40th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (Cat. No.99CB37039)

17-19 Oct. 1999

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  • 40th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (Cat. No.99CB37039)

    Publication Year: 1999
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Near-optimal conversion of hardness into pseudo-randomness

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):181 - 190
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (180 KB)

    Various efforts have been made to derandomize probabilistic algorithms using the assumption that there exists a problem in E=dtime(2/sup O(n)/) that requires circuits of size s(n) (for some function s). These results are based on the NW (Nisan & Wigderson, 1997) generator. For the strong lower bound s(n)=2/sup ϵn/, the optimal derandomization is P=BPP. However, for weaker lower bound funct... View full abstract»

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  • Author index

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):667 - 668
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Error reduction for extractors

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):191 - 201
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (192 KB)

    An extractor is a function which extracts (almost) truly random bits from a weak random source, using a small number of additional random bits as a catalyst. We present a general method to reduce the error of any extractor. Our method works particularly well in the case that the original extractor extracts up to a constant function of the source min-entropy and achieves a polynomially small error.... View full abstract»

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  • Fully dynamic algorithms for maintaining all-pairs shortest paths and transitive closure in digraphs

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):81 - 89
    Cited by:  Papers (31)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (140 KB)

    This paper presents the first fully dynamic algorithms for maintaining all-pairs shortest paths in digraphs with positive integer weights less than b. For approximate shortest paths with an error factor of (2+ε), for any positive constant ε, the amortized update time is O(n2 log2 n/log log n); for an error factor of (1+ε) the amortized update time is O(n2<... View full abstract»

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  • Approximate nearest neighbor algorithms for Hausdorff metrics via embeddings

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):171 - 179
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (244 KB)

    Hausdorff metrics are used in geometric settings for measuring the distance between sets of points. They have been used extensively in areas such as computer vision, pattern recognition and computational chemistry. While computing the distance between a single pair of sets under the Hausdorff metric has been well studied, no results are known for the nearest-neighbor problem under Hausdorff metric... View full abstract»

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  • Derandomizing Arthur-Merlin games using hitting sets

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):71 - 80
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (152 KB)

    We prove that AM (and hence Graph Nonisomorphism) is in NP if for some ε>0, some language in NE∩ coNE requires nondeterministic circuits of size 2en. This improves results of Arvind and Kobler (1997) and of Klivans and Van Melkebeek (1999) who have proven the same conclusion, but under stronger hardness assumptions, namely, either the existence of a language in NE∩ coNE ... View full abstract»

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  • Non-malleable non-interactive zero knowledge and adaptive chosen-ciphertext security

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):543 - 553
    Cited by:  Papers (38)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (180 KB)

    We introduce the notion of non-malleable non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK) proof systems. We show how to transform any ordinary NIZK proof system into one that has strong non-malleability properties. We then show that the elegant encryption scheme of Naor and Yung (1990) can be made secure against the strongest form of chosen-ciphertext attack by using a non-malleable NIZK proof instead of a s... View full abstract»

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  • Efficient regular data structures and algorithms for location and proximity problems

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):160 - 170
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (352 KB)

    Investigates data structures obtained by a recursive partitioning of the input domain into regions of equal size. One of the most well-known examples of such a structure is the quadtree, which is used in this paper as a basis for more complex data structures; we also provide multidimensional versions of the stratified tree of P. van Emde Boas (1997). We show that, under the assumption that the inp... View full abstract»

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  • Boosting and hard-core sets

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):624 - 633
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (152 KB)

    This paper connects two fundamental ideas from theoretical computer science hard-core set construction, a type of hardness amplification from computational complexity, and boosting, a technique from computational learning theory. Using this connection we give fruitful applications of complexity-theoretic techniques to learning theory and vice versa. We show that the hard-core set construction of R... View full abstract»

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  • Primal-dual approximation algorithms for metric facility location and k-median problems

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):2 - 13
    Cited by:  Papers (38)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (156 KB)

    We present approximation algorithms for the metric uncapacitated facility location problem and the metric k-median problem achieving guarantees of 3 and 6 respectively. The distinguishing feature of our algorithms is their low running time: O(m log m) and O(m log m(L+log(n))) respectively, where n and m are the total number of vertices and edges in the underlying graph. The main algorithmic idea i... View full abstract»

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  • A non-linear time lower bound for Boolean branching programs

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):60 - 70
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (184 KB)

    We prove that for all positive integer k and for all sufficiently small ε>0 if n is sufficiently large then there is no Boolean (or 2-way) branching program of size less than 2em which for all inputs X⊆{0, 1, ..., n-1} computes in time kn the parity of the number of elements of the set of all pairs (x,y) with the property x∈X, y∈X, x<y, x+y∈X. For the proo... View full abstract»

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  • A theoretical framework for memory-adaptive algorithms

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):273 - 284
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (244 KB)

    External memory algorithms play a key role in database management systems and large scale processing systems. External memory algorithms are typically tuned for efficient performance given a fixed, statically allocated amount of internal memory. However, with the advent of real-time database system and database systems based upon administratively defined goals, algorithms must increasingly be able... View full abstract»

