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Issue 9 • Date Dec. 1989

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Displaying Results 1 - 18 of 18
  • Bandwidth efficient coding for fading channels: code construction and performance analysis

    Page(s): 1356 - 1368
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1143 KB)  

    The authors apply a general method of bounding the event error probability of TCM (trellis-coded modulation) schemes to fading channels and use the effective length and the minimum-squared-product distance to replace the minimum-free-squared-Euclidean distance as code design parameters for Rayleigh and Rician fading channels with a substantial multipath component. They present 8-PSK (phase-shift-keying) trellis codes specifically constructed for fading channels that outperform equivalent codes designed for the AWGN (additive white Gaussian noise) channel when v>or=5. For quasiregular trellis codes there exists an efficient algorithm for evaluating event error probability, and numerical results which demonstrate the importance of the effective length as a code design parameter for fading channels with or without side information have been obtained. This is consistent with the case for binary signaling, where the Hamming distance remains the best code design parameter for fading channels. The authors show that the use of Reed-Solomon block codes with expanded signal sets becomes interesting only for large value of E/sub s//N/sub 0/, where they begin to outperform trellis codes.<> View full abstract»

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  • Performance of interleaved trellis-coded differential 8-PSK modulation over fading channels

    Page(s): 1340 - 1346
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (516 KB)  

    The performance of trellis-coded differential octal phase-shift keying (coded 8-DPSK) with differentially coherent detection and soft-decision Viterbi decoding is investigated. A suitable receiver is presented whose signal processing is based on Nyquist signaling, requiring only one complex sample per modulation interval. Symbol synchronization and automatic frequency control are performed in a decision-directed way. Bit-error-rate (BER) performance over Gaussian, Rayleigh, and Rician channels is determined by means of computer simulations. The performance of coded 8-DPSK on the Gaussian channel is shown for a four-state convolutional trellis code. The unquantized outputs of up to three symbol detectors with delays of 1, 2, and 3 symbol periods are used for metric computation. The coding gain which includes losses due to timing and frequency synchronization errors is found to be 2.5 dB at BER=10-5 with respect to uncoded 4-DPSK. Much larger gains are achieved for fading channels if interleaving is applied. Using an eight-state trellis code the performance is determined on Rayleigh and Rician channels for various Doppler spreads and interleaver sizes View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive carrier recovery systems for digital data communications receivers

    Page(s): 1328 - 1339
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1012 KB)  

    Adaptive or predictive carrier recovery systems, which are essential in high-performance quadrature-amplitude-modulated (QAM) data communications systems to correct for phase jitter and frequency offset, are considered. Analytical and experimental results are presented for two structures that implement a predictive carrier recovery system. These systems, which adapt their structure to match the spectral properties of the impairments, avoid the conflict between a wide bandwidth (to track fast jitter) and a narrow bandwidth (to minimize output noise) inherent in most carrier recovery loops. Such a system increases the likelihood that very bandwidth-efficient modems (e.g., 7 b/s/Hz for 19.2 kb/s voiceband modem applications) can provide reliable transmission in the presence of severe phase jitter and frequency offset. In particular, the predictive carrier recovery systems can track sinusoidal jitter present at more than one frequency as well as generalized time-varying phase jitter processes. Both finite-impulse-response (FIR) and infinite-impulse-response (IIR) adaptive phase tracking systems are considered. Prior limitations on adaptive IIR filters are overcome by designing a structure that is guaranteed to be stable and to possess only a global minimum as the filter coefficients converge to their desired values View full abstract»

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  • An eight-dimensional 64-state trellis code for transmitting 4 bits per 2-D symbol

    Page(s): 1392 - 1395
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (280 KB)  

    An eight-dimensional, 64-state, 90° rotationally invariant trellis code for transmitting 4 bits/baud over a bandlimited channel is described. The 2-D constellation contains 20 points. The code achieves a 5.23-dB coding gain over the uncoded 4×4 QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation) constellation and a 1.23-dB gain over the standard CCITT V32 trellis code. Simulation results are presented that verify these coding gains. Simulation results showing symbol error probability versus signal/noise ratio and trellis depth are also presented View full abstract»

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  • Noncoherent detection of convolutionally encoded continuous phase modulation

