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Engineering Management, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Feb 2000

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Displaying Results 1 - 10 of 10
  • Technology novelty, project complexity, and product development project execution success: a deeper look at task uncertainty in product innovation

    Page(s): 74 - 87
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    This paper applies the construct of task uncertainty to study relationships between product development project characteristics and project outcomes. The authors characterize product development projects in terms of their technology novelty and project complexity levels. This characterization is based on product development literature and organizational information processing theory. They hypothesize that technology novelty and project complexity characteristics contribute to project task uncertainty and are in turn associated with project execution outcomes. A cross-sectional survey of 120 new product development projects for assembled goods was employed to test relationships between project characteristics and project success. Success measures include achievement of individual project goals, such as technical performance, unit-cost, time-to-market and overall achievement of project goals View full abstract»

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  • Assessing and controlling the quality of a project end product: the earned quality method

    Page(s): 88 - 97
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    Quality is achieved to the extent that a project end product meets the client's needs and expectations. This paper addresses the fundamental issues relating to the periodic assessment and control of the quality of the end product of a project. The proposed earned quality method (EQM) enables project managers to assess and control the quality of the end product throughout the project's life cycle. EQM rests on two fundamental assumptions: (1) that quality is a measurable concept; and (2) that quality is accrued progressively throughout the project's life cycle. EQM decomposes the end product's overall quality into its main attributes and criteria and relates them to the project activities. This elucidation process of the client's needs and expectations helps both the client and the project manager to identify valid quality indicators, estimate their relative contribution to the overall quality objective, and devise acceptable assessment protocols. Using a multicriteria approach, EQM allows project managers to deal in a formal and quantitative fashion with the client's stated and implied needs. By comparing earned quality and planned quality of the work performed. EQM enables project managers to detect quality deviations and initiate early corrective actions. EQM should contribute significantly to the quality of a project end product by improving communications between the client and the project manager at its outset, by elucidating the client's needs and expectations, by providing ongoing quality assessment measures, by avoiding time-consuming and costly rework through early corrective actions, by promoting greater quality accountability and project coordination, and finally, by preventing costly legal disputes over the quality of the project end product View full abstract»

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  • A fuzzy-logic-based approach to project selection

    Page(s): 65 - 73
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    When making decisions we need to consider the possible alternatives and then choose the optimal alternative. The uncertainty of subjective judgment is present during this selection process. Also, decision making becomes difficult when the available information is incomplete or imprecise. This kind of problem exists while selecting a project. There are also several critical factors that are involved in the selection process, including market conditions, availability of raw materials, etc. The decision mechanism is constrained by the uncertainty inherent in the determination of the relative importance of each attribute element. In this paper, me develop a system for the project selection using fuzzy logic. Fuzzy logic enables us to emulate the human reasoning process and make decisions based on vague or imprecise data. Our approach is based on uncertainty reduction. The optimal alternative is formed by the relative weights of each attribute's elements combined over all the attribute membership functions. We also do a case study for the selection of software packages. Our system could be easily applied to other project selection problems under uncertainty View full abstract»

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  • The adoption of new technology: the case of object-oriented computing in software companies

    Page(s): 106 - 126
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    This study examines the adoption of new technologies within organizations, The significance of this research is to broaden the understanding of technology adoption within organizations by focusing on adoption at the individual level, The key research question that is examined is: “what factors contribute to the adoption of new technology by individuals within firms?” A model is presented to distinguish adopters from nonadopters based on four sets of constructs: (1) the characteristics of the individual; (2) individual's perception of group characteristics; (3) individual's perception of company characteristics; and (4) individual's perception of technology. Unlike previous studies that focus only on top management in firms, this study examines adoption at the level of middle managers, engineers and technical personnel, i.e., those individuals who are more likely to actually use this technology in the workplace. The study links previously studied elements of adoption and diffusion of innovations to the specific case of a relatively recent innovation for organizations, As an example, an empirical examination of adoption of object-oriented technology (OT) in software companies is conducted. This technology is a software development technique that uses pretested and routine methods or “objects” to design, construct and assemble software programs. It is a new way of thinking about software based on abstraction that exists in the real world. The results of this study show that individual characteristics, perception of group characteristics and company characteristics are significantly related to OT adoption, but the individual's perception of the technology is not. The proposed model predicts adopters of new technology, such as OT, with 86% accuracy, The results suggest the factors that top management need to focus on in order to facilitate new technology adoption in firms View full abstract»

