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Lightwave Technology, Journal of

Issue 10 • Date Oct 1999

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • Characterization and performance evaluation of coupled multiwaveguide arrays

    Page(s): 1884 - 1889
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    A new and effective nonintrusive method for characterization of N coupled waveguides is presented. The method is able to furnish readily the coupling parameters of most significance, and furnishes in addition, a way of assessment of overall device quality and performance. The procedure is based on a semi-empirical implementation of coupled mode theory, by means of which different functions are defined for different input configurations. In a well-functioning device, all these function should attain a common single minimum, out of which the coupling coefficient and additional parameters of the device are deduced. Devices were fabricated on Z-cut LiNbO3 crystals by in-diffusion of titanium. The method was applied in order to measure the wavelength and polarization dependence of the coupling coefficient View full abstract»

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  • Effect of adding a long period grating in a double-pass backward Er-doped superfluorescent fiber source

    Page(s): 1896 - 1903
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    We first demonstrate that by inserting an appropriate long period grating in an Er-doped superfluorescent fiber source (SFS) of double-pass backward (DPB) configuration, the output spectrum can be broadened up to 40 nm. The characteristics of a long period grating (LPG) are then shown to have marked effects on the properties of the SFS. Both measured and simulated results agree well in the trend. The spectrum broadening using an LPG is shown effective over a large pump power range, especially for a single-humped DPB SFS. After the analysis of three types of output spectra, the tolerances of LPG's characteristics are found larger for a single-humped DPB SFS having the dominant band in 1558 nm View full abstract»

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  • Influence of fiber nonlinearity on the fiber transfer function: theoretical and experimental analysis

    Page(s): 1806 - 1813
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    The influence of fiber nonlinearity on the fiber transfer function is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A rigorous expression for the fiber transfer function using a directly modulated semiconductor laser as an optical transmitter is presented. Very good agreement of fiber transfer function between experimental data and theoretical predictions is achieved. Furthermore, the fiber parameter values extracted from fitting are the same as those obtained from relative intensity noise measurements, and the fiber nonlinearity coefficient value is compared with other published results. A thorough physical explanation for the effect of fiber nonlinearity on the fiber transfer function at low-medium frequencies is provided. Results reveal that in the anomalous dispersion regime the fiber nonlinearity enhances the high-pass behavior typical of the fiber transfer function using a directly modulated laser operating at high bias current, shifts the transfer function dips toward higher frequency, and consequently leads to a larger bandwidth. Furthermore, it is shown that the fiber nonlinearity can provide partial or total compensation of the nonuniform frequency response at low-medium frequencies resulting from a directly modulated laser operated at low bias current View full abstract»

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  • A 1.55-μm solid-state laser source for DWDM applications

    Page(s): 1904 - 1908
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    We describe the design and operation of a 1550-nm diode pumped Er,Yb:glass laser with >130 mW of output power and a free running linewidth of ~22 kHz. Due to the low frequency relaxation oscillation, near shot limited relative intensity noise performance is obtained throughout the radio frequency (RF) range of interest for cable television and dense wavelength division multiplexed (CATV/DWDM) applications. For long-haul spans an intracavity lithium niobate phase modulator allows for chirping of the linewidth to bandwidths and at rates sufficient to defeat stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). For certain applications, the high output power can eliminate the need for an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) View full abstract»

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  • Bit error rate degradation due to a dip in the frequency response of an equalizing amplifier

    Page(s): 1766 - 1773
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    This paper describes an analysis of bit error rate (BER) degradation due to a dip in the frequency response of an equalizing amplifier. An equivalent circuit simulation clarifies the BER degradation factors: (1) the output amplitude decrease of a specific binary sequence that has a repetition frequency equal to the dip frequency and (2) the oscillation in output voltage after rise and fall of signal level. A simple model shows that the center frequency and bandwidth of the dip as well as the depth of the dip strongly affect BER. A circuit simulation and experiment show that a dip at around one tenth the data rate causes the worst BER. The dip tolerance of a dc-suppressed transmission code is also discussed View full abstract»

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  • A 10 Gb/s optical code division multiplexing using 8-chip optical bipolar code and coherent detection

