By Topic

Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 5 • Date Sept. 1999

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 45
  • Comment on diffraction loss of rooftop-to-street in COST 231-Walfisch-Ikegami model

    Page(s): 1451 - 1452
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (76 KB)  

    As a small-cell path-loss prediction model, the COST 231-Walfisch-Ikegami model has been used extensively. It facilitates radio frequency (RF) path-loss predictions in typical suburban and urban environments where the building heights are quasi-uniform. However, it was found that the expression accounting for the diffraction loss from the last rooftop to the street was erroneously obtained. In this paper, we show why the error is present in the COST 231-Walfisch-Ikegami model and how it impacts on path-loss prediction. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Comments on "On verifying the first-order Markovian assumption for a Rayleigh fading channel model"

    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (33 KB)  

    For original paper see Wang and Chang IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol.45, p.353-7 (1996). In the present paper, the trivariate probability density function (PDF) for the envelope of a bandpass Gaussian process is derived. However, the multivariate PDF for the envelope of a bandpass Gaussian process having an arbitrary power spectrum has been previously reported. The Markovian behavior of the envelope process for the U-shaped power spectrum 1//spl radic/(1-f/sup 2/) was studied by Wang and Chang using an information theoretic approach. It is worth mentioning that several authors have formerly discussed that Markovian behavior for the rational power spectrum 1/(1+f/sup 2/) from a probabilistic point of view. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • On generalized covariance-based velocity estimation

    Page(s): 1546 - 1557
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB)  

    We look at the problem of how a moving receiver (mobile station) estimates its own velocity from the autocovariance of functions of the quadrature components of the received signal. In cellular systems, this information-bearing signal conveying voice, data, or both and transmitted from a base station is well characterized as a narrow-band Gaussian random process specified by Clarke's (1968) model. The need for such estimation arises, for example, in the design of handoff algorithms for microcellular systems. We consider here the performance of estimators based on two classes of functions: the integral-power sum of the quadrature components G1,n(t)=rin(t)+rqn (t) and integral powers of the complex envelope G2,n(t)=[ri2(t)+rq2 (t)]n/2, n∈Z+, respectively. A particular case of this approach for n=2 was first considered by Sampath and Holtzman (1993) and subsequently by Austin and Stuber (1994). For each of the two classes of functions, we derive the optimal (in a defined sense) estimator and show that all estimators based on G2,n (t) have identical performance and are generally inferior to those based on G1,n(t). We also study the implications of Aulin's model (1979) when used to evaluate the performance of estimators based on the integral-power sum of the quadrature components. Last, using a proposed analytical model, we analyze the effect of the scattering distribution on the performance of the estimators, corroborating some previous results obtained by Austin and Stuber by simulation View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Trellis-coded quadrature amplitude modulation with 2N-dimensional constellations for mobile radio channels

    Page(s): 1475 - 1487
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (436 KB)  

    Using a modified Wei method, originally designed for additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels, we have constructed four-dimensional (4-D) and six-dimensional (6-D) trellis codes with rectangular signal constellations for frequency-nonselective mobile radio channels. Applying a novel way of partitioning the two-dimensional (2-D) constituent constellations, both into subsets with enlarged minimum Euclidean distance and subrings including equal energy signal points, we have obtained partitions of the 2N-D signal sets into subsets with a Hamming distance between signal points which equals N. This is fundamental for constructing good trellis codes to transmit data over flat fading channels View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A sectorized beamspace adaptive diversity combiner for multipath environments

    Page(s): 1503 - 1510
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (188 KB)  

    The beam diversity technique is effective in combating multipath fading in wireless communications. In a beam diversity system, multiple receiving branches are formed with multiple antenna beams with distinctive patterns. These beams are synthesized in such a fashion that the fading phenomena observed at different branches are nearly uncorrelated. The disadvantage of such a system is the lack of adaptivity for cochannel interference (CCI) suppression. In this paper, an adaptive beam diversity combiner is proposed for sectorized signal reception. The diversity branches are formed with several adaptive beamformers whose response patterns encompass an angular sector in the field-of-view of the receiver. With a set of judiciously chosen weight vectors, effective diversity combining can be achieved inside the sector, and out-of-sector CCI can be suppressed via nulling. Simulation results confirm the efficacy of the proposed scheme View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Error-rate-based power-controlled multimode H.263-assisted video telephony

