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Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on

Issue 2 • Date Feb 1990

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Displaying Results 1 - 21 of 21
  • Software reliability measurement

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 247 - 252
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (556 KB)  

    The measurement and analysis aspects of software reliability are described with the aim of providing software engineers and managers a sense of where and how software reliability measurements can be applied to their projects. Some background for understanding software reliability measurement is provided, and activities associated with measuring and analyzing software reliability are discussed in the context of the software product life cycle. The focus is on failures and the rate at which they occur. The thrust of reliability measurement and analysis is to specify what the customer needs in terms of reliability before a software product is built, to validate that these needs are met before delivery of the product to the customer, and to make sure that the customer's needs continue to be met after delivery View full abstract»

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  • Software surveillance-a buyer quality assurance program

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 301 - 308
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (744 KB)  

    In 1984, Bellcore Software Quality Assurance Engineering (SQAE) was established to assist clients in assuring the quality of software they purchase. The authors present Bellcore SQAE's software quality assurance approach and discuss the objectives and accomplishments of the software surveillance program. They outline a program which focuses on developing a cooperative relationship between the buyer and supplier to successfully meet some of the challenges that face the Bellcore client companies in the 1990s and beyond View full abstract»

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  • Structural way of thinking as applied to quality assurance management

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 291 - 300
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (876 KB)  

    Some major structures for improving the quality of software are described. It is noted that defects in software are the result of imperfections in the development process and that high quality is achieved through aiming for a better process. Structures are introduced in the product structure, the product architecture, and the work processes. As people constitute an essential part of the process, the human error problem and work time constancy are considered. Based on these, structures and general principles for improving quality are explained. Progress is attained by education in the broad sense. The present work is written for managers in software fields View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of software service quality for large telecommunications systems

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 210 - 218
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (744 KB)  

    Attention is given to software service quality measurement in the telecommunications switching environment. Environment dynamics and the composition of customer satisfaction are explained. Measurements are made at gaps in the software delivery process, and management is responsible for the success of the measurement process. It is concluded that software service quality measurement can be a strategic tool that can help increase a supplier's competitiveness View full abstract»

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  • Data stability in an application of a software reliability model

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 273 - 275
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (216 KB)  

    The Goel-Okumoto (1979) model of reliability growth is applied to the failure data for a large software development project. This is done by fitting the model parameters to the error counts and test times, which are periodically tabulated. In the early phases of system testing, the problem of inaccurate estimation due to insufficient reliability growth occurs. A simple test is devised to measure the stability of the data with respect to this problem. In practice, such a test on the data can be used to determine when system testing has sufficiently progressed to allow one to expect reasonable estimates from reliability growth models View full abstract»

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  • Statistical quality control applied to code inspections

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 196 - 200
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (444 KB)  

    Code inspections have been used on the 5ESS switch project since 1983. Beginning with a training program for all the developers involved in the project, code inspections have improved with each new 5ESS switch generic. Variations on a standard SQC (statistical quality control) technique, the control chart, have been used to track the metrics indicative of the effectiveness of code inspections. Parameters used in the computation of these metrics include the preparation effort, inspection time, number of inspectors, the size of the inspected unit of code, and the number of errors found at the inspection. It is noted that the exact form that these control charts have taken has evolved and improved with experience View full abstract»

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  • Interactive specification environment for communication service software

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 181 - 188
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (500 KB)  

    An automation environment which produces high-quality high-productivity communication service software (CSS) is described. It is a computer-aided interactive specification environment (ISE) for CSS. ISE consists of a CSS specification description system and a prototyping system of a communication node. The specification description system uses a CSS specification description language (newly developed LSDL and CCITT SDL) composed of three steps and a choice of language and graph forms. An intelligent graphic editor supports LSDL graphic input of CSS specification. The prototyping system controls the switching equipment by a general-purpose computer in command form, using a concurrent process environment for control software to switching equipment and a service control process which runs based on one-call-through. The time taken for CSS specification description is reduced to 30% to 70% of the time taken for C language description. By introducing ISE into CSS development, the reduction in total CSS development time is expected to be about 15% View full abstract»

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  • Some graphical aids for deciding when to stop testing software

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 169 - 175
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (548 KB)  

    It is noted that the developers of large software systems must decide how much software should be tested before releasing it. An explicit tradeoff between the costs of testing and releasing is considered. The former may include the opportunity cost of continued testing, and the latter may include the cost of customer dissatisfaction and of fixing faults found in the field. Exact stopping rules were obtained by Dalal and Mallows (J. Amer., Statist. Assoc., vol.83, p.872, 1988), under the assumption that the distribution of the fault finding rate is known. Here, two important variants where the fault finding distribution is not completely known are considered. They are (i) the distribution is exponential with unknown mean and (ii) the distribution is locally exponential with the rate changing smoothly over time. New procedures for both cases are presented. In case (i) it is shown how to incorporate information from related projects and subjective inputs. Several novel graphical procedures which are easy to implement are proposed, and these are illustrated for data from a large telecommunications software system View full abstract»

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  • A view of reliability and quality measurements for telecommunications systems

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 219 - 223
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB)  

    The authors present a customer (telephone company) oriented view of R&Q (reliability and quality) measurements for telecommunications systems based on Bellcore's experience and work in this area. On behalf of its clients, Bellcore has published its preliminary view of generic requirements for supplier quantification of several aspects of system reliability and quality measurement. These generic requirements are contained in Bellcore's `Reliability and Quality Measurements for Telecommunications Systems (RQMS),' TA-TSY-000929 (1989). The measurements are applicable to network switching elements (local switch, tandem, signal transfer point, service control point, packet switch, adjunct, etc.), operations systems, and transparent systems. Their scope covers system, software, hardware, firmware, and product support, and they are directed toward the system test, first office application, and general availability system life-cycle stages. Issues covered by this document are discussed in some detail View full abstract»

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  • Optimal design for software reliability and development cost

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 276 - 282
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (460 KB)  

    A process for reliability-related quality programming is developed to fill existing gaps in software design and development so that a quality programming plan can be achieved. The tradeoffs among system reliability improvement, resource consumption, and other relevant constraints through the management phase are investigated. A software reliability-to-cost relation is developed both from a software reliability-related cost model and from software redundancy models with common-cause failures. A generic N-component redundancy model is also developed. The software reliability optimization problems can be formulated into a mixed-integer programming problem View full abstract»

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  • Studies on measuring software

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 234 - 246
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1232 KB)  

    A quality control workshop prototype based on a quantitative approach which is operational from the validation phase was developed. Several telecommunications software systems were analyzed, particularly those areas pertaining to complexity and reliability. The workshop, the methods use to collect, handle, and analyze data, and the tools employed are described. The results allow evaluation of tool usefulness, pertinence of metrics, and validation of the reliability model. It is noted that the research carried out will lead to the application and evaluation of software quality assurance plans and to the evaluation of current beliefs concerning validity, efficiency, and costs View full abstract»

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  • Software fault content and reliability estimations for telecommunication systems

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 262 - 272
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (820 KB)  

    The problem of software fault content and reliability estimations is considered. Estimations that can be used to improve the control of a software projects are emphasized. A model of how to estimate the number of software faults is presented, which takes into account both the development process and the developed software product. A model of how to predict, before the testing has started, the occurrences of faults during the testing stage is also presented. These models, together with software reliability growth models, have been evaluated on a number of software projects View full abstract»

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  • Supporting service development for intelligent networks

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 189 - 195
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (720 KB)  

    The author examines the development support required to assure the quality of intelligent network service specifications. He then assesses the current state of enabling technologies, which include the technologies for formal specification, software reuse, rapid prototyping, performance evaluation, behavioral property verification, and feature interaction analysis and arbitration. It is concluded that much existing work in software specification is relevant to the support of intelligent network service specification. There are, however, two major classes of technical difficulties that must be addressed: limited experience with intelligent network services and immaturity of support technologies View full abstract»

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  • Post-mortems-methodology and experiences

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 176 - 180
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (492 KB)  

    A methodology for preparing and conducting post-mortems for software development projects is presented. Based on the continuous process improvement concept, post-mortems are systematic reviews of a product's quality and the quality of the associated processes that produce it. The intent is to learn both what worked well and what could be improved. Three types of postmortem have evolved, each focusing on particular aspects of the software development process. The planning postmortem covers requirements specification and work program definition. The design verification postmortem includes design, unit test, system verification, and first office application activities. The field post-mortem focuses on actual field experience. The post-mortem methodology has been in use for several years and has been found to be a very effective organizational learning tool and source for many software quality improvement ideas. Specific examples of what has been and can be learned are included. The evolution of the post-mortem is discussed, along with possible metrics for evaluating the effectiveness of postmortems View full abstract»

