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Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, IEEE

Issue 2 • Date March-April 2000

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Displaying Results 1 - 15 of 15
  • Spatial disorientation: dealing with aeronautical illusions [Guest Editorial]

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 25 - 27
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  • A spatial disorientation survey of experienced instructor pilots

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 35 - 42
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    We know spatial disorienting (SD) illusions occur and that they cost lives and aircraft. The losses are real, but what we don't know is which spatial-disorienting illusions are occurring and how frequently. This article discusses a survey that was developed to quantify the incidence and prevalence of spatial disorientating illusions or events. By asking pilots to report what SD illusions and how many of each illusion they have experienced in their entire flying career, we are attempting to study the prevalence and incidence rates of SD illusions. View full abstract»

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  • Naso-occipital vestibulo-ocular reflex responses in normal subjects

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 43 - 47
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (386 KB)  

    The naso-occipital translational vestibulo-ocular reflex provides a particularly difficult problem for the brain's control system, as the movements of the two eyes are disjunctive and are often even in different directions. Consequently, when the target is located on the midline and the required eye movements are similar to vergence movements, the reflex might be driven using vergence pathways. Alternatively, the ascending tract of Deiters might be used to generate these required disjunctive movements. Since the vergence system is known to have rather sluggish dynamics, it might be possible to distinguish between these two hypotheses based on the dynamics of the movements. This article presents experiments that were undertaken in order to shed more light on these questions. View full abstract»

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  • Neuropsychological guidelines for aircraft control stations

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 81 - 88
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
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    Despite the rigorous process for selecting and training military pilots, they all too often succumb to spatial disorientation (SD) and loss of situation awareness (LSA) in flight. It is estimated that SD mishaps occur once every 300,000 hours and that an LSA mishap occurs about three times as often. Hence, an experienced pilot with 3,000 hours of flight experience has a 14% likelihood of being involved in an SD-related mishap and at least a 3% chance of being involved in either an SD- or LSA-related mishap. However, the likelihood of being involved in an SD-related incident that poses a serious risk to safety or mission success is much higher; for example, 26% of experienced fighter pilots flying F-16s reported that SD had caused a "near-accident" in their flying careers. Although the abnormal acceleratory environment of flight is inherently dangerous and unforgiving, the poor design of most aviation control stations arguably compounds the sensorimotor limitations of pilots in the aerial environment. The purpose of this article is to provide a set of guidelines for aircraft control stations (including cockpits), based on neuropsychological principles. These stations will exploit fully the information-processing capabilities of pilots and allow them to cope better with the demands of flying and enhanced tactical operations. View full abstract»

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  • A fast algorithm for detecting contractions in uterine electromyography

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 89 - 94
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (1)
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    Discusses a method of higher-order zero crossings, which was found to be an effective tool for signal analysis. This method mirrors the spectral characteristics of certain Gaussian and non-Gaussian processes. The authors use this method to discriminate between contraction segments interspersed in a uterine EMG recorded from the abdominal surface. They also describe a schematic circuit that can be implemented for fast on-line detection of contraction segments. View full abstract»

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  • An artificial-intelligence approach to ECG analysis

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 95 - 100
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    The issue we address in this article is how to reduce the computational burden by using an algorithm based on a linear-approximation distance-thresholding compression technique combined with the backpropagation neural network method. We also address how to improve the training speed. The experimental results found with the MIT-BIH database show that the new algorithm is faster in convergence and more accurate in feature recognition than existing methods. View full abstract»

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  • Modification of a commercially available DNA sequencer to increase sample throughput

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 101 - 106
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Rather than wait for the instrument manufacturer to provide 96-lane-per-gel capability, the authors decided to further develop a modification proposed by Clark Tibbetts in 1997, which entailed providing external control of the CCD camera and collecting the data with a data acquisition (Daq) card installed in a separate Windows 95 operated machine. Ideally, this combination could be used to select any desired per-scan pixel density with a corresponding lane density on the gel. In practice, the authors aimed to increase the lane density on model 377 gels to 96, since this number exactly matches the sample batch size the authors currently employ. This article describes the authors' development of such capability, including results that compare their modification to the commercially available upgrade from Perkin-Elmer Biosystems introduced during their development work. View full abstract»

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  • When are expert witnesses liable for their malpractice?

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 107 - 109
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Expert witness testimony is essential to all legal proceedings that involve technical, medical, professional, or scientific matters. More generally, experts must testify whenever the underlying matters are beyond the common knowledge of lay jurors. As we have written in previous articles, the courts have spent much time and energy determining how to access the proper qualifications for experts. Without an expert, a plaintiff cannot proceed to trial, and a defendant is usually doomed to an adverse jury verdict. Since experts are often a scarce resource that is essential to litigation, many charge substantial fees for their services. If the expert does not do a good job, the party employing the expert will lose the lawsuit as well as be responsible for the expert's fees. This article deals with expert witness malpractice. Should the party hiring the expert be entitled to sue the expert for malpractice? Should the party that the expert testifies against be allowed to sue the expert? Conversely, what are the legal risks of being an expert witness?. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of rotation on somatogravic illusions