    Page(s): 1758 - 1765
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    bOptical code division multiplexing (OCDM) using optical bipolar code and coherent detection is a new multiplexing method for future fiber-optic communication networks. Some optical bipolar codes, which are described by the combination of phase of optical chip pulses, with a repetition frequency 10 GHz are generated experimentally. Temporal matched filtering for the 10 Gb/s OCDM is demonstrated using optical encoder and decoder, and their fundamental properties are investigated. Effect of interference code is shown experimentally and discussed. The novel coherent detection system with autocorrelation sidelobe suppression using balanced detector and local light source is proposed. The pseudocoherent detection is demonstrated experimentally by using a clock pulse. Advantageous properties of the coherent detection are shown. The fundamental functions to realize the gigabit rate OCDM system is revealed View full abstract»

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  • Residual stresses in a doubly clad fiber with depressed inner cladding (DIC)

    Page(s): 1823 - 1834
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    Thermal and mechanical stresses developed in concentric three-layered optical fiber-core, and inner and outer cladding, have been thoroughly studied for various concentrations of dopants and geometric structures. In order to examine the parametric results of thermal stresses in preforms, the stresses were measured with a polariscope. The results agreed well with the theoretical calculations. The thermal stresses were calculated for three temperature ranges in which the glass in each layer has a different thermal expansion coefficient. The mechanical stresses were studied considering the normal stress in the molten neck down region and its development with time. In order to include the time dependence of the stress below softening point, Maxwell's one dimensional viscoelasticity was applied. In a parametric study, the analyzes were carried out based on the fiber parameters such as relative index difference, ratio of clad to core, and depressed relative index difference. With an increase of core index above the silica, the thermal stresses in core increased linearly, but the depressed inner clad does not affect the stresses in core. From the parametric studies and modeling it was found that when the depressed inner cladding (DIC) layer has a large cross-section or high dopant concentration, the mechanical stress in core change from compression to tension View full abstract»

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  • WDM cross-connect architectures with reduced complexity

    Page(s): 1732 - 1741
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    With the arrival of wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) systems carrying large numbers of wavelength channels, it appears that new cross-connect architectures that allow large numbers of wavelength channels to cross-connect at the wavelength granularity level are required. We propose a number of such architectures. The different architectures are compared in terms of complexity, cost, loss, crosstalk and filter narrowing. An analysis of the various nonblocking properties of such cross-connects is also described View full abstract»

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  • Optical amplifier noise figure reduction for optical single-sideband signals

    Page(s): 1793 - 1796
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    This paper analyzes the amplification of optical single-sideband signals, highlighting the significance of the optical signal bandwidth in determining signal-amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) beat noise. It predicts that an electrical noise figure of one may be realized for single-sideband signals using appropriate optical filtering. It verifies noise figure reduction experimentally, demonstrating an electrical noise figure of 1.1× the spontaneous emission factor of the amplifier, which is 2.6 dB below the limit for conventional intensity modulated signals View full abstract»

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  • Noise evolution along optically amplified links in presence of nonlinear parametric gain

    Page(s): 1750 - 1757
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    With a semiclassical model of the optical amplifier, we calculate the evolution of noise along optically amplified lines in presence of nonlinear interaction between signal and amplified spontaneous emission, amplifier saturation, fiber dispersion and vacuum field fluctuations associated with attenuation of the fiber. The noise figure (NF) is calculated for two representative cases of long and short-distance links with different numbers of optical amplifiers and for several fiber dispersions. Results indicate that the optimum number of optical amplifiers is limited by the increase of nonlinear effects with signal power View full abstract»

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  • Distributed PMD measurement with a polarization-OTDR in optical fibers

    Page(s): 1843 - 1848
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    This paper presents a new method for the measurement of distributed polarization mode dispersion (PMD) in optical fibers. This method uses a polarization optical time-domain reflectometer (P-OTDR), and is based on a measurement of the degree of polarization of the backscattered light as a function of distance in the fiber. Both the average and the statistics of the degree of polarization are used to estimate the two relevant parameters for measuring PMD, namely, the beat length and the coupling length. At present, our P-OTDR gives qualitative results only. However, it enables to distinguish between high and low PMD sections in a long fiber link. This should already have practical applications, in particular for the characterization of installed fibers View full abstract»

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  • Enhanced electrooptic modulation efficiency utilizing slow-wave optical propagation

