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Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date Feb 1990

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Displaying Results 1 - 20 of 20
  • Minimal multiplier realization of 1-D all-pass digital filters

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 299 - 302
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (220 KB)  

    A structure for realization of Nth-order one-dimensional all-pass digital filters containing N multipliers is presented. The Nth-order all-pass transfer function is realized as whole as opposed to realization using a cascade of the first- or second-order filters. The method is simple, and the resulting structure contains N multipliers and N unit delay elements View full abstract»

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  • Matrix theory approach to the canonical representation of a class of linear discrete-time time-variant systems

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 303 - 306
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (232 KB)  

    It is shown that a given square matrix can be decomposed into a particular combination of circulant matrices. From a linear system viewpoint, the above result can be interpreted as a decomposition of a linear discrete-time time-invariant system into a particular combination of linear discrete-time time-invariant systems, each in cascade with a modulator View full abstract»

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  • A generalized Remez method for the design of FIR digital filters

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 161 - 174
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1064 KB)  

    A generalized Remez method for the design of finite impulse response (FIR) filters is proposed. The method is based on a new problem formulation which largely eliminates certain difficulties brought about by an undetermined approximating polynomial. The new method can be used to design maximal-ripple (MR), extra-ripple (ER), and weighted-Chebyshev filters satisfying prescribed specifications, and, with the addition of some simple techniques, filters can be designed that are free from transition region anomalies. The method incorporates a new initialization strategy and a selective search technique to reduce the amount of computation needed to carry out a design. Extensive experimental results show that the new method is robust and at least as efficient as existing methods for the design of weighted-Chebyshev filters. For MR as well as ER filters, the new method is both robust and very efficient View full abstract»

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  • On charge injection in analog MOS switches and dummy switch compensation techniques

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 256 - 264
    Cited by:  Papers (57)  |  Patents (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (704 KB)  

    Theoretical and experimental results of the clock-feedthrough phenomenon (charge injection) in sample-and-hold circuits using minimum feature size transistors of a self-aligned 3-μm CMOS technology are compared. The lumped RC model of the conductive channel has been used and verified in different switch configurations, including variable input voltages. Special emphasis is laid on the feasibility and limits of charge cancellation techniques using dummy switch designs View full abstract»

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  • `Single-pin' integrated crystal oscillators

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 175 - 182
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB)  

    Oscillator configurations for integrated circuit (IC) applications where the quartz resonator can be connected between one pin of the IC and ground are presented. Excellent performance and good designability are obtained by applying negative feedback around a high-gain amplifier circuit and by including a symmetrical limiter in the feedback loop. The feedback mechanism provides an inherent buffering against load variations. Implementation examples in bipolar technology are discussed. A simple model for the negative impedance at the crystal port reveals methods for avoiding parasitic oscillations due to the shunt capacitance of the crystal. The performance of a semicustom integrated oscillator with simple structure is simulated and measured. In this oscillator, a novel start-up technique that ensures a stable and reliable start-up behavior is used View full abstract»

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  • A unifying frame for stability-test algorithms for continuous-time systems

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 290 - 296
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB)  

    A number of stability-test algorithms for linear continuous-time systems are presented in a unified manner, which is based on a general recursive relation for generating a sequence of polynomials of descending degree. Each polynomial in the sequence is expressed as a suitable combination of the preceding polynomial of higher degree and the polynomial with opposite zeros. It is shown how the general recursion may give rise to the known stability-test algorithms as well as to some families of new algorithms. The corresponding criteria are proved with the aid of simple geometrical considerations based on root loci. In this way, insight is gained into the nature of the different procedures View full abstract»

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  • On arbitrary-level IIR and FIR filters

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 280 - 284
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB)  

    A recently published method for designing IIR (infinite-impulse-response) digital filters with multilevel magnitude responses is reinterpreted from a different viewpoint. On the basis of this interpretation, techniques for extending these results to the case of finite-impulse-response (FIR) filters are developed. An advantage of the authors' method is that, when the arbitrary-level filter is implemented, its power-complementary filter, which may be required in specific applications, is obtained simultaneously. Also, by means of a tuning factor (a parameter of the scaling matrix), it is possible to generate a whole family of arbitrary-level filters View full abstract»

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  • On high frequency narrow-band elliptic filters

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 264 - 267
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB)  

    Narrowband elliptic filters suffer high inductance spread which makes them impractical above 100 MHz. A description is given of a sequence of transformation that leads to a nonladder realization. All critical inductors can be assigned a common optimum value, which is independent of the bandwidth. The filter response is insensitive to the Q of the remaining coils, which have lower inductance values. Some other practical design matters are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of a hybrid analog/switched-capacitor phase-locked loop