    Page(s): 1726 - 1738
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (508 KB)  

    The performance of a power-control algorithm suitable for multimode transceivers is investigated using 1, 2, and 4 bit/symbol modems. It is shown that the algorithm is suitable for maintaining a target frame error-rate (FER), irrespective of the modulation mode employed. The transceiver parameters are summarized in Table I, while the minimum and maximum required average transmitted powers in the cell for the different modes are given in Table V. Given the video bit rates of 4.25-16.9 kbps in the various modem modes, the corresponding average video peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) improvement of approximately 6 dB can be inferred from the figure included, where the corresponding PSNR values are approximately 32.5, 35, and 38.5 dB, respectively. This PSNR improvement is achievable in cell areas, where the average transmitted power levels of Table V can be maintained, supporting one of the above legitimate modes of operation of the multimode transceiver View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Adaptive multiuser detection and beamforming for interference suppression in CDMA mobile radio systems

    Page(s): 1341 - 1355
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (400 KB)  

    This paper considers the problem of interference suppression in direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (DS-CDMA) systems over fading channels. An adaptive array receiver is presented which integrates multiuser detection, beamforming, and RAKE reception to mitigate cochannel interference and fading. The adaptive multiuser detector is formulated using a blind constrained energy minimization criterion and adaptation is carried out using a novel algorithm based on set-membership parameter estimation theory. The proposed detector overcomes the shortcomings of conventional LMS- and RLS-type algorithms, namely, that of slow convergence and large computational load, respectively. This is especially the case when strong interferers are present or when the number of adaptive weights is relatively large. DS-CDMA systems can have a relatively large number of spatially distributed interferers. Thus beamforming is based on direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimates provided by an approximate maximum-likelihood estimator (DOA-MLE). Unlike previous approaches, the DOA-MLE exploits the structure of the DS-CDMA signaling scheme resulting in robust performance and simple implementation in the presence of angle spreading. The overall method is suitable for real-time implementation and can substantially improve the interference suppression capabilities of a CDMA system View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Diversity transmission and adaptive MLSE for digital cellular radio

    Page(s): 1488 - 1502
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB)  

    Adaptive equalization at the mobile in conjunction with diversity transmission at the base station can combat the adverse effects of both frequency-selective and frequency-nonselective fading at the mobile receiver. This is suggested as an alternative to diversity combining at the mobile. Thus, a substantial saving in the mobile receiver's implementation cost and power consumption is expected. In this paper, a time-domain multiple access system with two transmitting antennas at the base station and maximum-likelihood sequence estimation at the mobile is considered. Per-survivor processing (PSP), a combined channel-tracking and sequence-estimation algorithm, has been used for improving the system performance. System performance results in the presence of severe Doppler frequency shifts and additive white Gaussian noise in a flat fading channel are presented. The computational complexity and acquisition capabilities of the PSP algorithm are also presented View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A multicarrier CDMA system with adaptive subchannel allocation for forward links

    Page(s): 1428 - 1436
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (260 KB)  

    Multicarrier transmission schemes have been introduced into code-division multiple access (CDMA) systems to gain advantages for high data rate transmission. One of the methods is to transmit identical narrowband direct-sequence (DS) waveforms in parallel over a number of subchannels using frequency diversity. In this paper, we propose a multicarrier CDMA system with an adaptive subchannel allocation method for forward links. In the proposed system, instead of identical DS waveforms being transmitted over a number of subchannels in parallel, each user's DS waveform is transmitted over the user's favourite subchannel which has the largest fading amplitude among all the subchannels. We analyze the performance characteristics of the system when orthogonal and random signature sequences are used. The proposed system is shown to have performance gain over the conventional multicarrier CDMA system. We also investigate how the performance is influenced when the signal is not perfectly allocated into the best subchannel View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Rayleigh fading compensation for 16QAM using FFT

    Page(s): 1626 - 1633
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (244 KB)  