    Page(s): 1875 - 1883
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    The use of slow-wave optical propagation to promote highly efficient electrooptic modulation of light is investigated theoretically. The proposed modulators utilize a traveling wave (TW) design in which a grating integrated with a single-mode waveguide induces coupling between forward- and reverse-propagating waves. This contradirectional coupling leads to a reduction in the average optical propagation speed in the forward direction. The “slow” waveguide structures provide two features which facilitate improved modulator performance over conventional “fast” TW designs: (1) optical/microwave velocity matching in substrates with high electrooptic coefficients and dielectric constants and (2) enhancement of electrooptic phase shift due to the “dwell time” of the light in the modulation region. For the ideal case of perfect velocity matching, these two factors lead to a potential improvement of nearly an order of magnitude in electrical power dissipation over velocity-matched designs in the conventional lithium niobate (LN) substrate material. Additional orders-of-magnitude improvement in the required electrical power could result from the use of tungsten bronze substrates such as strontium barium niobate (SBN), which have such higher electrooptic coefficients than LN. The prediction of a large reduction in electrical power dissipation is confirmed by calculations for specific slow-wave designs utilizing multireflector etalons in SBN, although response speed limitations result from the fact that perfect velocity matching is not achieved View full abstract»

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  • Counterreceiving heterodyne detection with an integrated coherent transceiver and its applications in bandwidth-on-demand access networks

    Page(s): 1724 - 1731
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    Low-cost simple structure integrated transceivers are the key components toward future applications of coherent technology in access networks. In this paper, we propose a novel counterreceiving heterodyne detection (CRHD) scheme of a monolithically integrated four-section coherent transceiver. The CRHD scheme can lead to further simplification of the design of integrated coherent transceivers, and facilitates duplex transmissions with a single terminal device. Error free detection at 100 Mb/s with a 215-1 pseudorandom pattern is achieved. Flexible partitioning of channel capacity between the up- and downstream traffic on the same wavelength channel is proposed and demonstrated based on the CRHD scheme. The functions of signaling and multichannel operations are performed to demonstrate a proof-of-concept bandwidth-on-demand access network with integrated coherent transceivers View full abstract»

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  • Four-wave mixing suppression effect of dispersion distributed fibers

    Page(s): 1814 - 1822
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    The four-wave mixing (FWM) suppression effect of dispersion distributed fibers (DDF's), which have a nonuniform chromatic dispersion along their length, has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. We fabricated two different kinds of DDF by the vapor-phase axial deposition (VAD) method to clarify the FWM suppression effect. Moreover, we investigated experimentally the effect of our fabricated DDF's on the transmission characteristics of 4×10 Gb/s wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems. We confirmed that the proposed DDF's can not only suppress PWM but also improve the input power limitation for WDM systems View full abstract»

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  • A wide-angle finite element beam propagation method with perfectly matched layers for nonlinear optical waveguides

    Page(s): 1909 - 1915
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    A beam propagation method (BPM) based on the finite element method (FEM) is described for the analysis of both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) waves propagating in nonlinear optical waveguides. A perfectly matched layer is introduced to avoid spurious reflections from computational window edges. For the wide-angle beam propagation analysis, the Pade approximation is introduced to the differential operator along the propagation direction. In order to improve numerical accuracy and efficiency, a finite element mesh and a reference refractive index are adaptively renewed at each propagation step, and to reduce computational effort for the nonlinear optical waveguide analysis, an iterative algorithm is also introduced. Waveguides with nonlinear self-focusing claddings are analyzed to investigate spatial soliton emission phenomena, and it is confirmed that soliton couplers can be easily constructed View full abstract»

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  • Microbend sensor structure for use in distributed and quasi-distributed sensor systems based on selective launching and filtering of the modes in graded index multimode fiber

    Page(s): 1856 - 1868
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    This paper describes a novel optical fiber microbend sensor architecture which my be utilized in distributed and quasi-distributed measurement. The actual sensor element is graded index multimode fiber coupled to the measurand field through the usual microbend inducing structures. However, the feed to the sensing section is through a single-mode fiber spliced to the multimode fiber to ensure that only the lowest order spatial mode is launched. Similarly the receiver is also coupled to the sensing element through a single mode fiber. The single mode within multimode fiber propagates with minimal mode coupling with source to receiver losses of typically 0.7 dB for short sensors ranging to approximately 0.3 dB per each additional kilometer of sensing fiber. The sensitivity of this structure to microbend induced losses has been thoroughly characterized. Typically the optical power loss for a given microbend structure and force is about three to six times higher in this architecture than for conventional fully mode filled microbend sensor. The structure is also almost totally insensitive to macrobend induced losses and allows a variety of novel designs in microbend inducing structures. Additionally, spatial mode filters allow effective control over concatenation effects that are common in microbend sensors View full abstract»