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  • Markovian coupling vs. conductance for the Jerrum-Sinclair chain

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):241 - 251
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (188 KB)

    We show that no Markovian coupling argument can prove rapid mixing of the Jerrum-Sinclair Markov chain for sampling almost uniformly from the set of perfect and near perfect matchings of a given graph. In particular, we show that there exists a bipartite graph G such that any Markovian coupling argument on the Jerrum-Sinclair Markov chain for G must necessarily take time exponential in the number ... View full abstract»

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  • Limits on the efficiency of one-way permutation-based hash functions

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):535 - 542
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (160 KB)

    Naor and Yung (1989) show that a one-bit-compressing universal one-way hash function (UOWHF) can be constructed based on a one-way permutation. This construction can be iterated to build a UOWHF which compresses by εn bits, at the cost of εn invocations of the one-way permutation. The show that this construction is not far from optimal, in the following sense, there exists an oracle rela... View full abstract»

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  • A sublinear time approximation scheme for clustering in metric spaces

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):154 - 159
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (176 KB)

    The metric 2-clustering problem is defined as follows: given a metric (or weighted graph) (X,d), partition X into two sets S(1) and S(2) in order to minimize the value of ΣiΣ{u,v}⊂S(i)d(u,v). In this paper, we show an approximation scheme for this problem View full abstract»

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  • An algorithmic theory of learning: robust concepts and random projection

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):616 - 623
    Cited by:  Papers (36)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (164 KB)

    We study the phenomenon of cognitive learning from an algorithmic standpoint. How does the brain effectively learn concepts from a small number of examples despite the fact that each example contains a huge amount of information? We provide a novel analysis for a model of robust concept learning (closely related to “margin classifiers”), and show that a relatively small number of examp... View full abstract»

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  • Finding double Euler trails of planar graphs in linear time [CMOS VLSI circuit design]

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):319 - 329
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (220 KB)

    The paper answers an open question in the design of complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) VLSI circuits. It asks whether a polynomial-time algorithm can decide if a given planar graph has a plane embedding ε such that ε has a Euler trail P=e1e 2...em and its dual graph has a Euler trail P*=e 1*e2*...em* where e View full abstract»

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  • Improved bounds for sampling colorings

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):51 - 59
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (144 KB)

    We consider the problem of sampling uniformly from the set of proper k-colorings of a graph with maximum degree Δ. Our main result is the design Markov chain that converges in O(nk log n) time to the desired distribution when k>11/6 Δ View full abstract»

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  • On universal and fault-tolerant quantum computing: a novel basis and a new constructive proof of universality for Shor's basis

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):486 - 494
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (196 KB)

    A novel universal and fault-tolerant basis (set of gates) for quantum computation is described. Such a set is necessary to perform quantum computation in a realistic noisy environment. The new basis consists of two single-qubit gates (Hadamard and σz¼) and one double-qubit gate (Controlled-NOT). Since the set consisting of Controlled-NOT and Hadamard gates is not... View full abstract»

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  • On counting independent sets in sparse graphs

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):210 - 217
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (132 KB)

    We prove two results concerning approximate counting of independent sets in graphs with constant maximum degree Δ. The first result implies that the Monte-Carlo Markov chain technique is likely to fail if Δ⩾6. The second shows that no fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme can exist for Δ⩾25, unless P=NP under randomized reductions View full abstract»

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  • Taking a walk in a planar arrangement

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):100 - 110
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (172 KB)

    We present a randomized algorithm for computing portions of an arrangement of n arcs in the plane, each pair of which intersect in at most t points. We use this algorithm to perform online walks inside such an arrangement (i.e., compute all the faces that a curve, given in an online manner, crosses), and to compute a level in an arrangement, both in an output-sensitive manner. The expected running... View full abstract»

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  • Fairness in routing and load balancing

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):568 - 578
    Cited by:  Papers (42)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (168 KB)

    We consider the issue of network routing subject to explicit fairness conditions. The optimization of fairness criteria interacts in a complex fashion with the optimization of network utilization and throughput; in this work, we undertake an investigation of this relationship through the framework of approximation algorithms. In this work we consider the problem of selecting paths for routing so a... View full abstract»

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  • Approximating fractional multicommodity flow independent of the number of commodities

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):24 - 31
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (132 KB)

    We describe fully polynomial time approximation schemes for various multicommodity flow problems in graphs with m edges and n vertices. We present the first approximation scheme for maximum multicommodity flow that is independent of the number of commodities k, and our algorithm improves upon the runtime of previous algorithms by this factor of k, running in O*(ε-2 m2) t... View full abstract»

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  • Long-lived adaptive collect with applications

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):262 - 272
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (164 KB)

    A distributed algorithm is adaptive if the worst case step complexity of its operations is bounded by a function of the number of processes that are concurrently active during the operation (rather than a function of N, the total number of processes, which is usually much larger). We present long-lived and adaptive algorithms for collect in the read/write shared-memory model. Replacing the reads a... View full abstract»

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