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  • The impact of organizational context on innovation adoption in commercial banks

    Page(s): 14 - 25
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    This study examines the linkages between nonstructured factors in an organization's context and dimensions of innovation adoption in organizations. Elements of an organization's context included in this study are size, geographic scope, and product scope; dimensions of innovation are magnitude and speed of adoption and product and process types of innovation. The relationships among these variables are examined by a sampling of empirical data culled from 101 commercial banks in four states: New York; New Jersey; Connecticut; and Massachusetts. We found that: (1) organization size and geographic scope have a stronger association with magnitude than the speed of adoption, while product scope is more strongly linked to the speed of adoption; (2) geographic and product scope influence the propensity to adopt product and process innovations differently; and (3) the pattern of innovation adoption differs among various types of banks View full abstract»

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  • Client-server implementation: some management pointers

    Page(s): 127 - 145
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    Using a sample of 350 companies, this paper investigates the benefits of client-server systems and links them to a set of implementation factors. The paper reveals that companies can expect competitive, operational, financial and technical benefits. It reports several important steps, activities and tasks that are positively related to those benefits, including defining clear organizational objectives and strategies, re-organizing corporate data and testing multiple levels of clients and servers. Furthermore, they list some of the problems that companies may encounter during a client-server implementation. The paper is relevant to managers and academicians who want to better understand the implementation of client-server View full abstract»

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  • Strategic warranty management: a life-cycle approach

    Page(s): 40 - 54
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    The role of warranty has become increasingly important, both as a promotional (particularly where competing products are nearly indistinguishable) and as a protectional device (for complex and expensive products where customers need some assurance). Offering warranty implies additional cost to the manufacturer over the period from product launch to obsolescence. This cost is influenced by technical decisions made prior to the launch. This paper develops a strategic approach to warranty management where warranty-related decisions are made in a framework encompassing the product life cycle and from a business perspective which links technical and commercial issues View full abstract»

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  • Effects of funding and its return on product quality in new ventures

    Page(s): 98 - 105
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    Most entrepreneurs must rely on external financing when their new venture is based on the development of a new product. External financing, however, is usually uncertain in magnitude and timing, thus creating tradeoff between the advantage of waiting-to generate more money-and improve the product versus releasing the product before competition increases. This tradeoff is investigated through a dynamic programming framework for which a simple, easy-to-implement optimal stopping rule is identified for a special class of revenue functions. The model is utilized to characterize how the amount of funding and its variability are expected to affect the quality of the product at time to market. The model also studies how the release-time strategy is affected by the expectation and the variability of the effect that each unit of funding has on the quality of the product under development. The author shows that an increment in funding does not always lead to a product of higher quality. He also shows that an improvement in the effect of investment on quality does not necessarily lead to an enhanced product View full abstract»

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  • Managing technology-based projects in multinational environments

    Page(s): 55 - 64
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    This paper examines the managerial issues involved in executing technology-based projects that span international borders. The results of a bilateral comparative field study, conducted in Brazil and the United States, show that in spite of considerable social and cultural differences between two international operating environments, successful integration of multinational projects may not require fundamentally different management approaches. This, however, does require strong senior management support and efforts in developing effective organizational linkages and alliances. Managers must need to have focus on cross-boundary relationships and fine-tune their people skills to deal effectively with complex forms of negotiations, delegations, and commitments in systems which are often weak on formal command and control View full abstract»

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  • A study on the usage of computer and communication technologies for telecommuting

    Page(s): 26 - 39
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    Today, with the increasing proliferation of telecommuting in firms, information technology managers are confronted with yet another challenge of what telecommuting technologies and services to offer and to whom these technologies and services should be offered. This study intends to identify the telecommuters' patterns of usage of computer and communication technologies based on their background, employment, residential, and occupation characteristics. Based on a sample of 375 responses, this study finds that all of these factors can help to explain the usage of computer and communications technologies. The implications of the findings for researchers and technology managers are discussed View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Management of technical functions such as research, development, and engineering in industry, government, university, and other settings. Emphasis is on studies carried on within an organization to help in decision making or policy formation for RD&E. 

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Rajiv Sabherwal
Sam M. Walton College of Business, University of Arkansas