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 183 - 197
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1068 KB)  

    A detailed analysis is presented of the HPLL (hybrid phase-locked loop). Nonlinear state descriptions of the first- and second-order HPLLs are obtained. These descriptions are suitable for deterministic analyses. The locations of steady-state equilibrium operating points are given, along with relevant stability conditions. Also, a small signal model for loops of arbitrary order is presented. The behavior of the HPLL for random inputs is also treated, where the input consists of a sinusoid plus random Gaussian noise. Both linear and nonlinear analyses are presented. The results of the analyses performed are substantiated by both computer simulation and laboratory measurements on a discrete prototype. The analyses are directly applicable to standard SC (switched-capacitor) PLLs, for which no comprehensive analysis have previously been performed. Thus, the results presented are useful for systems designers using SC PLLs as well as for those using the HPLL View full abstract»

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  • Computer-aided mode analysis of coupled nonlinear oscillators

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 273 - 280
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB)  

    Theoretical advances in the analysis of coupled nonlinear oscillators have been strongly motivated by the mathematical modeling of biomedical systems, particularly the electrical activity of the gastro-intestinal digestive tract. In recent years, a matrix extension of the Krylov-Bogolioubov linearization technique has been developed and applied to a wide range of structures comprising chains, arrays, rings, and tubes. This technique produces complicated stability criteria for the existence of stable limit cycles. A CAD package is described. It solves these criteria for the structures mentioned with an arbitrary number of either third or fifth power conductance van der Pol oscillators coupled mutually View full abstract»

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  • Computer-aided double matching via parametric representation of Brune functions

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 212 - 222
    Cited by:  Papers (25)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (844 KB)  

    A new computer-aided broadband matching technique, the so-called parametric approach, is applied to double-matching problems. The technique takes less computation time and yields superior gain performance over the other available brute-force CAD techniques. Examples are presented to exhibit the practical use of the parametric approach. The results obtained are compared with those obtained via the real-frequency-direct-computational technique, which offers superior design performance with simple equalizer structures. The real-frequency techniques of broadbanding are implemented with several computational phases in which data-fitting processes, explicit factorization of real polynomials, and solution of a set of linear equations are required. The proposed parametric approach is a reformulation of the real-frequency techniques that eliminates the laborious numerical computations of the latter. The approach involves the parametric representation of Brune functions. Neither the use of explicit factorization of polynomials nor the solution of linear equation systems is necessary. Thus, the parametric method of broadband matching requires less computation with improved numerical stability View full abstract»

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  • A new algorithm for cyclic and pipeline data conversion

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 249 - 252
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB)  

    An algorithm is proposed for digital-to-analog conversion. The conversion starts with the most significant bit. This algorithm can be implemented using unity-gain buffers and thus permits high-speed data conversion. Switched-capacitor D/A and A/D converter architectures based on this algorithm are described, and experimental results are presented to demonstrate its validity. Error analysis shows that a conversion accuracy of at least 9 b is obtainable with a monolithic implementation. Computer simulations indicate that video-frequency operation may be possible if fine-line CMOS, bipolar, or BiCMOS technology is used View full abstract»

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  • On the design of voltage-controlled sinusoidal oscillators using OTAs

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 198 - 211
    Cited by:  Papers (42)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1116 KB)  

    A unified systematic approach to the design of voltage-controlled oscillators using only operational transconductance amplifiers (OTAs) and capacitors is discussed. Two classical oscillator models, i.e. quadrature and bandpass-based, are employed to generate several oscillator structures. They are very appropriate for silicon monolithic implementations. The resulting oscillation frequencies are proportional to the transconductance of the OTA, and this makes the structures well-suited for building voltage controlled oscillators (VCOs). Amplitude stabilization circuits using both automatic gain control (AGC) mechanisms and limitation schemes are presented. The circuits are compatible with the transconductance amplifier capacitor oscillator (TACO). Experimental results from bipolar breadboard and CMOS IC prototypes showing the potential of OTA-based oscillators for high-frequency VCO operation are included View full abstract»

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  • A comparison of two actively compensated active-RC filters

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 296 - 299
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (376 KB)  

