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Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Part A: Systems and Humans, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date March 2000

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Displaying Results 1 - 17 of 17
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  • Rotation and direction judgment from visual images head-slaved in two and three degrees-of-freedom

    Page(s): 165 - 173
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    The contribution to spatial awareness of adding a roll degree-of-freedom (DOF) to telepresence camera platform yaw and pitch was examined in an experiment, where subjects judged direction and rotation of stationary target markers in a remote scene. Subjects viewed the scene via head-slaved camera images in a head-mounted display. Elimination of the roll DOF affected rotation judgment, but only at extreme yaw and pitch combinations, and did not affect azimuth and elevation judgment. Systematic azimuth overshoot occurred regardless of roll condition. Observed rotation misjudgments are explained by kinematic models for eye-head direction of gaze View full abstract»

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  • Impact of information sharing on statistical quality control

    Page(s): 211 - 216
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    With advances in information technology (IT), the research on and practice of information sharing is now having a significant impact on many aspects of supply chains. Nevertheless, few investigations focus on the impact of information sharing on product and process quality. Furthermore, it is still not clear how and what information should be shared or used, and how to quantify the benefits of information sharing in terms of quality improvement. In this research, a “matching problem” is used to demonstrate the impact of information sharing on quality. We quantify and compare the impact of different information-sharing strategies on process and product quality, and suggest that real-time information sharing may lead to dramatic quality improvement for an assembly process, the example here being a two-stage supply chain. The proposed approach to evaluate information sharing in terms of quality improvement can be extended to a more complex supply chain View full abstract»

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  • Mobile robot navigation in 2-D dynamic environments using an electrostatic potential field

    Page(s): 187 - 196
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    Proposes a solution to the two-dimensional (2-D) collision fee path planning problem for an autonomous mobile robot utilizing an electrostatic potential field (EPF) developed through a resistor network, derived to represent the environment. No assumptions are made about the amount of information contained in the a priori environment map (it may be completely empty) or the shape of the obstacles. The well-formulated and well-known laws of electrostatic fields are used to prove that the proposed approach generates an approximately optimal path (based on cell resolution) in a real-time frame. It is also proven through the classical laws of electrostatics that the derived potential function is a global navigation function (as defined by Rimon and Koditschek, 1992), that the field is free of all local minima and that all paths necessarily lead to the goal position. The complexity of the EPF generated path is shown to be O(mnM), where m is the total number of polygons in the environment and nM is the maximum number of sides of a polygonal object. The method is tested both by simulation and experimentally on a Nomad200 mobile robot platform equipped with a ring of sixteen sonar sensors View full abstract»

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  • Knowledge object modeling

    Page(s): 96 - 107
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    Knowledge objects are an integration of the object-oriented paradigm with logic rules. The proper integration provides a flexible and powerful environment, as rule-based components provide facilities for deductive retrieval and pattern matching, and object-oriented components provide a clear intuitive structure for programs in the form of class hierarchies. Based on the knowledge object concept, this paper presents a factor-centered representation language, Factor++, which models logic rules into the object-oriented paradigm, and a scheduling system, Schedular, using the Factor++ framework The construction of Schedular demonstrates that by using an object-oriented representation of knowledge objects, users can be given explicit control of the object hierarchy to customize the system to their particular needs, which includes letting users select among scheduling and other methods. In Schedular, rules are designed as derivation rules and constraint rules. The purpose of rules is either to restrict object structure and behavior, or to infer new data from the existing data. Rules are arranged in positions so that object methods are automatically firing up if environment changes are detected by these rules View full abstract»

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  • A random set description of a possibility measure and its natural extension

    Page(s): 124 - 130
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    The relationship is studied between possibility and necessity measures defined on arbitrary spaces, the theory of imprecise probabilities, and elementary random set theory. It is shown how special random sets can be used to generate normal possibility and necessity measures, as well as their natural extensions. This leads to interesting alternative formulas for the calculation of these natural extensions View full abstract»

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  • Potential-based modeling of 2-D regions using nonuniform source distributions

    Page(s): 197 - 202
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    One of the existing approaches to path planning problems uses a potential function to represent the topological structure of the free space. Newtonian potential was used in Chuang and Ahuja (1998) to represent object and obstacles in the two-dimensional (2-D) workspace wherein their boundaries are assumed to be uniformly charged. In this paper, more general, nonuniform distributions are considered. It is shown that for linear or quadratic source distributions, the repulsion between two polygonal objects can be evaluated analytically. Simulation results show that by properly adjusting the charge distribution along obstacle/object boundaries, path planning results ran be improved in terms of collision avoidance, path length, etc View full abstract»

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  • Robot action planning via explanation-based learning

    Page(s): 216 - 222
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    Domain-specific searching heuristics is greatly influential upon the searching efficiency of robot action planning (RAP), but its computer-realized recognition and acquisition, i.e., learning, is difficult. This paper makes an exploration into this challenge. First, a problem formulation of RAP is made. Then, by applying explanation-based learning, which is currently the only approach to acquiring domain-specific searching heuristics, a new learning based method is developed for RAP, named robot action planning via explanation-based learning (RAPEL). Finally, an example study demonstrates the effectiveness of RAPEL View full abstract»

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  • A neural network classifier based on Dempster-Shafer theory

    Page(s): 131 - 150
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    A new adaptive pattern classifier based on the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence is presented. This method uses reference patterns as items of evidence regarding the class membership of each input pattern under consideration. This evidence is represented by basic belief assignments (BBA) and pooled using the Dempster's rule of combination. This procedure can be implemented in a multilayer neural network with specific architecture consisting of one input layer, two hidden layers and one output layer. The weight vector, the receptive field and the class membership of each prototype are determined by minimizing the mean squared differences between the classifier outputs and target values. After training, the classifier computes for each input vector a BBA that provides a description of the uncertainty pertaining to the class of the current pattern, given the available evidence. This information may be used to implement various decision rules allowing for ambiguous pattern rejection and novelty detection. The outputs of several classifiers may also be combined in a sensor fusion context, yielding decision procedures which are very robust to sensor failures or changes in the system environment. Experiments with simulated and real data demonstrate the excellent performance of this classification scheme as compared to existing statistical and neural network techniques View full abstract»

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  • An optimal part sending policy for a production system in a general configuration with a new control strategy

    Page(s): 159 - 165
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    We consider a production system in a general configuration with a new control strategy: the push mechanism for the part transport and the kanban technique for the work-in-process (WIP). The production system is composed of many stations such as an entrance station, a set of work stations, a central station, and an exit station, that are arranged in a general configuration. The push mechanism is followed for transporting a part from a station to a destination station. The kanban technique is adopted for controlling the WIP in a work station. The production system is modeled by a closed queuing network in a general configuration with a Markov part sending mechanism and a machine no blocking (MNB) technique. An optimal part sending policy that maximizes the expected system throughput is formulated into a long run average semi-Markov decision process. Three solution approaches are developed for obtaining optimal or suboptimal solutions. Numerical examples are given to evaluate the quality of the solutions obtained by the solution approaches View full abstract»

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  • Designing decision trees with the use of fuzzy granulation

    Page(s): 151 - 159
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    In this study, we discuss the use of fuzzy sets regarded as a well-rounded algorithmic vehicle in the construction of decision trees. The concept of fuzzy granulation realized via context-based clustering is aimed at the quantization (discretization) of continuous attributes as well as handling continuous classes encountered in classification problems. Two detailed experimental studies are presented concerning well-known data sets available on the Web View full abstract»

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  • Design fundamentals of a reconfigurable robotic gripper system

    Page(s): 181 - 187
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    Discusses the design and modeling fundamentals of a multi-degree-of-freedom reconfigurable robotic gripper system (RGS), designed to automate the process of limp material handling, reliably and without distortion, deformation, and/or folding. The reconfigurable gripper design draws upon a previously reported flat surfaced, fixed-dimensions gripper system (Kolluru et al., 1998). The design consists of four arms in a cross-bar configuration, with a flat surfaced, fixed dimensions, suction-based gripper unit mounted on each of the arms. The kinematic and dynamic performance of the reconfigurable RGS is analyzed theoretically and then validated using Integrated Design Engineering Analysis Software (I-DEAS) simulation software View full abstract»

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  • Case-based knowledge and induction

    Page(s): 85 - 95
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    Case-based decision theory (CBDT) is a theory of decision-making under uncertainty, suggesting that people tend to choose acts that performed well in similar cases they recall. The theory has been developed from a decision-/game-/economic-theoretical point of view as a potential alternative to expected utility theory (EUT). In this paper, we attempt to reconsider CBDT as a theory of knowledge representation, to contrast it with the rule-based approach, and to study its implications regarding the process of induction View full abstract»

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  • A generic model for semantics-based versioning in projects

    Page(s): 108 - 123
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    Large projects generally involve a number of phases and evolve over a period of time. Several revisions of the individual artifacts consisting of the project take place during the various phases. These revisions and refinements are normally captured as different versions using configuration/version management tools. But the semantics of these refinements with respect to the project are not captured by existing mechanisms. In addition to the above, a change in the semantics of a project artifact may require suitable changes in other related artifacts. Existing mechanisms for configuration management do not provide mechanisms for change propagation based on the change semantics. In this paper, we propose a generic model for semantics-based version management in projects, which can be built over existing tools. The model also provides support for capturing how changes propagate in a project. We then elucidate the generality of the model by applying it to a project involving a CAD framework and a software development project View full abstract»

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  • Computational complexity of determining resource loops in re-entrant flow lines

    Page(s): 222 - 229
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    This paper presents a comparison study of the computational complexity of the general job shop protocol and the more structured flow line protocol in a flexible manufacturing system. It is shown that the representative problem of finding resource invariants is NP-complete in the case of the job shop, while in the flow line case it admits a closed form solution. The importance of correctly selecting part flow and job routing protocols in flexible manufacturing systems to reduce complexity is thereby conclusively demonstrated View full abstract»

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  • Shape partitioning by convexity

    Page(s): 202 - 210
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    The partitioning of two dimensional (2-D) shapes into subparts is an important component of shape analysis. The paper defines a formulation of convexity as a criterion of good part decomposition. Its appropriateness is validated by applying it to some simple shapes as well as against showing its close correspondence with Hoffman and Singh's (1997) part saliency factors View full abstract»

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  • Coordinated planning and control of automated assembly manufacturing

    Page(s): 173 - 180
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    A general, hierarchical method of planning coordinated motions among multiple objects in a dynamic environment is developed. This model consists of a two-phase approach: planning a global path for each object and then locally optimizing along that global path. The applicability of this model to surface-mount manufacturing systems is studied in different scenarios. By changing the priorities of the machines, different results may be obtained. By comparing these results, the best one may then be determined. Simulation results using the two-phase algorithm show an improvement over other planning and control methods View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The fields of systems engineering and human machine systems: systems engineering includes efforts that involve issue formulation, issue analysis and modeling, and decision making and issue interpretation at any of the lifecycle phases associated with the definition, development, and implementation of large systems.

 

This Transactions ceased production in 2012. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dr. Witold Pedrycz
University of Alberta