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Medical Imaging, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 11 • Date Nov. 1999

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Displaying Results 1 - 5 of 5
  • Survey: interpolation methods in medical image processing

    Page(s): 1049 - 1075
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1208 KB)  

    Image interpolation techniques often are required in medical imaging for image generation (e.g., discrete back projection for inverse Radon transform) and processing such as compression or resampling. Since the ideal interpolation function spatially is unlimited, several interpolation kernels of finite size have been introduced. This paper compares 1) truncated and windowed sine; 2) nearest neighbor; 3) linear; 4) quadratic; 5) cubic B-spline; 6) cubic; g) Lagrange; and 7) Gaussian interpolation and approximation techniques with kernel sizes from 1/spl times/1 up to 8/spl times/8. The comparison is done by: 1) spatial and Fourier analyses; 2) computational complexity as well as runtime evaluations; and 3) qualitative and quantitative interpolation error determinations for particular interpolation tasks which were taken from common situations in medical image processing. For local and Fourier analyses, a standardized notation is introduced and fundamental properties of interpolators are derived. Successful methods should be direct current (DC)-constant and interpolators rather than DC-inconstant or approximators. Each method's parameters are tuned with respect to those properties. This results in three novel kernels, which are introduced in this paper and proven to be within the best choices for medical image interpolation: the 6/spl times/6 Blackman-Harris windowed sinc interpolator, and the C2-continuous cubic kernels with N=6 and N=8 supporting points. For quantitative error evaluations, a set of 50 direct digital X-rays was used. They have been selected arbitrarily from clinical routine. In general, large kernel sizes were found to be superior to small interpolation masks. Except for truncated sine interpolators, all kernels with N=6 or larger sizes perform significantly better than N=2 or N=3 point methods (p/spl Lt/0.005). However, the differences within the group of large-sized kernels were not significant. Summarizing the results, the cubic 6/spl times/6 int- - erpolator with continuous second derivatives, as defined in (24), can be recommended for most common interpolation tasks. It appears to be the fastest six-point kernel to implement computationally. It provides eminent local and Fourier properties, is easy to implement, and has only small errors. The same characteristics apply to B-spline interpolation, but the 6/spl times/6 cubic avoids the intrinsic border effects produced by the B-spline technique. However, the goal of this study was not to determine an overall best method, but to present a comprehensive catalogue of methods in a uniform terminology, to define general properties and requirements of local techniques, and to enable the reader to select that method which is optimal for his specific application in medical imaging. View full abstract»

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  • Fourier rebinning applied to multiplanar circular-orbit cone-beam SPECT

    Page(s): 1076 - 1084
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1108 KB)  

    The authors study the application of Fourier rebinning methods to dual-planar cone-beam SPECT. Dual-planar cone-beam SPECT involves the use of a pair of dissimilar cone-beam collimators on a dual-camera SPECT system. Each collimator has its focus in a different axial plane. While dual-planar data is best reconstructed with fully three-dimensional (3-D) iterative methods, these methods are slow and have prompted a search for faster reconstruction techniques. Fourier rebinning was developed to estimate equivalent parallel projections from 3-D PET data, but it simply expresses a relationship between oblique projections taken in planes not perpendicular to the axis of rotation and direct projections taken in those that are. The authors find that it is possible to put cone-beam data in this context as well. The rebinned data ran then be reconstructed using either filtered backprojection (FBP) or parallel iterative algorithms such as OS-EM. The authors compare the Feldkamp algorithm and fully 3-D OSEM reconstruction with Fourier-rebinned reconstructions on realistically-simulated Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT data. They find that the Fourier-rebinned reconstructions exhibit much less image noise and lower variance in region-of-interest (ROI) estimates than Feldkamp. Also, Fourier-rebinning followed by OSEM with nonuniform attenuation correction exhibits less bias in ROI estimates than Feldkamp with Chang attenuation correction. The Fourier-rebinned ROI estimates exhibit bias and variance comparable to those from fully 3-D OSEM and require considerably less processing time. However, in areas off the axis of rotation, the axial-direction resolution of FORE-reconstructed images is poorer than that of images reconstructed with 3-D OSEM. The authors conclude that Fourier rebinning is a practical and potentially useful approach to reconstructing data from dual-planar circular-orbit cone-beam systems. View full abstract»

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  • MRI simulation-based evaluation of image-processing and classification methods

    Page(s): 1085 - 1097
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    With the increased interest in computer-aided image analysis methods, there is a greater need for objective methods of algorithm evaluation. Validation of in vivo MRI studies is complicated by a lack of reference data and the difficulty of constructing anatomically realistic physical phantoms. The authors present here an extensible MRI simulator that efficiently generates realistic three-dimensional (3-D) brain images using a hybrid Bloch equation and tissue template simulation that accounts for image contrast, partial volume, and noise. This allows image analysis methods to be evaluated with controlled degradations of image data. View full abstract»

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  • Models for the comparative equivalence of scattering properties of elemental filters used in diagnostic radiology

    Page(s): 1098 - 1107
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    While the equivalence of different filter materials commonly considered useful in diagnostic radiology can be obtained in terms of the overall transmitted primary photons, the scattering characteristics are not the same. In this work, comparative models that relate the scattered photons produced from one filter material with those from another have been developed. The comparison of the results of simulation of the scattering properties of these equivalent filter materials using the Monte Carlo technique with those from the models developed in the study are in reasonable agreement. View full abstract»

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  • Microwave imaging using the finite-element method and a sensitivity analysis approach

    Page(s): 1108 - 1114
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    A method for reconstructing the constitutive parameters of two-dimensional (2-D) penetrable scatterers from scattered field measurements is presented. This method is based on the differential formulation of the forward scattering problem, which is solved by applying the finite-element method (FEM). Given a set of scattered field measurements, the objective is to minimize a cost function which consists of two terms. The first is the standard error term, which is related to the measurements and their estimates, while the second term, which is related to the Tikhonov regularization, is used to heal the ill-posedness of the inverse problem. The iterative Polak-Ribiere nonlinear conjugate gradient algorithm is applied to the minimization of the cost function. During each iteration of the algorithm, the direction of correction is computed by using a sensitivity analysis approach, which is carried out by an elaborate finite-element scheme. The adoption of the finite-element method results in sparse systems of equations, while the computational burden is further reduced by applying the adjoint state vector methodology. Finally, a microwave medical imaging application, which is related to the detection of proliferated bone marrow, is examined, while the robustness of the proposed technique in the presence of noise and for different regularization levels is investigated. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging (T-MI) encourages the submission of manuscripts on imaging of body structures, morphology and function, and imaging of microscopic biological entities. The journal publishes original contributions on medical imaging achieved by various modalities, such as ultrasound, X-rays (including CT) magnetic resonance, radionuclides, microwaves, and light, as well as medical image processing and analysis, visualization, pattern recognition, and related methods. Studies involving highly technical perspectives are most welcome. The journal focuses on a unified common ground where instrumentation, systems, components, hardware and software, mathematics and physics contribute to the studies.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Michael Insana
Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology
Department of Bioengineering
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Urbana, IL 61801 USA
m.f.i@ieee.org