    Pilot symbol-assisted modulation (PSAM) has been proposed to overcome the Rayleigh fading. However, as the fading rate becomes more rapid, it is difficult to provide an exact interpolation with conventional PSAM. To compensate for the fast Rayleigh fading, a PSAM which calculates in the frequency domain rather than the time domain as in conventional PSAM is proposed. Although this PSAM scheme only needs the zero interpolation for fading estimation, it provides a very accurate estimate even in relatively fast Rayleigh fading environments. We introduce this PSAM using fast Fourier transform (FFT) and apply it to 16QAM and then show some results of computer simulations View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • BER analysis of 2PSK, 4PSK, and 16QAM with decision feedback channel estimation in frequency-selective slow Rayleigh fading

    Page(s): 1563 - 1572
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (268 KB)  

    The average bit error rate (BER) performances of coherently detected 2PSK, 4PSK, and 16QAM in frequency-selective slow Rayleigh fading are analyzed. Decision feedback channel estimation (DFCE) is considered, in which the past L-received signal samples are remodulated to remove the modulation phase by feeding back the detected symbol sequence and then averaged. Analytical expressions for the conditional BER for the given transmitted symbol sequence are derived, and the average BER performances are evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation. It is shown that as L increases, the BER performance improves and approaches that of ideal coherent detection (with perfect channel estimation), and the loss in Eb/N0 required for BER=0.1% relative to ideal coherent detection becomes as small as 0.4 dB when L=10. It is found that while the best performance is achieved by 2PSK and 4PSK when additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) is the predominant cause of error (i.e., low Eb/N0 regions), 16QAM modulation can achieve almost the same performance as 4PSK when the delay spread is the predominant cause of error (i.e., large Eb/N0 regions), and the worst performance in this case is by 2PSK. The effects of power delay profile shape (double-spike, exponential, and Gaussian profiles assumed), rolloff factors of the Nyquist transmit/receive filters, and the transmitted symbol sequence pattern on the average BER performance are discussed View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Q-learning-based dynamic channel assignment technique for mobile communication systems

    Page(s): 1676 - 1687
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (244 KB)  

    This paper deals with the problem of channel assignment in mobile communication systems. In particular, we propose an alternative approach to solving the dynamic channel assignment (DCA) problem through a form of real-time reinforcement learning known as Q learning. Instead of relying on a known teacher, the system is designed to learn an optimal assignment policy by directly interacting with the mobile communication environment. The performance of the Q-learning-based DCA was examined by extensive simulation studies on a 49-cell mobile communication system under various conditions including homogeneous and inhomogeneous traffic distributions, time-varying traffic patterns, and channel failures. Comparative studies with the fixed channel assignment (FCA) scheme and one of the best dynamic channel assignment strategies (MAXAVAIL) have revealed that the proposed approach is able to perform better than the FCA in various situations and is capable of achieving a similar performance to that achieved by MAXAVAIL, but with a significantly reduced computational complexity View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Direct GMSK modulation with a phase-locked power oscillator

    Page(s): 1616 - 1625
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (316 KB)  

    A phase-locked-loop (PLL)-based architecture is proposed for direct generation of frequency stable, high-power Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK) and other continuous phase modulations at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies. A continuous phase frequency shift-keyed (CPPSK) signal with a modulation index of 0.5 is produced at the desired output frequency using a full 360° linear continuous phase modulator that is controlled by the integrated baseband information signal. This modulated signal is used as the reference signal for a phase-locked high-power voltage-controlled oscillator. The PLL facilitates reference signal frequency tracking and provides Gaussian spectral shaping to the modulated output signal, PLL imperfections and their effect on the modulated output signal are considered, and simulation results are presented View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Performance analysis of digital cellular radio systems in Nakagami fading and correlated shadowing environment

    Page(s): 1381 - 1391
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB)  

    The bit error rate (BER) performance of digital cellular radio systems was investigated in a Nakagami (1960) fading, correlated lognormal shadowing and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) environment for noncoherent differential phase shift keying (DPSK) modulation. Two models were used to determine the BER; the first one is based on the cumulative power levels of cochannel interferers while the second one is based on instantaneous cochannel interference power. The relative advantages of the two models were presented for various design parameters. The effects of bit energy to noise ratio, frequency reuse distance, cluster size, correlation coefficient, shadow spread, and fading parameter were studied. The BER was observed to be lower in a correlated shadowing environment compared with the uncorrelated case. The near-far effect was studied by assuming that both the desired and interfering mobiles are randomly located in their corresponding cells View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Direct-sequence spread-spectrum chip tracking in the presence of unresolvable multipath components

    Page(s): 1573 - 1583
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (260 KB)  

    Delay lock loop (DLL) chip time tracking in the presence of unresolvable multipath components is known to be suboptimum and prone to tracking errors. In the present contribution, the behavior of noncoherent and coherent digital DLL (DDLL) for a bandlimited direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DS-SS) system in the presence of multipath is analyzed under slow and fast fading assumptions. Due to the fading channel random nature, the tracker performance is evaluated according to a statistical metric. Numerical results show that the noncoherent DLL outperforms the coherent DLL in terms of demodulator losses caused by unresolvable multipath View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Evaluation of antenna configurations for reduced power absorption in the head

    Page(s): 1371 - 1380
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (480 KB)  

    This paper describes the use of two-dimensional (2-D) pattern measurements as a tool for evaluating new antenna configurations for reducing power absorbed in the head. The estimation is from comparisons of the total power in measured cuts of the power pattern in a plane containing the head (the principal cut) for various handheld antenna configurations. For the estimate to be reliable, the power in the cuts should be proportional to the total radiated power. In practice this may not always be the case, but useful results for guidance of antenna design can still be obtained. Configurations with parasitic reflecting elements for directing the power away from the head are demonstrated to be effective in reducing the absorbed power in the head. The results are consistent with those from existing forward differences in the time domain (FDTD) analysis for directive antennas. The resulting directive patterns are more efficient and so the in situ terminal can be expected to have an improved performance in a homogeneous multipath environment View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Location tracking of mobiles in cellular radio networks

    Page(s): 1558 - 1562
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (120 KB)  

    Some useful services in cellular radio networks and also a class of handover algorithms require knowledge of the present position and velocity of mobiles. This paper deals with a method to track mobiles by on-line monitoring of field strength data of surrounding base stations at successive time points. Such data is available in present global system for mobile communication (GSM) systems each 0.48 s and also in code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems for transmission control. Because of strong random fluctuations of the signals, appropriate smoothing is the key point of the procedure. We develop a locally linear prediction model of successive positions as a basis for Kalman filtering. This approach turns out to be extremely successful, achieving average mislocations of 70 m in simulated test runs. Further improvement is possible by using external geographical information View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Interference cancellation with an array processing MLSE receiver

    Page(s): 1321 - 1331
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (280 KB)  

    the capacity and transmission quality in cellular systems can be improved by using receivers that mitigate cochannel interference and multipath propagation. In this paper, a class of multichannel maximum likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE) receivers is developed for this purpose. Interference mitigation is accomplished via adaptive antenna arrays, while multipath propagation is combated via MLSE. Practical considerations are included, such as fixed front-end filtering, sampling, and estimation of parameters from received samples. Maximal ratio combining, conventional array processing and metric combining (MC) are shown to be special cases of the proposed receivers. Performance is evaluated for π/4-shift DQPSK, using the parameters and transmission format of the time-division multiple-access (TDMA)-based IS-136 (D-AMPS) digital cellular standard. Semi-analytical performance predictions are developed which confirm simulation trends. The results show that these receivers can operate at significantly lower carrier-to-interferer (C/I) levels than conventional MC receivers View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Angular partitioning to yield equal Doppler contributions

    Page(s): 1437 - 1442
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (136 KB)  

    A beam partitioning is introduced for a mobile surrounded uniformly by dense scatterers. The beams generate signals with equal mean Doppler shift contributions. The equal Doppler contribution of each signal is desirable in antenna combining or diversity systems. Beams that correspond to the partitioning are synthesized using the Fourier method, and a fading rate reduction scheme is described. The fading rate reduction is quantified as an increased correlation distance relative to omnidirectional antennas View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Differentially coherent demodulation for differential BPSK in spread spectrum systems

    Page(s): 1650 - 1656
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (172 KB)  

