high-level protocol serving a virtual instrumentation strategy View full abstract»

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  • A PMC based ADC card for CMS tracker readout

    Page(s): 158 - 161
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (296 KB)  

    The tracking system of the CMS detector at the LHC employs Front End Driver (FED) cards to digitise, buffer and sparsify analogue data arriving via optical links from on detector pipeline chips. This paper describes a prototype version of the FED based upon the popular commercial PCI bus Mezzanine Card (PMC) form factor. The FED-PMC consists of an 8 channel, 9 bit ADC, card, providing a 1 MByte data buffer and operating at the LHC design frequency of 40 MHz. The core of the card is a re-programmable FPGA which allows the functionality of the card to be conveniently modified. The card is supplied with a comprehensive library of C routines. The PMC form factor allows the card to be plugged onto a wide variety of processor carrier boards and even directly into PCI based PCs. The flexibility of the FPGA based design permits the card to be used in a variety of ADC based applications View full abstract»

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  • PuMa, the first fully digital pulsar machine

    Page(s): 91 - 98
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    Pulsars are neutron stars, rapidly rotating remains of supernova explosions, emitting bundles of broadband electromagnetic radiation. Researching these signals yields tests for fundamental physics theories and insight in the evolution of stars. To carry out pulsar observations, two hurdles have to be overcome. Typically, the signal-to-noise ratio is poor, requiring long observations and large bandwidths. Next there is dispersion, causing the pulsating signals to smear out and calls for narrow signal bands. Using many parallel narrow signal bands resolves this dilemma. Traditionally, pulsar machines use tens of parallel (analog) heterodyne receivers. Though impractical, it is desirable to have many more receivers. PuMa, the first Dutch pulsar machine, uses digital signal processing to split the incoming signal in up to thousands of narrow bands. The processor based design also increases flexibility as it allows different observational modes by loading the appropriate software into the signal processors. In total 192 SHARC processors (ADSP 21062) deliver the processing capacity. For PuMa a general purpose 6-processor SHARC board was developed, optimized for concurrent use of data busses. Other parts are commercially available components and all is joined in a VME environment. Mid 1998 PuMa was installed at the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope in the Netherlands and its commissioning is completed View full abstract»

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  • Pattern recognition algorithms on FPGAs and CPUs for the ATLAS LVL2 trigger

    Page(s): 362 - 366
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (300 KB)  

    Recent studies of the level-two (LVL2) trigger of the ATLAS detector show that it will be possible to run the trigger algorithms at high luminosity with a reasonable number of general-purpose processors, using a sequential selection scheme and guidance from the Region-of-Interest (RoI) provided by the LVL1 trigger. The computing power requirements for B-physics, which is studied at low luminosity, are much greater than those at high luminosity as there is no LVL1-guidance for the track finding algorithms. Instead, track finding is performed for the entire Inner Detector volume. Currently, 2500 commodity CPUs would be required to supply the necessary computing power for the B-physics trigger. We describe a system of only 200 computing nodes which would be capable of performing the B-physics triggering. Each of these nodes is made up of a commodity PC and a FPGA co-processor board. Each node processes an entire event. The different tasks are allocated to the appropriate hardware device (CPU or FPGA). Track reconstruction requires a variety of different steps, some of which are suited to parallel processing, whereas others require sequential execution. For some tasks, floating-point arithmetic is needed. The flexibility of the PC/FPGA combination meets these varied requirements well View full abstract»

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  • Real-time data processing in the muon system of the D0 detector

    Page(s): 276 - 279
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (196 KB)  

    This paper presents a real-time application of the 16-bit fixed point digital signal processors (DSPs), in the Muon System of the D0 detector located at the Fermilab Tevatron, presently the world's highest-energy hadron collider. As part of the Upgrade for a run beginning in the year 2000, the system is required to process data at an input event rate of 10 KHz without incurring significant deadtime in readout. The ADS21csp01 processor has high I/O bandwidth, single cycle instruction execution and fast task switching support to provide efficient multisignal processing. The processor's internal memory consists of 4 K words of program memory and 4 K words of data memory. In addition there is an external memory of 32 K words for general event buffering and 16K words of dual port memory for input data queuing. This DSP fulfills the requirement of the muon subdetector systems for data readout. All error handling, buffering, formatting and transferring of the data to the various trigger levels of the data acquisition system is done in software. The algorithms developed for the system complete these tasks in about 20 μs per event View full abstract»

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  • The CMS event builder demonstrator based on Myrinet

    Page(s): 293 - 298
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (316 KB)  

    The data acquisition system for the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will require a large and high performance event building network. Several switch technologies are currently being evaluated in order to compare different architectures for the event builder. One candidate is Myrinet. This paper describes the demonstrator which has been set up to study a small-scale (8×8) event builder based on a Myrinet switch. Measurements are presented on throughput, overhead and scaling for various traffic conditions. Results are shown on event building with a push architecture View full abstract»

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  • Online monitoring in the upcoming Fermilab Tevatron run II

    Page(s): 240 - 243
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (284 KB)  

    We describe the online event monitoring systems using ROOT for the CDF and DØ collaborations in the upcoming Fermilab Tevatron run II. The CDF and DØ experiments consist of many detector subsystems and will run in a high rate large bandwidth data transfer environment. In the experiments, it is crucial to monitor the performance of each subsystem and the integrity of the data, in real time with minimal interruption. ROOT is used as the main analysis tool for the monitoring systems and its GUI is used to browse the results via socket, allowing multiple GUI client connections View full abstract»

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  • Application of industrial standard process control equipment in neutron scattering experiments

    Page(s): 214 - 218
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB)  

    Based on thorough experiences with distributed experiment control systems and fieldbus applications we are developing a control system especially targeted at neutron scattering experiments. Main characteristic is that front-end equipment and control machine are coupled by the industrial fieldbus standard PROFIBUS (DIN 19245, EN 50170). This significantly reduces the amount of cabling necessary. Further, it provides the proven error recovery and diagnostic features of an industrial fieldbus to the experiment control area. Front-end equipment comprises industrially available components like SIEMENS “ET200” peripheral devices, PLCs and encoders (Heidenhain). For cost-sensitive stepper motor control a low-end motor controller from University of Gottingen is being interfaced directly to PROFIBUS. Widely available SIEMENS-SMP equipment can be coupled by a PROFIBUS-SMP interface developed at our institute. The controlling master is an Intel PC running a diskless Linux version, equipped with a home-made PROFIBUS controller in CompactPCI formfactor. As software interface to control applications the TACO framework developed at ESRF is employed. “Device servers” in terms of the TACO client-server architecture have been created, allowing access to the functions of the control system at different levels, from raw PROFIBUS accesses up to complete motor control with position encoder feedback View full abstract»

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  • Data archiving and distribution of the Virgo antenna for gravitational wave detection

    Page(s): 319 - 323
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    We describe the architecture of the data archiving and distribution of the Virgo antenna for gravitational wave detection. The main characteristic of this system is the modularity of the architecture. This solution allows system upgrades without dramatic changes of the hardware and software components. The main performances are: 1. Maximum sustained data flow of 10 Mbyte/s on DLT tapes (35/70 Gbyte) for the raw data archiving; 2. Up to 1 Tbyte data archiving capacity on disk at a maximum sustained data flow of 25 Mbyte/s for the online data distribution; 3. Up to 10 Mbyte/s data retrieval flow for the on-line data distribution. The basic architecture of the system consists of two sections: an acquisition and storage section and a data management section. The former is a LynxOS based system with the disks directly connected to the CPU slave boards, the latter is a DEC-Unix Alpha Server (Data Server), NFS mounting the LynxOS disks through a Fast Ethernet network View full abstract»

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  • Using a commercial mathematics software package for on-line analysis at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility

    Page(s): 288 - 292
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    By writing both a custom Windows NT dynamic link library and generic companion server software, the intrinsic functions of MathSoft's Mathcad have been extended with new capabilities which permit direct access to the control system databases of Brookhaven National Laboratory's Accelerator Test Facility. Under this scheme, a Mathcad worksheet executing on a personal computer becomes a client which can both import and export data to a control system server via a network stream socket connection. The result is an alternative, mathematically oriented view of controlling the accelerator interactively View full abstract»

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  • Using Linux PCs in DAQ applications

    Page(s): 109 - 113
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    ATLAS Data Acquisition/Event Filter “-1” (DAQ/EF1) project provides the opportunity to explore the use of commodity hardware (PCs) and Open Source Software (Linux) in DAQ applications. In DAQ/EF-1 there is an element called the LDAQ which is responsible for providing local run-control, error-handling and reporting for a number of read-out modules in front end crates. This element is also responsible for providing event data for monitoring and for the interface with the global control and monitoring system (Back-End). We present the results of an evaluation of the Linux operating system made in the context of DAQ/EF-1 where there are no strong real-time requirements. We also report on our experience in implementing the LDAQ on a VMEbus based PC (the VMIVME-7587) and a desktop PC linked to VMEbus with a Bit3 interface both running Linux. We then present the problems encountered during the integration with VMEbus, the status of the LDAQ implementation and draw some conclusions on the use of Linux in DAQ applications View full abstract»

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  • Hardware controls for the STAR experiment at RHIC

    Page(s): 210 - 213
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    A hardware controls system has been implemented for the STAR experiment at RHIC. Approximately 10000 parameters governing experiment operation are currently controlled and monitored. The system is based on the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). The architecture of STAR hardware controls is presented as well as the results of operation of the integrated baseline system. Novel features of the system include a specialized field bus (High-level Data Link Control-HDLC), new EPICS record support, Control DEVice (CDEV) interfaces to accelerator and magnet control systems, and C++ based communication between STAR online and Hardware Controls and their associated databases View full abstract»

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  • CANbus and microcontroller use in the BaBar detector at SLAC

    Page(s): 166 - 169
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (232 KB)  

    The BaBar collaboration has chosen the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus for its controls and monitoring field bus. In addition, the Motorola MC68HC705X32 microcontroller, which has a CAN interface, was chosen for the standard intelligent device for monitoring boards. This paper describes the CAN system used by BaBar and the embedded software that supports it. The General Monitoring Board (GMB) is presented as a specific example. The GMB is a CAN module that digitizes 32 differential analog signals and has eight bits of bi-directional I/O View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

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