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Industry Applications Magazine, IEEE

Issue 1 • Date Jan 2000

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Displaying Results 1 - 6 of 6
  • Process industry initiative sets common design practices

    Page(s): 14 - 20
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB)  

    The Process Industry Practices (PIP) initiative is the successful effort of a group of twenty-three process industry companies and eight engineering and construction companies to produce voluntary recommended practices for engineering, procurement, and construction of equipment and facilities in the continuous process industries. PIP's defined goal is to harmonize the technical requirements from the existing standards of major industrial users, contractors, and standards organizations into a single set of practices. This article gives a general overview of the organization's history, structure, and vision as well as the various technology areas currently developing PIPs. Here, we also address and describe some of the practices that have been developed specifically by the Electrical Function Team, providing examples of how taking the best ideas from many individual company specifications can result in standardization and savings to all users View full abstract»

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  • Harmonizing electrotechnical standards in North America

    Page(s): 28 - 34
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    The creation of the North American free trade zone, and possibly an Americas free trade zone, will permit the US to compete on an equal footing with the European and Australasian markets. Harmonization of the electrotechnical product standards, conformity assessment test standards, and the electrical installation codes will greatly facilitate trade between Mexico, Canada, and the United States, and improve the economies and the standards of living in all three countries. The paper discusses the electrotechnical organisation agreements, types of harmonisation, North American harmonisation activities, electrotechnical standards harmonisation and their acceptance View full abstract»

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  • Industrial facilities gain new area classification guidelines

    Page(s): 35 - 44
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    Both the United States National Electrical Code (NEC) and the Canadian Electrical Code (CEC) provide special rules for installing electrical equipment in hazardous (classified) locations. Hazardous locations are those locations where fire or explosion hazards may exist due to flammable gases or vapors, flammable liquids, combustible dust, or easily ignitible fibers or flyings. Only Class I materials (gases and vapors) are within the scope of American Petroleum Institute (API) RP500 and RP505. These recommended practices offer those in the petroleum industry an opportunity to standardize area classification drawings-both for drawings using the Division method of area classification and for drawings using the Zone method of area classification. Good engineering judgment must be used with RP500 and RP505, but guidelines provided should minimize differences of classifications by qualified individuals classifying the same or similar locations. This article provides an overview of the two recommended practices including outlines of tables of content, but primarily emphasising the substantive changes and additions View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Std 515 takes a step toward harmonization

    Page(s): 21 - 27
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    IEEE Recommended Practice 515 for the "Testing, Design, Installation, and Maintenance of Electrical Resistance Heat Tracing for Industrial Applications" was first published in 1983. During the first five-year review cycle, which took place from 1984 to 1990, a major effort was made to harmonize 515 with other North American and European standards. The Project Authorization Request (PAR) for the second five-year review cycle was approved in June 1993. At this time, changes to the United States National Electrical Code (NEC) were proposed that would have a major impact on heat tracing systems. In Article 427, consideration was given to requiring metallic coverings on all heating cables, and ground-fault equipment protection on all heat tracing circuits, regardless of area classification or application. In addition, expanding the 1996 NEC to include IEC Zone methods of hazardous area classification was proposed. Inclusion of area classification Zone methods provides wide harmonization. IEEE 515 is now a standard which will provide the user with a means to achieve a safe and reliable heat tracing system View full abstract»

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  • The outlook for global unity in hazardous-area equipment

    Page(s): 8 - 13
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    Modifications to the National Electrical Code (NEC) and Canadian Electrical Code (CEC) have created changes and complications in the marking and approvals of new explosion-protected products. Instead of making the practice of consolidating approvals for globalized products simpler, Canada and the US have gone in different directions. This, in turn, may confuse many who manufacture, specify, install, and inspect explosion-protected equipment. Europe adopted the ATEX Directive, which creates a new method of approving explosion-protected equipment for Europe. Previously, equipment and materials had to pass equipment and construction standards that limited new ideas and techniques. Now, due to the ATEX Directive, manufacturers have the opportunity to build and test explosion-protected equipment to the new Directive 94-3, which is based on performance testing. This new system may revolutionize the hazardous area industry as well as trade throughout Europe by freeing up manufacturers to use new inventive types of equipment and construction standards View full abstract»

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  • Comparing test requirements for low-voltage circuit breakers

    Page(s): 45 - 52
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    Low-voltage circuit protective devices include low-voltage power circuit breakers, insulated case circuit breakers, and molded case circuit breakers. Each of these circuit breaker types is used for particular applications, and is tested against standards that relate to those applications. In North America, low-voltage power circuit breakers are designed and tested in accordance with ANSI/UL standard 1066, which in turn refers to the series of applicable ANSI C37 standards. Insulated case circuit breakers and molded case circuit breakers are designed and tested in accordance with the UL standard 489. In this paper the standards are compared by means of tables. The standards for low-voltage power circuit breaker and the molded case circuit breaker have many common elements. As a consequence, either type of circuit breaker could be used for some applications. However, there are several significant performance differences that relate to the application of these circuit breakers. Specifically, the low-voltage power circuit breaker is normally applied upstream of the molded case circuit breakers View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Industry Applications Magazine reports on the development and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; the encouragement of energy conservation; and the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
H. Landis "Lanny" Floyd