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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 11 • Date Nov. 1999

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Displaying Results 1 - 16 of 16
  • Special issue on photorefractive materials, devices, and applications, part I: optical effects and memories

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1851 - 1852
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  • In memoriam - Elwood King "Woody" Gannett

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1855 - 1856
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  • Introduction to "The heterodyne receiving system, and notes on the recent Arlington-Salem tests"

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1975 - 1978
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The heterodyne receiving system, and notes on the recent Arlington-Salem tests

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1979 - 1990
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  • The role of basic research in communications and electronics

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1991 - 1992
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  • Update to "The role of basic research in communications and electronics"

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1993 - 1995
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  • Theory of sensitivity in dynamic systems, an introduction [Book Reviews]

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1996 - 1998
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  • The electrical century: inventing the Web

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1999 - 2002
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    By the late 1980's, the worldwide network we know as the Internet was serving many thousands of users, mainly in technical and research environments. But the system was far from user-friendly for the novice. Personal computers, which reached a mass market in the 1980's, had introduced casual users to computing with attractive and easy-to-learn graphical interfaces. By contrast, those who gained access to Internet-connected computers were often discouraged by the drab, text-only interfaces and complicated commands they encountered. In addition, because of the decentralized nature of the Internet, it was difficult to locate information online, despite the later introduction of finding aids such as Gopher and wide-area information server (WAIS) in the early 1990's. In the 1990's this situation would be dramatically transformed by a new Internet application known as the World Wide Web. The Web would fundamentally change the Internet: not only by expanding its infrastructure, but by making its content easy and somewhat fun to access. In the process, the Web would entice millions of new users onto the Internet and add to its original role as a tool of science and government to encompass entertainment, shopping, and personal expression. The Internet had provided a new information infrastructure to link the research centers of the world, but the World Wide Web would put a human and more democratic face on that infrastructure View full abstract»

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  • A unified treatment of radiation-induced photorefractive, thermal, and neutron transmutation gratings

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1857 - 1869
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    We have reviewed different types of periodic structures (superlattices) induced by optical, infrared, and neutron irradiation. Both optical and electrical properties of these superlattices are analyzed, starting from the standard photorefractive model. New results on the thermoelectric and pyroelectric dynamic gratings are discussed in connection to the energy conversion and vibration sensing. For the neutron irradiation both real-time and static grating are analyzed, suggesting transmutation doping as a mechanism of recording View full abstract»

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  • Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1897 - 1911
    Cited by:  Papers (36)
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    The basic mechanisms of photo-induced space charge field formation, director axis re-orientation, and refractive index changes in fullerene C60- and dye-doped nematic liquid crystals films are presented. In particular, in aligned methyl-red-doped nematic liquid crystal film, we observe a nonlinear index change coefficient as high as 10 cm2/W, associated with purely optically induced liquid crystal director axis re-orientation. Experimental observations of dynamic and high-resolution storage holographic grating formation, two beam coupling with gain of nearly 3000 cm-1, optical limiting action at nanowatt cw laser power, and incoherent-coherent image conversion at μW/cm2 light intensity level are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Three-dimensional photorefractive memory based on phase-code and rotation multiplexing

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1941 - 1955
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    This paper reviews the recent research in the development of three-dimensional optical memories based on phase-code and rotation multiplexing. The theory of phase-code multiplexing as well as rotation multiplexing is discussed. The construction of generalized Hadamard phase codes is presented that ensures the full utilization of the limited number of pixels of currently available spatial light modulators (SLMs). The preliminary experimental results are provided. A demonstration system with off-the-shelf devices is proposed View full abstract»

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  • Holographic random access memory (HRAM)

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1931 - 1940
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (1)
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    We examine the present state of holographic random access memory (HRAM) systems and address the primary challenges that face this technology, specifically size, speed, and cost. We show that a fast HRAM system can be implemented with a compact architecture by incorporating conjugate readout, a smart-pixel array, and a linear array of laser diodes. Preliminary experimental results support the feasibility of this architecture. Our analysis shows that in order for the HRAM to become competitive, the principal tasks will be to reduce spatial light modulator (SLM) and detector pixel sizes to 1 μm, increase the output power of compact visible-wavelength lasers to several hundred milliwatts, and develop ways to raise the sensitivity of holographic media to the order of 1 cm/J View full abstract»

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  • Crosstalk in volume holographic memory

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1912 - 1930
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    Crosstalk noise, due to the finite dimension of the recording medium, is a fundamental limitation to storage capacity in volume holographic memory. We present a general theoretical analysis on the crosstalk noise in angle- and wavelength-multiplexed volume holographic memory systems. Results on storage capacity and its dependence on hologram separation and required signal-to-noise ratio are obtained and discussed. Crosstalk noise may also arise from the expansion or shrinkage of the storage medium during and after the hologram recording process. Its effects, including Bragg mismatch, pixel displacement and impulse broadening, are analyzed for Fourier-plane holographic memories. Complete compensation and optimization to eliminate or reduce these effects are presented and discussed View full abstract»

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  • Lithium niobate fibers and waveguides: fabrications and applications

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1962 - 1974
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
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    In this paper, we shall briefly present some recent works done on lithium niobate fibers and waveguides. There are two major parts. The first part introduces the fabrication techniques for LiNbO3 fibers and waveguides, which include the growth of lithium niobate fibers by laser-heated pedestal growth method and the fabrication of high aspect ratio submicron lithium niobate waveguide by focused ion beam lithography. The second part focuses on the application of lithium niobate fibers and waveguides, which include holographic storage in lithium niobate fibers, fast speed wavelength tunable filter, subpicosecond true time delay line, and low crosstalk microchannel plate spatial light modulator. Finally, a brief summary is provided View full abstract»

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  • Rigorous coupled wave analysis of induced photorefractive gratings

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1870 - 1896
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    The usefulness of rigorous coupled wave theory in the analysis of induced transmission and reflection grating formation, wave mixing, and higher order generation is demonstrated. No approximations air made, exact photorefractive material equations are used, and optical and electrical anisotropies are included. Several new effects, such as time oscillation, higher order generation, etc., are predicted View full abstract»

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  • The method to implement superresolution in holographic memory systems

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1956 - 1961
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The paper examines the issue of increasing the holographic storage density, of binary data transparencies. The approach is distinctive in that it allows for signal-to-noise ratio in reconstruction. It is shown that the use of Fourier holograms with optimized spatial spectrums allows the density to go beyond the value defined by the diffraction limit View full abstract»

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H. Joel Trussell
North Carolina State University