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  • Optical single sideband transmission at 10 Gb/s using only electrical dispersion compensation

    Page(s): 1742 - 1749
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    A system is presented which uses optical single sideband transmission at 10 Gb/s together with electrical dispersion compensation at the receiver. Transmission with a bit error rate better than 10-10 on nondispersion shifted fiber is experimentally demonstrated over 320 km and the dispersion from 1000 km of fiber was effectively equalized in simulation. In the transmitter, driving one or two modulators with a combination of a baseband digital signal and the Hilbert transform of that signal creates an optical single sideband signal. In terms of reducing the effects of chromatic dispersion, transmitting the signal in a single sideband format has two advantages over a double sideband format. First, the optical bandwidth of the transmitted single sideband signal is approximately one half of a conventional double sideband signal. Second, an optical single sideband signal with transmitted carrier can be “self-homodyne” detected and the majority of the phase information preserved since no spectrum back folding occurs upon detection. This allows the received signal to be partially equalized in the electrical domain View full abstract»

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  • Ultimate performance of optical DSB signal-based millimeter-wave fiber-radio system: effect of laser phase noise

    Page(s): 1774 - 1781
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    It is theoretically shown that the phase noise of laser light source can be automatically eliminated by compensating the differential group delay due to the fiber dispersion between the two sidebands of the optical DSB signal. The bit error rate (BER) measurement of 60 GHz millimeter (mm)-wave subcarrier multiplexed optical double-sideband (DSB) signal transport in dispersion-compensated optical fiber link using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) mill show that the effect of the laser phase noise on the BER is as small as a few % relative to the other additive noise effect, thus realizing almost the ultimate performance View full abstract»

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  • Impact of transmission impairments on the teletraffic performance of wavelength-routed optical networks

    Page(s): 1713 - 1723
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    In a wavelength-routed optical network, a transmitted signal remains in the optical domain over the entire route (lightpath) assigned to it between its source and destination nodes. The optical signal may have to traverse a number of crossconnect switches (XCSs), fiber segments, and optical amplifiers, e.g., erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs). Thus, while propagating through the network, the signal may degrade in quality as it encounters crosstalk at the XCSs and also picks up amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise at the EDFAs. Since these impairments continue to degrade the signal quality as it progresses toward its destination, the received bit error rate (BER) at the destination node might become unacceptably high. Previous work on the lightpath routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) problem assumed an ideal physical layer and ignored these transmission impairments. The main contribution of our work is to incorporate the role of the physical layer in setting up lightpaths by employing appropriate models of multiwavelength optical devices (XCSs and EDFAs) such that the BER of a candidate lightpath can be computed, in advance, to determine if this lightpath should be used for the call. Features from existing RWA algorithms are integrated with our on-line BER calculation mechanism. Our simulation studies indicate that employing BER-based call-admission algorithms has a significant impact on the performance of realistic networks View full abstract»

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  • Crosstalk due to optical fiber nonlinearities in WDM CATV lightwave systems

    Page(s): 1782 - 1792
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    Crosstalk in a two-wavelength 1550-nm standard fiber system at subcarrier frequencies 50-800 MHz is investigated. The dependence of the crosstalk on subcarrier frequency, wavelength spacing, and optical power is measured and analyzed. The observed crosstalk is attributed to three primary mechanisms: stimulated Raman scattering, cross-phase modulation, and the optical Kerr effect combined with polarization-dependent loss. At wavelength spacing greater than 9 nm, stimulated Raman scattering dominates. At wavelength spacing less than 5 nm, the primary contributor can be the optical Kerr effect with polarization dependent loss, except at higher modulation frequencies where cross-phase modulation also is significant. At even modest (by CATV standards) optical power, the crosstalk is as high as -40 to -45 dB View full abstract»

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  • Single-end polarization mode dispersion measurement using backreflected spectra through a linear polarizer