    A number of authors have proposed the use of additional operational amplifiers (op amps) for compensating the detrimental effects of the frequency-dependent gains of the op amps already used in the circuit. This technique is known as active compensation. Among all such actively compensated circuits, two such circuits have been derived from the single amplifier biquad (SAB) of Deliyannis-Friend. These two circuits possess very low passive and active sensitivities. The purpose of this work is to compare their performances not only with respect to the active sensitivities but also from the point of requiring matched op amps and their stability View full abstract»

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  • A symmetric matrix criterion for polynomial root clustering

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 243 - 248
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (364 KB)  

    The authors construct a test for the roots of a polynomial to lie in a certain algebraic region. This test uses only polynomial operations, is based on symmetric matrices, and involves n inequalities. The authors extend the results to region intersection and show the connection to generalized Bezoutians View full abstract»

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  • 2-D systolic arrays for realization of 2-D convolution

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 267 - 233
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB)  

    An image is regarded as a 2-D array of pixels and is processed by a 2-D array architecture. The image can be acquired in the usual manner by a raster scan method which produces a 1-D array of pixels at real-time video rates. Two 2-D systolic arrays for a 2-D convolver are presented. They have an architecture which accepts this 1-D array of pixels and processes them in a 2-D array of simple processors. This high degree of parallelism is achieved through matrix-vector formulations of 2-D convolution. One array has a serial input, a serial output, and uses a minimum number of multipliers: the other array has parallel input, parallel output, and is suitable for high-speed processing using slow processing elements. Both arrays are modular with nearest-neighbor communications are are suitable for VLSI implementation. In addition, an algorithm for 2-D convolution that explicitly takes into account the boundary conditions is presented. This feature allows a large image to be partitioned so that each partition may be processed by independent 2-D convolvers. It is then possible to process only a specified section of the image or carry out high-speed parallel processing using as many 2-D convolvers as are available View full abstract»

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  • Steady-state analysis of a periodically excited nonlinear system

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 232 - 242
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (832 KB)  

    An algorithm is proposed to calculate the steady-state response of a strongly nonlinear system under periodic excitation. The method combines a Volterra approach based on the algorithm developed by L.Q. Chua and C.-Y. Ng, (see Electron. Circuits Syst., p.257-69, 1979) with some concepts adopted from the well-known harmonic balance technique. The resulting method eliminates the major shortcomings from both techniques while is preserves the major advantages of each. To demonstrate the possibilities of this new algorithm, some examples are provided View full abstract»

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  • Realization of 2-D state-space filters with fewer multipliers

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 252 - 256
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (376 KB)  

    The authors illustrate that, under certain controllability and observability conditions on the one-dimensional block diagonal subsystems, they can considerably reduce the number of multipliers required for hardware implementation of two-dimensional filters. Although these conditions require some additional properties from the filter parameters, the saving in cost of hardware realization is judged to be well worth the extra effort to verify initially whether these conditions are met. A systematic procedure for obtaining the coefficients of a minimal number of multipliers, when the filter satisfies the proposed conditions, is presented. A numerical example is considered to illustrate the accuracy of the proposed technique View full abstract»

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  • Multidimensional filtering using combined discrete Fourier transform and linear difference equation methods

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 223 - 231
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (700 KB)  

    A technique is proposed for filtering multidimensional (MD) discrete signals that combines discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and linear difference equation (LDE) methods. A partial P-dimensional DFT (P<M) is applied to the input signal, and then each P-dimensional complex frequency point is subjected to complex (M-P)-dimensional LDE filtering, followed by inverse partial P-dimensional DFT of the outputs of the LDE filters. The result is a MD filter that, at least for M=2 and M=3, is easier to design than LDE filters and lends itself to real-time implementation. The method is shown by example to be computationally more efficient than DFT or LDE methods for the implementation of a comparable 3-dimensional filter, where a 3-dimensional LDE filter of order (4,4,4) is used for the comparison View full abstract»

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  • Reduced order strip Kalman filtering using singular perturbation method

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 284 - 290
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB)  

    Strip Kalman filtering for restoration of images degraded by linear shift invariant blur and additive white Gaussian noise is considered. The image process is modeled by a one-dimensional vector autoregressive (AR) model in each strip. It is shown that the composite dynamic model that is obtained by combining the image model and the blur model takes the form of a singularly perturbed system owing to the strong-weak correlation effects within a window. The time-scale property of the singularly perturbed system is then utilized to decompose the original system into reduced-order subsystems which closely capture the behavior of the full-order system. For these subsystems, the relevant Kalman filter equations are given, providing the suboptimal filtered estimates of the image and the one-step prediction estimates of the blur needed for the next stage. Simulation results are provided View full abstract»

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