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Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Part A: Systems and Humans, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date May 2000

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Displaying Results 1 - 13 of 13
  • Ranking and screening multiple criteria alternatives with partial information and use of ordinal and cardinal strength of preferences

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 355 - 368
    Cited by:  Papers (25)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB)  

    This paper consists of three parts: 1) some theories and an efficient algorithm for ranking and screening multicriteria alternatives when there exists partial information on the decision maker's preferences; 2) generation of partial information using variety of methods; and 3) the existence of ordinal and cardinal functions based on and strengths of preferences. We demonstrate that strengths of preference concept can be very effectively used to generate the partial information on preferences. We propose axioms for ordinal and cardinal (measurable) value functions. An algorithm is developed for ranking and screening alternatives when there exists partial information about the preferences and the ordering of alternatives. The proposed algorithm obtains the same information very efficiently while by solving one mathematical programming problem many alternatives can be ranked and screened. Several examples are discussed and results of some computational experiments are reported View full abstract»

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  • AMMETH: a methodology for requirements analysis of advanced human-system interfaces

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 298 - 321
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (280 KB)  

    This paper addresses the important issue of identifying the requirements for advanced human-system interface (HSI) in the context of a disciplined requirements engineering process. This is essential if we are to have effective, well-designed HSIs as part of large software development projects. A complete methodology, called AMMETH (a mixed methodology), that can substantially help carry out the requirements analysis of HSIs in a disciplined and effective way, is proposed. The methodology integrates several proven analysis techniques within a structured framework, where they can be exploited effectively, on their own, and orchestrated as a whole. It includes seven steps, namely: 1) analyzing the context, 2) stating interaction goals, 3) eliciting user needs and expectations, 4) identifying and rating interaction features, 5) defining interaction patterns, 6) collecting usability feedback, and 7) defining requirements. The methodology has been applied successfully to the design of a real advanced HSI toward a complex process supervision and diagnostic system of an electric power plant View full abstract»

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  • Diagnosis of quantized systems based on a timed discrete-event model

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 322 - 335
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (720 KB)  

    The paper deals with the diagnosis of continuous-variable systems whose state can be measured only by means of a quantizer. Hence, the online information used in the diagnosis is given by the sequences of input and output events. The diagnostic algorithm uses a representation of the quantized system by means of a semi-Markov process, which provides a timed description of the event sequences generated by the quantized system. The paper describes how the probability density function of the semi-Markov process can be determined for a given quantized system. The diagnostic algorithm can be applied online, because it determines the fault probabilities recursively for the sequence of input and output events. The result is illustrated by a numerical example which concerns a part of a batch process View full abstract»

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  • Augmenting the operator function model with cognitive operations: assessing the cognitive demands of technological innovation in ship navigation

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 273 - 285
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (268 KB)  

    The increasing technological sophistication of ship navigation systems may significantly alter the skills, knowledge, and strategies involved in navigating large ships. Many examples in other domains illustrate the dangers of technology-driven innovations. These examples show that without a systematic method to detect design flaws and training requirements, technology-driven designs may degrade rather than enhance maritime safety. The operator function model (OFM) provides the basis for examining technological innovations; however, the OFM does not describe specific cognitive demands. Augmenting the OFM with a description of cognitive operations provides a structured cognitive task analysis tool-OFM-COG-that can identify the design and training requirements needed to safeguard system performance. This approach identifies how to tailor designs, develop training, and adjust qualifications to minimize the human errors that might otherwise accompany technological innovation. The paper shows how OFM-COG can catalog differences between traditional navigation systems and those augmented with electronic charts and collision avoidance systems. Specifically, it examines the cognitive demands of collision avoidance and track keeping, with and without advanced technological aids. This analysis demonstrates that some advanced radars may in fact increase the likelihood of certain collisions, and that the current certification process does not reflect the cognitive demands of the new technology. The analysis also indicates that electronic chart display and information systems (ECDIS) can reduce the redundancy that has served to make traditional systems quite reliable. Drawing upon these examples, the paper describes OFM-COG and demonstrates how this model-based analysis technique can document the cognitive implications of technological innovations View full abstract»

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  • Robotic interception of moving objects using an augmented ideal proportional navigation guidance technique

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 238 - 250
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB)  

    Presents an approach to online, robot-motion planning for moving-object interception. The proposed approach utilizes a navigation-guidance-based technique, that is robust and computationally efficient for the interception of fast-maneuvering objects. Navigation-based techniques were originally developed for the control of missiles tracking free-flying targets. Unlike a missile, however, the end-effector of a robotic arm is connected to the ground, via a number of links and joints, subject to kinematic and dynamic constraints. Also, unlike a missile, the velocity of the robot and the moving object must be matched for a smooth grasp, thus, a hybrid interception scheme, which combines a navigation-based interception technique with a conventional trajectory tracking method is proposed herein for intercepting fast-maneuvering objects. The implementation of the proposed technique is illustrated via numerous simulation examples View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and constraining human interactions in shared control utilizing a discrete event framework

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 369 - 379
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (412 KB)  

    Human integration is essential in systems where autonomous control alone would not be successful. In this paper, we present a framework for integrating a human supervisor into an otherwise autonomous control system. To facilitate integration, discrete event systems theory is adopted to model human interactions. It is via this interaction model that human commands can be combined with commands from an automated control system. For control synthesis, a method based on constraints is being used to generate velocity commands from the autonomous task level controller. The constraints are also utilized to limit human input so that erroneous human input is minimized. The methods are demonstrated by experiments View full abstract»