    Page(s): 1835 - 1842
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    Routine characterization of polarization mode dispersion of single-mode fibers in installed cables requires simple and fast techniques. All standardized techniques use both fiber ends, one connected to the optical source and the other one for signal detection. Clearly, this causes several drawbacks in field tests because the two fiber ends are usually far from each other. Among standardized techniques, the fixed-polarizer method (also called wavelength scanning method) is one of the simplest to implement. In this work we present a new single-end measurement scheme based on the fixed polarizer method applied to the signal backreflected by the fiber far-end. We report analytical equations and numerical solutions that permit to calculate the mean value of the differential group delay measuring the crossings and/or extreme densities of the spectrum transmitted through a linear polarizer. We also show that the mean value of the differential group delay can be calculated using the Fourier transform of the detected signal. Finally, experimental results on cascades of single-mode step-index fibers confirm the robustness and easiness of our proposal for polarization mode dispersion measurements View full abstract»

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  • Etched cavity InGaAsP-InP waveguide Fabry-Perot filter tunable by current injection

    Page(s): 1890 - 1895
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    A short cavity Fabry-Perot (FP) tunable filter was fabricated by chemically assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) of an InGaAsP-InP waveguide. The FP cavity mirrors were formed by high reflectivity dielectric coatings deposited onto the two etched facets of the cavity. High-speed (less than 3 ns) wavelength-tuning of the filter was achieved by current injection. A super-linear dependence on current injection was observed in the wavelength tuning. The filter was tunable over a continuous range of 4 nm by up to 50 mA current injection. The device had a free-spectral range of 9 nm and gave a contrast ratio of about 10 dB. A theoretical simulation of the filter was developed using a beam propagation method calculation to estimate the reflection efficiency at different mirror tilt angles. The calculated contrast ratio of the filter was in good agreement with the measured result. The calculations showed that 20 dB contrast ratio should be possible by having a facet reflectivity of over 90% and ensuring that the etched facets are off-vertical by less than 1.8 View full abstract»

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  • A study on the development of transmission-type extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric optical fiber sensor

    Page(s): 1869 - 1874
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    The conventional reflection-type extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) optical fiber sensor has good sensitivity and resolution compared with other types of optical fiber sensors. However, they have the disadvantage that the distinction of strain direction of EFPI is difficult because of measurement method by only fringe counting. This paper presents the newly developed transmission-type EFPI (TEFPI) optical fiber sensor, which has been improved by additional functions, and whose measuring system differs from that of the reflection-type EFPI optical fiber sensors using a single-mode fiber (SMF) and multimode (MMF) fibers as light guides and reflectors, respectively. The output signal of the TEFPI optical fiber sensor was analyzed with the uniform plane wave-based model, the SMF power distribution-based model and the splice loss-based model; the analyzed signals were then verified experimentally. Based on the results of analysis, the TEFPI optical fiber sensor was fabricated using two single-mode fibers connected to the light source and optical receiver; this was then used in strain measurement. The strain measured by the TEFPI optical fiber sensor was compared with that measured by the electric strain gauge View full abstract»

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  • Dispersion characteristics of an optical fiber having linear chirp refractive index profile

    Page(s): 1797 - 1805
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    We analyze the dispersion characteristics of an optical fiber having linear chirp type refractive index profile. The chirp type profile is general in nature and by controlling the profile parameters, one can obtain a wide range of profiles from simple step index to complex multiple cladded type. The problem is treated as an optimization problem in the profile parameter space. It is shown that a variety of dispersion characteristics can be realized with proper optimization of the profile parameters. Linear finite element method (LFEM) is employed for computing the modal fields and propagation constants. Tolerance analysis of the fiber dispersion characteristics and bending loss calculation are also carried out View full abstract»

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  • Static fiber-Bragg grating strain sensing using frequency-locked lasers

    Page(s): 1849 - 1855
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    Novel and highly sensitive static strain interrogation technique is demonstrated, where the sensing element is a fiber-Bragg grating (FBG) and the light source is a frequency-locked diode laser. Locking the laser frequency to the center of an absorption line (atomic line of potassium in our experiment) eliminates the slow frequency drift of the laser. The stabilized laser source is used to measure low frequency (“static”) strain, with a sensitivity of 1.2 nanostrain/√Hz rms at 1.5 Hz View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The Journal of Lightwave Technology contains articles on current research, applications and methods used in lightwave technology and fiber optics.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Peter J. Winzer
Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs