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Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 8 • Date Aug. 1999

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Displaying Results 1 - 19 of 19
  • Comments on "Interstage gain-proration technique for digital-domain multistep ADC calibration"

    Page(s): 1114 - 1116
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (84 KB)  

    In the original paper (see IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 27, p. 1679-88, 1992) a gain-proration technique is introduced to correct the interstage gain error that occurs when multiple stages of a multistep analog-to-digital converter are calibrated. In this brief, however, it is shown that correction of this interstage gain error is unnecessary for multistage analog-to-digital converter self-calibration. View full abstract»

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  • Transient performance degradation of the LMS, RLS, sign, signed regressor, and sign-sign algorithms with data correlation

    Page(s): 1055 - 1062
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    The transient performance degradation, for correlated input data, is studied for various adaptive algorithms. The algorithms are least mean square (LMS), recursive least squares (RLS), sign (SA), signed regressor (SRA), and sign-sign (SSA). Analysis is performed for adaptive plant identification with stationary Gaussian inputs. A closed-form expression for the mean convergence time is derived for each algorithm. The degradation measure used is the ratio of convergence time for correlated data to the convergence time for white data. The LMS and SRA degradations are the same. The SA and SSA degradations are also the same. The smallest degradation occurs for RLS, the largest for LMS and SRA. The SRA, RLS, and LMS degradations are independent of plant-noise variance. The SA and SSA degradations increase with increased noise variance. The LMS and SRA degradations do not depend upon the weight initialization, RLS (SA and SSA) depends weakly (significantly) upon the weight initialization. The analytical results are supported by simulations View full abstract»

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  • Non-Wiener behavior of the filtered LMS algorithm

    Page(s): 1110 - 1113
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (140 KB)  

    This brief presents some analytical results for the non-Wiener solutions of the filtered least mean square algorithm. Secondary paths are modeled as linear time-invariant filters. Results are presented for the steady-state adaptive weight behavior and algorithm stability. Stability regions are implicitly determined as a function of the algorithm step size μ, the number of filter taps N, and the reference signal power View full abstract»

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  • Delta-sigma modulator with large OSR using the one-hot residue number system

    Page(s): 1002 - 1008
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (528 KB)  

    A digital delta-sigma modulator using the one-hot residue number system (OHRNS) is presented. It exhibits a large oversampling ratio (OSR) in comparison with equivalent binary designs. Its second-order architecture employs a two-stage cascade structure with two-level internal and four-level output quantization. It is intended for use in a high-resolution interpolative digital-to analog converter. Analytical estimates show a significant improvement in OSR and latency over binary-number system-based designs. These benefits are made possible by the use of the (OHRNS), which allows addition and multiplication to be performed equally quickly and simply, using barrel shifters and signal transposition. An application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) implementation of the design is also presented in a 2-μm CMOS technology View full abstract»

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  • Family of unified complex Hadamard transforms

    Page(s): 1094 - 1100
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (204 KB)  

    Novel discrete orthogonal transforms are introduced in this paper, namely the unified complex Hadamard transforms. These transforms have elements confined to four elementary complex integer numbers which are generated based on the Walsh-Hadamard transform, using a single unifying mathematical formula. The generation of higher dimension transformation matrices is discussed in detail View full abstract»

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  • A least-square design approach for 2D FIR filters with arbitrary frequency response

    Page(s): 1027 - 1034
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (280 KB)  

    In this paper, a least-square approach for the design of two-dimensional (2D) complex finite-impulse response (FIR) filters with arbitrary frequency response is presented. By minimizing the frequency-domain error function and revealing some of the properties of the matrices associated with the design problem, a closed-form solution is obtained. The solution is presented as an expression for the impulse response corresponding to the desired frequency-response specification. Thus, the method avoids the usual time-consuming procedures of optimization or matrix inversion, and makes a very fast calculation of the filter's coefficients possible, it is also shown that when this solution is used to design linear-phase filters and a class of 2D phase equalizers, some further computational savings can be achieved. The novel feature of the proposed approximation approach is that it can be used to design any kind of 2D FIR filters without employing any symmetry constraint on their frequency responses. Several design examples illustrating the efficiency of the approach are considered View full abstract»

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  • The evaluation of cross-correlation sequences for 2D ARMA processes [recursive filters]

    Page(s): 1064 - 1072
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (284 KB)  

    This paper presents a general method of evaluating cross-correlation sequences and double-complex integrals for two-dimensional autoregressive moving average processes. The method is based on treating the rational-form integrand in a double-complex integral as a function of one complex variable, while its coefficients are functions in another complex variable. It involves solving a symbolic Diophantine equation with the Euclid algorithm and finding roots or performing spectral factorization, with respect to the unit circle for four one dimensional polynomials. To illustrate the proposed method, three examples are provided View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of timing jitter in bandpass sigma-delta modulators

    Page(s): 991 - 1001
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB)  

    The effect of clock jitter on the dynamic range of discrete-time (DT) and continuous-time (CT) sigma-delta modulators is addressed. It is shown that clock jitter in DT modulators mixes with the input signal, while for CT modulators, the jitter mixes with the out-of-band quantization error and elevates the passband noise. The signal-to-noise ratio of CT modulators is shown to be more susceptible to clock jitter than their DT counterparts. Analytical and simulation results are provided View full abstract»

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  • Limit cycle behavior in the double-loop bandpass Σ-Δ A/D converter

    Page(s): 1086 - 1089
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (152 KB)  

    Hein and Zakhor analyzed the limit-cycle behavior of the low-pass double-loop converter. This brief demonstrates that the limit cycles in a bandpass Σ-Δ double-loop converter are identical to the low-pass case. It is shown that the double-loop converter can have two independent limit cycles occurring simultaneously. Simulations confirm that the bandpass converter state variables can be designed to stay within designed bounds, as in the low-pass (baseband) case, Hence, stability is improved as the likelihood of stages saturating and clipping is significantly reduced. View full abstract»

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  • Design of near perfect reconstruction oversampled filter banks for subband adaptive filters

    Page(s): 1081 - 1085
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (164 KB)  

    In this brief, a design algorithm for real-valued and complex-valued oversampled filter banks which yield a low level of inband alias and enable simple subband adaptive structures is presented. The filter banks are either based on complex modulation of a real-valued low-pass prototype or on the direct or modulated setups of real-valued filter banks. If real-valued filter banks are required, then the different channels will have different subsampling ratios so that the bandpass sampling theorem is not violated. This brief also presents design examples of real-valued and complex-valued filter banks View full abstract»

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  • An improved weighted least-squares design for variable fractional delay FIR filters

    Page(s): 1035 - 1040
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (212 KB)  

    Digital filters capable of changing their frequency response characteristics are often referred to as variable digital filters (VDFs) and have been found useful in a number of digital signal processing applications. An important class of VDFs is the class of digital filters with variable fractional delay. This paper describes an enhanced weighted least-squares design for variable-fractional-delay finite-impulse response filters, which offers improved performance of the filters obtained with considerably reduced computational complexity compared to a recently proposed weighted least-squares (WLS) design method. The design enhancement is achieved by deriving a closed-form formula for evaluating the WLS objective function. The formula facilitates accurate and efficient function evaluations as compared to summing up a large number of discrete terms, which would be time consuming and inevitably introduce additional errors into the design View full abstract»

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  • A new approach to synthesize sharp 2D half-band filters

    Page(s): 1104 - 1110
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (280 KB)  

    The frequency-response masking method is an efficient technique for the realization of sharp, one-dimensional filters. Recently, this technique has been extended to the synthesis of sharp two-dimensional (2D) filters. While it has been demonstrated that sharp diamond-shaped filters may be realized efficiently, the techniques previously presented cannot be applied to the synthesis of 2D half-band filters. In this brief we propose a modification of the technique for the synthesis of sharp 2D half-band diamond-shaped filters. In addition, by exploiting the special properties of 2D half-band filters, the complexities of the band-edge shaping and masking filters are further reduced. This results in a very efficient implementation of 2D half-band diamond-shaped filters View full abstract»

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  • Data clustering using hierarchical deterministic annealing and higher order statistics [image processing]

    Page(s): 1100 - 1104
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (196 KB)  

    In this brief, we propose an extension to the hierarchical deterministic annealing (HDA) algorithm for clustering by incorporating additional features into the algorithm. To decide a split in a cluster, the interdependency among all the clusters is taken into account by using the entire data distribution. A general distortion measure derived from the higher order statistics (HOS) of the data is used to analyze the phase transitions. Experimental results clearly demonstrate the improvement in the performance of the HDA algorithm when the interdependency among the clusters and the HOS of the data points are also utilized for the purpose of clustering View full abstract»

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  • Low-sensitivity, low-power active-RC allpole filters using impedance tapering