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  • Hybridization of gradient descent algorithms with dynamic tunneling methods for global optimization

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 384 - 390
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (204 KB)  

    An algorithm based on gradient descent techniques with dynamic tunneling methods fur global optimization is proposed. The proposed algorithm consists of gradient descent for local search and a direct search scheme, based on dynamic tunneling technique, for repelling away from local minimum to find the point of next local descent. This search process applied repeatedly finds the global minimum of an objective function. The convergence properties of the proposed algorithm is validated experimentally on benchmark problems. A comparative computational results confirm the importance of dynamic tunneling in gradient descent techniques View full abstract»

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  • Constrained motion control using vector potential fields

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 251 - 272
    Cited by:  Papers (34)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (644 KB)  

    Discusses the generation of a control signal that would instruct the actuators of a robotics manipulator to drive motion along a safe and well-behaved path to a desired target. The proposed concept of navigation control along with the tools necessary for its construction achieve this goal. The most significant tool is the artificial vector potential field which shows a better ability to steer motion than does a scalar potential field. The synthesis procedure emphasizes flexibility so that the effort needed to modify the control is commensurate with the change in the geometry of the workspace. Theoretical development along with simulation results are provided View full abstract»

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  • Global optimization: an auxiliary cost function approach

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 347 - 354
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (292 KB)  

    An efficient and practical solution to a class of global function optimization is proposed. The algorithm consists of a stochastic search of initial guesses and a gradient-based solution-finding algorithm. The key idea is to introduce an auxiliary cost function that can indicate whether the gradient-based solution-finding process goes toward a global minimum of the cost function and that helps us to prevent the process from going to local minima. Simulation examples are used to show the mechanism, power, and restrictions of the approach View full abstract»

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  • Using multi-agent simulation and learning to design new business processes

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 380 - 384
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (156 KB)  

    Business process modeling, analysis, and then redesign are the central task in the efforts of re-engineering business processes. Frequently reviewing and promptly changing business processes to adapt to new business environment is the key to maintain agility under the competitive global market. It is imperative to enhance the adaptability of business processes. This paper proposes a multi-agent information system based on Swarm, a multi-agent simulation platform, to simulate business processes and incorporate reinforcement learning to obtain better process adaptability. The resulting system, called BPSLS, is elaborated and evaluated by the order fulfilment process in supply chain networks View full abstract»

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  • Computational modeling of age-differences in a visually demanding driving task: vehicle detection

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 336 - 346
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (184 KB)  

    The visual task of detecting an approaching vehicle was modeled with a neurophysiologically motivated computational vision model, the National Automotive Center-visual perception model (NAC-VPM). The scientific literature documenting age-related changes in early vision was reviewed in relationship to the components of the NAC-VPM, and the model was fit to laboratory data from older observers. The model fit the older observers' data adequately, particularly when the data was partitioned into subsets based on viewing conditions. Model fits were compared to calibrations based on younger observers' data. The calibrations based on older observers were substantially different from calibrations based on younger observers, indicating that the model can capture age-related differences in visual perception. When calibrated to the older adults' data, the model successfully predicted conditions under which vehicle detection was particularly difficult for older adults View full abstract»

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  • On the implementation of velocity control for kinematically redundant manipulators

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 233 - 237
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (124 KB)  

    The velocity control of kinematically redundant manipulators has been addressed through a variety of approaches. Though they differ widely in their purpose and method of implementation, most are optimizations that can be characterized by Liegeois's (1977) method. This characterization is used in this article to develop a single framework for implementing different methods by simply selecting a scalar, a function of configuration, and a joint-rate weighting matrix. These quantities are used to form a fully constrained linear system by row augmenting the manipulator Jacobian with a weighted basis of its nullspace and augmenting the desired hand motion with a vector function of the nullspace basis. The framework is shown to be flexible, computationally efficient, and accurate View full abstract»

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  • A model for types and levels of human interaction with automation

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 286 - 297
    Cited by:  Papers (257)  |  Patents (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (164 KB)  

    We outline a model for types and levels of automation that provides a framework and an objective basis for deciding which system functions should be automated and to what extent. Appropriate selection is important because automation does not merely supplant but changes human activity and can impose new coordination demands on the human operator. We propose that automation can be applied to four broad classes of functions: 1) information acquisition; 2) information analysis; 3) decision and action selection; and 4) action implementation. Within each of these types, automation can be applied across a continuum of levels from low to high, i.e., from fully manual to fully automatic. A particular system can involve automation of all four types at different levels. The human performance consequences of particular types and levels of automation constitute primary evaluative criteria for automation design using our model. Secondary evaluative criteria include automation reliability and the costs of decision/action consequences, among others. Examples of recommended types and levels of automation are provided to illustrate the application of the model to automation design View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The fields of systems engineering and human machine systems: systems engineering includes efforts that involve issue formulation, issue analysis and modeling, and decision making and issue interpretation at any of the lifecycle phases associated with the definition, development, and implementation of large systems.

 

This Transactions ceased production in 2012. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dr. Witold Pedrycz
University of Alberta