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  • High-quality software development system-AYUMI

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 201 - 209
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (604 KB)  

    AYUMI, a mechanism that improves software quality and productivity and by which the development process is refined, is described. A series of methods which span activities from data evaluation to the feedback of findings has been developed. This methodology has approximately 100 evaluation items, including both quantitative and qualitative types. These items are categorized into about 40 groups and scored on a scale from one to five. The evaluation results are compiled into tables and reported to the project team. Work in the field is monitored, and feedback improves the development process. The operation of AYUMI is described, and some possible applications are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Software costs of quality

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 315 - 318
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (400 KB)  

    The costs of quality for software, a methodology for the collection of costs, and how the costs of quality can be used to point the way toward quality improvement and significant cost reductions are discussed. Root cause analysis and corrective action using software costs of quality are described. It is concluded that establishing a software cost of quality system is an easy, cost-effective method for initiating long-term cost reductions and real quality improvement View full abstract»

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  • A framework for software quality measurement

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 224 - 233
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (964 KB)  

    The authors propose a quality model as a framework which should facilitate the evolution of theoretically based systems of measurement for the processes and products of the software development lifecycle. They start by defining measurement and quality measurement, and they present a model for software quality measurement. This model is used to explore several fundamental concepts and as a framework for the development of a set of software quality metrics. The authors discuss how the model can be developed through experimental work and by developing current and potential applications of the model in its immature state. These include process optimization, quality specification, end product quality control, intermediate product quality control, and the prediction of software quality. The authors conclude with a discussion of current issues and future trends in this area. Topics covered include education, the evolution of standards for data definition, and tool support View full abstract»

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  • Predicting software development errors using software complexity metrics

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 253 - 261
    Cited by:  Papers (74)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (848 KB)  

    Predictive models that incorporate a functional relationship of program error measures with software complexity metrics and metrics based on factor analysis of empirical data are developed. Specific techniques for assessing regression models are presented for analyzing these models. Within the framework of regression analysis, the authors examine two separate means of exploring the connection between complexity and errors. First, the regression models are formed from the raw complexity metrics. Essentially, these models confirm a known relationship between program lines of code and program errors. The second methodology involves the regression of complexity factor measures and measures of errors. These complexity factors are orthogonal measures of complexity from an underlying complexity domain model. From this more global perspective, it is believed that there is a relationship between program errors and complexity domains of program structure and size (volume). Further, the strength of this relationship suggests that predictive models are indeed possible for the determination of program errors from these orthogonal complexity domains View full abstract»

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  • Applications of defect prevention in software development

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 164 - 168
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (452 KB)  

    A description is given of the defect prevention process. It consists of causal analysis meetings to identify the root causes of errors and suggest preventive actions, an action team that implements the preventive actions, stage kickoff meetings to provide feedback to developers at each stage of the development cycle, and data collection and tracking of associated data. Typical preventive actions include process changes (including common error lists, checklists, and other forms of feedback), new or improved tools, improved education, product changes, and improved communications among developers. The defect prevention process has been applied successfully in a number of software development organizations within IBM, with significant reduction in errors. The application of this process to different types of organizations involved in software development, including design, development, test, information development, planning and requirements, and human factors is described. For each type of organization, different processes, tools, and methodologies are used. It is shown that the defect prevention process can be applied to errors arising from each particular process View full abstract»

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  • Making software engineering happen in a telecommunications R&D organization

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 283 - 290
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    The implementation of a product development process in a new R&D telecommunications organization that supports software quality and productivity is described. The significance of an unconventional perspective and actions based on this perspective are discussed. The focus is on concerns, issues, and strategies for establishing a sound framework for integrated hardware/software systems of high quality View full abstract»

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  • A modeling approach to software cost estimation

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 309 - 314
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (604 KB)  

    The author describes a novel software estimation modeling process as well as the important productivity factors and the productivity measurement metrics used in the 5ESS project, one of the largest telecommunication projects at AT&T Bell Laboratories. The 5ESS switch is a modern digital electronic switching system with a distributed hardware and software architecture. The model estimation approach has greatly improved the quality of estimates. The study of productivity factors has resulted in some significant productivity and quality improvement processes in the 5ESS development community View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications focuses on all telecommunications, including telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television, by electromagnetic propagation.

Full Aims & Scope

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Editor-in-Chief
Muriel Médard
MIT