    Page(s): 1402 - 1414
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    The authors consider the error probability at large signal-to-noise ratios of rate-1/2 convolutionally encoded CPFSK (continuous-phase frequency-shift keying) with an optimum noncoherent detector on an additive white Gaussian noise channel. The performance is given in terms of a parameter called the minimum squared normalized equivalent Euclidean distance which plays the same role mathematically as the minimum squared normalized Euclidean distance used for coherent detectors. It is shown that by introducing convolutional coding the error performance is significantly improved. The authors propose a decoding algorithm for these convolutionally encoded CPM schemes which is based on a limited tree search algorithm and uses the maximum-likelihood decision rule for noncoherent detection. Computer simulations show that the degradation in error performance compared to the performance of the optimum coherent Viterbi detector is less than 1 dB with a relatively simple noncoherent detector on an additive white Gaussian noise channel for most of the schemes considered View full abstract»

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  • Continuous phase quadrature phase shift keyed signaling technique with coding

    Page(s): 1462 - 1469
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    A continuous phase quadrature phase shift keyed (CPQPSK) modulation technique is presented. This method utilizes a conventional QPSK modulator and a phase trajectory converter to approximate M=4, h=1/4 continuous phase signal and allows low cost, low complexity, and high rate (>1 Gbit/s) CPM modem implementation for bandwidth efficient transmission through nonlinear satellite channels. Using a communications analysis computer program it has been found that CPQPSK has 99 percent out-of-band power of 0.8R (MSK has 99 percent out-of-band power of 1.2 R where R is defined as bit rate), continuous phase trajectories, and nearly constant envelope amplitude. Simulation of realistic hardware designs indicate that the CPQPSK will require an Eb/No of 14 dB to achieve a bit error rate (BER) of 10-6. Forward error correcting techniques using block codes with an overhead of 10 percent indicate that the Eb/No requirements can be reduced to 11.2 dB for 10-6 BER View full abstract»

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  • A comparison of reduced complexity decoding algorithms for trellis codes

    Page(s): 1369 - 1380
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    Comparisons are made of a genie-aided sequential algorithm due to D. Haccoun and M.J. Ferguson (1975), the Viterbi algorithm, the M -algorithm, and the Fano algorithm for rate-1/2 and rate-2/3 trellis modulation codes on rectangular signal sets. The effects of signal-to-noise ratio and decoding-delay constraints on the choice of decoding algorithms for framed data are examined by computer simulation. Additionally, the genie-aided algorithm is used as a tool in estimating the asymptotic behavior of the M-algorithm. In general, the results conform closely to experience with convolutional codes due to the similar distance structure of the codes. The Fano algorithm produces good error performance with a low average number of computations when long decoding delay is permissible. The M-algorithm provides a savings in computation compared to the Viterbi algorithm if a small decoding delay is required View full abstract»

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  • TCMP-a modulation and coding strategy for Rician fading channels

    Page(s): 1347 - 1355
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (736 KB)  

    The authors describe TCMP, a novel modulation strategy for Rician fading channels that multiplexes a time domain pilot sequence with trellis-coded data to permit coherent detection. This technique is shown to provide remarkably robust performance in the presence of fading. It is also shown that, when choosing trellis codes for fading channels, time diversity is of greater important than asymptotic coding gain. The motivation for studying this strategy is to find signaling schemes for transmitting data at a 4.8 kb/s rate over a mobile satellite channel with 5-kHz channel spacing View full abstract»

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  • Clock-aided carrier recovery in trellis-coded PSK

    Page(s): 1307 - 1317
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (716 KB)  

    The effects of imperfect carrier phase recovery on uncoded and trellis-encoded PSK (phase-shift keying) are compared. A recently proposed clock-aided carrier recovery scheme is analyzed and compared to the standard frequency multiplication circuit. Results obtained through a combination of analysis and computer simulation compare uncoded 4-PSK with trellis-encoded 8-PSK carrying two bits per channel symbol. The quality of the recovered carrier phase is evaluated using the ratio of tone power to background. The system error probability is evaluated and used to determine how accurate the time clock recovery must be in a clock-aided carrier recovery circuit in order to outperform classical recovery systems. It is shown that if the clock recovery system is accurate enough, clock-aided carrier recovery used with coded 8-PSK can compensate for the increased sensitivity of the latter to phase errors View full abstract»

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  • A partially coherent detector for continuous phase modulation

    Page(s): 1415 - 1426
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (940 KB)  

    A novel partially coherent detector for joint data detection and carrier phase estimation of continuous-phase-modulated (CPM) signal is presented. The algorithm differs from coherent Viterbi algorithm only in the metric which it maximizes over the possible transmitted data sequences. This metric is influenced both by the correlation of the hypothesized signal with the received one and the current carrier phase estimate. The system has been simulated and comparisons made with existing detection techniques on channels with additive white Gaussian noise and carrier phase jitter. Simulations of the detector are used to assess the relative susceptibility of different CPM (continuous phase modulation) schemes to phase jitter. The trend is that narrower band schemes are more sensitive to carrier phase inaccuracy than the less spectrally efficient ones View full abstract»

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  • Trellis-coded 8PSK with embedded QPSK

    Page(s): 1296 - 1306
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    A coded eight-phase-shift-keying (C8PSK) method is described that is characterized by a quaternary phase-shift-keyed signal embedded in the modulated sequence. This method is a double-trellis-coded modification of the well-known C8PSK and is referred to as MC8PSK. Five coded bits are generated from four user bits in a single coding step and then mapped to an 8PSK symbol followed by a QPSK symbol. Given comparable decoder or receiver complexity, the coding gains of C8PSK and MC8PSK are comparable. Advantages of MC8PSK concern carrier synchronization. With C8PSK, problems with carrier phase tracking are encountered. With MC8PSK, these can be avoided, since carrier phase control can be based on the embedded QPSK. For some codes, error-free decoding is achievable in any locking condition of a QPSK-dependent PLL (phase locked loop), making synchronization and decoding especially simple. The partitioning of the channel symbol set, the associated bit mapping, and the code design are treated in order to describe MC8PSK. Aspects of receiver synchronization are discussed for C8PSK and for MC8PSK, focusing on QPSK phase-detection principles. The implementation of a four-state MC8PSK modem for an information rate of 2.048 Mb/s is described, and experimental results demonstrating the very robust carrier synchronization are presented View full abstract»

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  • An efficient modulation/coding scheme for MFSK systems on bandwidth constrained channels

    Page(s): 1396 - 1401
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    The performance of a bandwidth-efficient multiple-tone modulation scheme for M-ary frequency-shift keying (MFSK) is presented. The use of balanced incomplete block (BIB) designs is proposed to form the signaling frames. On each symbol interval the modulator selects a group of elements from a BIB design and divides its energy into the orthogonal waveforms corresponding to these elements. The multiple-tone FSK scheme based on these block designs is shown to increase greatly the bandwidth efficiency of a conventional M-ary FSK system. An implicit diversity is incorporated in the modulation scheme. Thus, a performance improvement comparable to that obtained by using time or frequency diversity is shown on a Rayleigh fading channel and also on an interference channel with partial-band Gaussian noise. The multiple-tone scheme based on this design is compared to a multiple-tone scheme based on Hadamard matrices suggested by J.F. Pieper et al. (1978). It is shown that similar performance is achieved on a fading channel, while an advantage close to 4 dB is obtained for the proposed scheme on an AWGN (additive white Gaussian noise) channel View full abstract»

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  • Encoded 16-PSK: a study for the receiver design

    Page(s): 1381 - 1391
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    The authors present the results of a design study of the receiver in a digital transmission system using the combined coding and modulation schemes known as Ungerboeck codes. Specifically, they examine the design of the receiver for encoded 16-PSK (phase shift keying) modulation, presenting first the traditional structure for the optimum receiver and then a simpler structure. The decoding depth of the Viterbi algorithm, the quantization of the metrics inside the Viterbi processor, and the phase jitter in the recovered carrier are considered. The impact of branch and path metric quantization inside the receiver is discussed, showing that a reasonable number of bits (8) is sufficient to obtain nearly optimum performance when the code complexity is limited. The effect of imperfect carrier recovery inside the receiver is studied, providing accurate analytical estimates of the error event probability as well as an upper bound to the symbol error probability. Results of a detailed simulation, including carrier and bit timing recovery blocks, show that the effects of imperfections on the bit error probability are very small, even at low signal-to-noise ratios. On the whole, results show the robustness of the Viterbi algorithm with respect to fairly rough quantizations of the metrics and indicate that carrier recovery is not as critical as expected View full abstract»

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  • Multi-H phase-coded modulations with asymmetric modulation indexes

    Page(s): 1450 - 1461
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (912 KB)  

    Multi-H phase-coded modulation (MHPM) is a bandwidth-efficient modulation scheme which offers substantial coding gain over conventional digital modulation schemes. MHPM with asymmetric modulation indices corresponding to the bipolar data +1 and -1 is considered, and numerical results for the minimum Euclidean distances are provided. It is shown that performance improvements on the error probability over conventional MHPM are gained with essentially the same bandwidth and a very slight modification in implementation. The upper bounds on the error probabilities as functions of observation intervals and received Eb/N0 are also investigated in detail. It is concluded that the concept of asymmetric modulation indices for MHPM is attractive for bandwidth and power-efficient modulation View full abstract»

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  • Rotationally invariant trellis-coded modulations with multidimensional M-PSK

    Page(s): 1281 - 1295
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    Using a multidimensional approach, the author discovers a large family of rotationally invariant trellis-coded M-PSK (M-ary shift keying) schemes, M⩾8, with nominal coding gains ranging from 3 to 5 dB and with bandwidth requirements the same as, or even less than, those of uncoded M/2-PSK schemes at the same information bit rate. The rotationally invariant schemes have performance and complexities comparable to the best known nonrotationally-invariant trellis-coded two-dimensional M-PSK schemes. Computer simulation results for these schemes, assuming an additive white-Gaussian-noise (AWGN) channel, are reported View full abstract»

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  • An alternative approach to reduced-complexity CPM-receivers

    Page(s): 1437 - 1449
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    By separating the two complexity problems connected with optimum coherent CPM (continuous phase modulation) receivers, namely, the number of linear filters and the number of memory states required, a straightforward procedure for reducing the complexity is proposed and its usefulness is evaluated. A concise analysis of the inherent trellis encoder associated with CPM is given. It is then demonstrated that for almost all schemes of interest in practice, it is quite sufficient for the receiver to implement only four or six linear filters which represent proper reference signals. For a reduction in the number of memory states, decision-feedback sequence estimation together with minimization of the unprocessed intersymbol interference is proposed. Modifications of this procedure allow a state reduction without losses or with only negligible losses because only error events with large distances are affected. Combinations of these methods make possible an almost continuous tradeoff between receiver complexity and SNR (signal/noise ratio) losses. Several examples are considered for which evaluations of minimum Euclidean distances and simulation results are given View full abstract»

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  • On the performance of spectrally efficient trellis coded FM modulation employing noncoherent FM demodulation

    Page(s): 1318 - 1327
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    The authors analyze the problem of noncoherent FM demodulation of trellis-coded continuous-phase M-ary FSK (frequency-shift keying). The FM demodulation process is divided into two parts, the first being the actual noncoherent FM demodulation and the second being trellis decoding of the data. Upper bounds on the bit error rate as well as the 99% energy bandwidth are determined for the codes under consideration. In particular, the authors consider the trellis codes with rates 1/2 and 2/3 and symmetric and asymmetric signal constellations. Upper bounds on the probability of error are obtained for the symmetric and the optimum asymmetric cases. The optimum asymmetry is one which minimizes the bit error probability. The performance of this system is compared to that of the standard continuous phase modulation techniques employing noncoherent detection View full abstract»

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  • Simple coherent receivers for partial response continuous phase modulation

    Page(s): 1427 - 1436
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (644 KB)  

    By using a pulse-amplitude-modulation representation of binary continuous-phase-modulation signals, the authors develops a novel optimum Viterbi sequence detector and a near-optimum Viterbi receiver with low complexity. For modulation index 0.5, where a linear receiver can be used, a minimum-mean-squared-error linear receiver filter is derived. The performance of all of these is analyzed, using the Gaussian minimum-shift-keying signal (GMSK) for illustration. It is shown that a GMSK receiver consisting of two matched filters and a four-state Viterbi algorithm performs with less than 0.24-dB degradation compared with the optimal receiver. The linear receiver is optimum for all values of E b/N0 (bit-energy-to-noise one-sided spectral density ratio). A design method for its filter is given. The filter is equivalent to a cascade of a matched filter and a Wiener filter estimator. Both upper and lower bounds for the bit-error probability are calculated. Simulation results which confirm the analysis are given View full abstract»

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IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications focuses on all telecommunications, including telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television, by electromagnetic propagation.

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Editor-in-Chief
Muriel Médard
MIT