    A demodulator for differential phase-shift keying is proposed, which outperforms significantly the noncoherent receiver. It is based on coherent demodulation with decision-directed channel estimation followed by differential demodulation. The metric for maximum-likelihood decoding is derived. The performance is estimated for spread spectrum communication on frequency-selective Rayleigh fading channels. It is demonstrated that the proposed demodulator is attractive in particular for systems with low maximum Doppler frequency View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The coverage-capacity tradeoff in cellular CDMA systems

    Page(s): 1443 - 1450
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (204 KB)  

    In cellular CDMA systems that employ single-user detectors, in-cell interference limits the coverage of the cell. Thus for a given upper limit on transmit power, the coverage of a cell is inversely proportional to the number of users in it. This tradeoff between coverage and number of users is explicitly characterized here. Our analysis may be used in cellular planning to set hard limits on the number of users admitted into the cell in order to meet coverage requirements. Furthermore, our approach allows us to arrive at a precise definition for the pole capacity of a cell, which serves as an upper bound on the number of users a cell can support as the coverage shrinks to zero. We also present a technique to calculate cell coverage as a function of carried traffic, for any given admission policy View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • An efficient hybrid ARQ protocol for point-to-multipoint communication and its throughput performance

    Page(s): 1688 - 1698
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (316 KB)  

    This paper presents a new point-to-multipoint communication protocol, the nonselective repeat (NSR) protocol, for error control over broadcast channels. It is a hybrid forward-error-correction (FEC)/automatic-repeat-request (ARQ) scheme, based on the adaptive coding technique using incremental redundancy of Mandelbaum (1974). The FEC code is a rate-compatible punctured and shortened Reed-Solomon (RS) code, used for error correction only. The scheme is most attractive in situations where error occurrences are almost independent between the recipients of the messages. The throughput performance of the NSR protocol is analyzed in terms of all the parameters involved. Analysis shows that NSR significantly outperforms all the existing pure ARQ broadcast schemes. It is also shown that, even with a large number of recipients, NSR achieves performance which stays close to the capacity of the broadcast q-ary erasure channel, where q=2m and m is the size in bits of a transmitted packet. Furthermore, on slow Rayleigh fading channels, this protocol is expected to provide better throughput performance than other hybrid ARQ protocols View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A low-complexity frame synchronization and frequency offset compensation scheme for OFDM systems over fading channels

    Page(s): 1596 - 1609
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (316 KB)  

    This paper presents a fast low-complexity synchronization scheme for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems over fading channels. By utilizing the guard interval in OFDM signals, the frame synchronization and the frequency offset estimation are considered simultaneously. The implementation can be simplified by only using the sign bits of the in-phase and the quadrature components of the received OFDM signal for frame synchronization and frequency offset compensation. A frequency-offset independent frame synchronization algorithm is derived, and a low-complexity frequency offset estimator based on the synchronized correlator output is presented in this paper. Due to the subcarrier ambiguity in the guard-interval-based (GIB) frequency detector, the maximum correctable frequency range is limited to ±1/2 of the subcarrier spacing. In this paper, we also present a new frequency acquisition scheme that can solve the subcarrier ambiguity problem and extend the frequency acquisition range to nearly a half of the useful OFDM signal bandwidth View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Dynamic participation in a secure conference scheme for mobile communications

    Page(s): 1469 - 1474
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (140 KB)  

    We propose a scheme to implement secure digital mobile communications. The scheme can both enable multiple users to hold a secure teleconference and also resolve the problem of allowing a participant to join dynamically or to quit a teleconference already in progress. Essentially, teleconference is a synchronous collaboration session in which participants at remote locations cooperate through wireless communications. Two requirements for the system are: privacy and authentication. Privacy signifies that an eavesdropper cannot intercept conversations of a conference. Authentication ensures that the service is not obtained fraudulently in order to avoid usage charge usage. We present a conference key distribution scheme for digital mobile communications, according to which users can share a common secret key to hold a secure teleconference over a public channel. The participants need not alter their secret information when a participant joins late or quits the conference early View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology covers land, airborne, and maritime mobile services, vehicular electrotechnology, equipment, and systems identified with the automotive industry.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Yuguang Michael Fang
University of Florida