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 59 - 65
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    The primary objectives of this study were to investigate two areas: (i) the somatogravic illusion profile, in order to determine if a daylight visual scene in the advanced spatial disorientation demonstrator can achieve visual dominance over nonvisual vestibular orientational inputs; e.g., otolith and semicircular ducts; and (ii) evaluating the effects of rotation on pitch perception, in order to determine if there is otolith-semicircular canal interaction, which may cause reduction of the somatogravic perception View full abstract»

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  • Classifying spatial disorientation mishaps using different definitions

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 28 - 34
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    What is critical in each study of spatial disorientation (SD) is a clear common definition of what is used to define a case. The purpose of this article is to provide demographic statistics and trending analysis on SD in the US Air Force for the five-fiscal-year period from 1994 to 1998, comparing results of both a narrow and a broader definition of SD View full abstract»

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  • The G-excess effect

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 56 - 58
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    Spatial disorientation (SD) is a major cause of aircraft mishaps in military as well as civilian aviation. Despite steady improvements in flight safety, SD-related losses remain unacceptably high and warrant special attention. SD occurring at low altitude is a particular problem, as there is little time for the pilot to recognize the problem and to take corrective action. Inevitably, under such circumstances, mishaps are common and aircrew rarely survive. To illustrate the problem faced by aircrew in overcoming disorienting illusions, this article looks at one possible cause for SD in the low-level environment-the G-excess effect-and describes a recent Royal Air Force mishap in which this illusion may have played a part View full abstract»

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  • The good, the bad, and the ugly of head-up displays

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 66 - 70
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    Issues with the head-up display (HUD) are wide and varied. The purpose of this article is to summarize and provide an overview of some of the pros and cons of using the HUD-to identify the good, the bad, and the ugly. HUDs have many excellent features, and the need for an HUD is well documented. Conclusion 1: there are many good things about using an HUD. However, work must continue to eliminate the bad. Most of the “bad” things described, if approached by human-factors engineers (given the authority to make the changes), could be corrected. Whether these corrections will be made is another story. Conclusion 2: most of the “bad” things can be corrected. The really dangerous features (the ugly ones) need to be addressed in the HUD education and training programs. Although the HUD training programs are not very common, flight instructors are becoming more aware of these more difficult issues. Perhaps these adjustments will be made as the HUD continues to evolve. Conclusion 3: HUDs have some problems that may not be fixed. It can be summarized, at least for now, that if HUDs are going to be used within the general aviation community, then caution must be exercised. General aviation pilots have the least instrument experience of all flyers, and the HUD is not intuitive-it requires training and continual practice. Except in a very few specific commercial aviation cases, the HUD has not lowered the weather minimums required to execute an approach. This should tell us something about the magnitude of its improvement to instrument flight. And there are a few reasons to be suspect of the HUD's safety, even in clear weather conditions. There are other head-down display concepts that could be tried (e.g., an “outside-in” display with a fixed runway, or a “highway in the sky” display) before the HUD is considered the final instrument solution to basic flight information for general aviation. The HUD has become a significant advancement of technology; however, it is not the end of flight displays. There are other solutions that must be tried and evaluated View full abstract»

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  • The effect of inertial force acceleration on the otolithic membrane

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 48 - 55
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    The purpose of this study was to examine the response of the otolithic membrane to vertical (Gz-axis) linear acceleration force. By collecting subjective sensation and objective data (vestibulo-spinal reflex response), our study investigated the consequence of exposing these sensory membranes to linear acceleration shear forces. We compared the pilot's response to saccular stimulation to response when shear forces were exerted on the sensing membrane of the utricle. We hypothesize saccular contribution to disorientation illusion and generation of the vestibulo-spinal reflex, with possible contribution to the “Giant Hand” phenomenon. Objective and subjective measures were used for comparison between the influence of +Gx on the utricle and +Gz stimulation on the saccule. We propose the belief that a better under standing of the vestibular function in acceleration conditions will lead to better understanding of flight illusions. Hopefully, this understanding will lead to better pilot education and, in turn, significantly aid in prevention of mishaps due to spatial disorientation View full abstract»

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  • An instrumentation solution for reducing spatial disorientation mishaps

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 71 - 80
    Cited by:  Papers (31)  |  Patents (1)
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    This article explores some of the engineering approaches to dealing with spatial disorientation (SD) and their drawbacks, looks at nature's approach to spatial orientation, and then presents the Tactical Situation Awareness System (TSAS) as a solution to the SD problem (note: TSAS is a trademark for the service and product of the Naval Aerospace Biomedical Research Laboratory, Pensacola, Florida). The TSAS is an array of tactile stimulators arranged in columns and rows on a garment that a pilot wears on the torso and limbs. This array provides intuitive orientation information to aircrew and operators of remote platforms and is more compatible with a pilot's natural sensory system View full abstract»

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  • Biomedical engineering in Israel: a quantum leap

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 21 - 23
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine contains articles on current technologies and methods used in biomedical and clinical engineering.

 

This Magazine ceased publication in 2010. The current retitled publication is IEEE Pulse.

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