    Page(s): 1009 - 1026
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (428 KB)  

    A procedure for the design of allpole filters with low sensitivity to component tolerance is presented. The filters are based on resistance-capacitance (RC) ladder structures combined with single operational amplifiers. It is shown that by the use of impedance tapering, in which L-sections of the RC ladder are successively impedance-scaled upwards, from the driving source to the amplifier input, the sensitivity of the filter characteristics to component tolerances can be significantly decreased. Impedance tapering is achieved by the appropriate choice of component values. The design procedure, therefore, adds nothing to the cost of conventional circuits; component count and topology remain unchanged, whereas the component values selected for impedance tapering account for the considerable decrease in tolerance sensitivity View full abstract»

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  • Realizability constraints for third-order impedance-tapered allpole filters

    Page(s): 1073 - 1077
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (156 KB)  

    It is shown that allpole filters of second- and third-order can be significantly desensitized to component tolerances by so-called impedance tapering, i.e., successively impedance-scaling upwards the L-sections of a resistance-capacitance ladder network in the forward and feedback path of a single-amplifier active filter. In order to obtain a realizable filter, certain constraints on the design equations must be observed. These constraints are derived here, and the resulting conditions necessary for the design of realizable third-order impedance tapered allpole filters are given View full abstract»

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  • An automated framework for multicriteria optimization of analog filter designs

    Page(s): 981 - 990
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (228 KB)  

    This paper presents an extensible framework for designing analog filters that exhibit several desired behavioral properties after being realized in circuits. In the framework, we model the constrained nonlinear optimization problem as a sequential quadratic programming (SQP) problem. SQP requires real-valued constraints and objective functions that are differentiable with respect to the free parameters (pole-zero locations). We derive the differentiable constraints and a weighted differentiable objective function for simultaneously optimizing the behavioral properties of magnitude response, phase response, peak overshoot, and the implementation property of quality factors. We use Mathematica to define the algebraic equations for the constraints and objective function, compute their gradients symbolically, and generate standalone MATLAB programs to perform the multicriteria optimization. Providing closed-form gradients prevents divergence in the SQP procedure. The automated approach avoids errors in algebraic calculations and errors in transcribing equations into software. The key contributions are: 1) an extensible, automated, multicriteria filter optimization framework; 2) an analytic approximation for peak overshoot; and 3) three novel filter designs. We have released the source code for the framework on the Internet View full abstract»

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  • Low-power CMOS and BiCMOS circuits for analog convolutional decoders

    Page(s): 1077 - 1080
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (188 KB)  

    Analog techniques have been proposed as a method of realizing high-speed low-power Viterbi decoders, mostly for use in digital magnetic recording applications. However, such methods can also be used in more general applications of the Viterbi algorithm, such as convolutional decoding. We describe two current-mode analog circuits for use in such applications. These circuits operate in excess of 100 MHz, and consume less than 4 mW per state, with 2.8-V supply rails when realized in 0.8-μm technology View full abstract»

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  • Convergence condition of adaptive algorithm of nonlinear adaptive digital filter

    Page(s): 1089 - 1094
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (188 KB)  

    In this brief, we consider the adaptive algorithm and the convergence condition of the nonlinear adaptive digital filter (ADF) that has a general transfer function. The adaptive algorithm is based on the orthogonality principle, and the updating value of the algorithm is the correlation of the input signal to the weights and the estimation error. The sufficient condition of the unknown system for which the weight vector of the ADF converges to the weight vector of the unknown system is derived View full abstract»

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  • Multifunction architectures for RNS processors

    Page(s): 1041 - 1054
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB)  

    Novel very large-scale integration architectures and a design methodology for adder-based residue number system (RNS) processors are presented in this paper. The new architectures compute residues for more than one modulus either serially or in parallel, while their use can increase the resource utilization in a processor. Complexity is reduced by sharing common intermediate results among the various RNS moduli channels and/or operations that compose an RNS processor. The presented architectures are distinguished into two subtypes, depending on whether the inter channel parallelism is preserved or not. The multifunction architecture paradigm is demonstrated by its application in residue multiplication, binary-to-residue conversion, quadratic RNS (QRNS) mapping, and base extension. The derived architectures are compared to previously reported equivalent ones and are found to be efficient in area×time product sense. Finally, the proposed design methodology reveals a new tradeoff in residue processor design, leading to more efficient RNS processors View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This title ceased production in 2003. The current updated title is IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs.

Full Aims & Scope