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IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics

Issue 5 • Date Sept.-Oct. 1989

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 50
  • Real-time obstacle avoidance for fast mobile robots

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):1179 - 1187
    Cited by:  Papers (337)  |  Patents (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (845 KB)

    A real-time obstacle avoidance approach for mobile robots has been developed and implemented. It permits the detection of unknown obstacles simultaneously with the steering of the mobile robot to avoid collisions and advance toward the target. The novelty of this approach, entitled the virtual force field method, lies in the integration of two known concepts: certainty grids for obstacle represent... View full abstract»

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  • Recognition of handwritten Hebrew one-stroke letters by learning syntactic representations of symbols

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):1306 - 1313
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (708 KB)

    An automatic recognition algorithm for cursive one-stroke Hebrew letters is presented. The algorithm is founded on the representation of each character by basic structures: lines, arcs, loops, and edges arranged in a chain list. The structures are presented in normalized domains that establish position and direction, and emphasize edges and horizontal and vertical directions. For every input lette... View full abstract»

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  • Associative memory in fractal neural networks

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):1133 - 1141
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (780 KB)

    Neural networks consisting of small subnetworks interconnected in a layered hierarchy are described, and their performance as associative memories is analyzed. The networks are fractal when the subnetworks corresponding to different layers have the same geometric forms but different sizes and may be related to different spatial frequencies in the pattern field. Information is stored naturally in t... View full abstract»

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  • Machine recognition and correction of printed Arabic text

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):1300 - 1306
    Cited by:  Papers (54)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB)

    A method for automatic recognition of a multifont Arabic text entered from a scanner of 300 dpi density is presented. The system is based on two components, one for character recognition and one for word recognition. Character recognition is further divided into three phases: the digitization process, segmentation of words into characters, and identification of characters. The word recognition com... View full abstract»

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  • An innovative technique for backbone network design

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):1122 - 1132
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (876 KB)

    An algorithm is proposed for solving the minimum-cost backbone network design problem. The method includes time delay as the performance criterion and multiple-hop communication paths. The algorithm combines a branch-and bound method with the algorithm of L.R. Ford and D.R. Fulkerson (1962). The branch-and-bound method is used to find the network topology. A depth-first search using a cost heurist... View full abstract»

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  • A comparison of multiple time-scale analysis and overlapping decompositions

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):1296 - 1300
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB)

    Two-level hierarchical systems are considered, and two different design methodologies, multiple-time-scale analysis and overlapping decompositions, are compared. The comparison is based on quadratic performance indices. It is demonstrated that, in general, the multiple-time-scale approach, produces better results whenever the time-scale parameter is small. However, the overlapping decompositions a... View full abstract»

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  • Artificial intelligence dialects of the Bayesian belief revision language

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):1106 - 1121
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1520 KB)

    Several well-known belief languages in artificial intelligence are reviewed, and both previous work and new insights into their Bayesian interpretations are presented. In particular, the authors focus on three alternative belief-update models: the certainty factors calculus, Dempster-Shafer simple support functions, and the descriptive contrast/inertia model. Important `dialects' of these language... View full abstract»

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  • New algorithm for the ranking procedure in fuzzy decision-making

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):1289 - 1296
    Cited by:  Papers (80)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (652 KB)

    In order to rank three or more fuzzy numbers it is necessary to consider not only the accuracy and effectiveness of the method but also its numerical efficiency. An algorithm designed to rank any number of fuzzy numbers is presented. The algorithm is verified by testing it on the set of 13 cases of paired examples, which are normal and convex fuzzy numbers, given in T.Y. Tseng and C.M. Klein (1988... View full abstract»

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  • The dynamic hierarchical model of problem solving

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):946 - 954
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (680 KB)

    A model of human problem solving emphasizing the dynamic transformation from process to process was developed. The transformation mechanism, the smoothness of which determines the efficiency of problem solving, is clarified. An experiment was conducted to verify the model. Fifteen graduate students participated in the experiment, and their problem-solving processes in debugging error in BASIC prog... View full abstract»

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  • A real-time expert control system for dynamical processes

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):1101 - 1105
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB)

    An approach for designing expert systems suitable for engineering process control is proposed. It is based on shallow-coupling systems in which the selection of a control routine is determined by observing the state variables of the process. Relevant technical issues for representing and processing the appropriate knowledge are addressed. The method has the advantage that it is real-time; that is,... View full abstract»

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  • Robot control computation in microprocessor systems with multiple arithmetic processors using a modified DF/IHS scheduling algorithm

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):1167 - 1178
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (828 KB)

    The problem of designing a high-performance robot controller with multiple arithmetic processing units (APUs) is addressed. One attractive feature of the controller is that a minimum number of special-purpose hardware components are needed, and off-the-shelf components can be used. One main processor unit (MPU) schedules a number of APUs to produce the computational throughput. The depth-first/ini... View full abstract»

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  • Efficiency comparison of associative memories using BSC model

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):974 - 979
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (552 KB)

    The efficiency of distributed associative memories in which information is stored redundantly at the expense of memory efficiency, is addressed. The memory use efficiency is evaluated by calculating the mutual information transmitted through a binary symmetric channel (BSC) model, simulating the memorization/recollection process with an encoding/decoding process. Several modifications of the stand... View full abstract»

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  • Discrimination of planar shapes using shape matrices

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):1281 - 1289
    Cited by:  Papers (38)  |  Patents (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (628 KB)

    An algorithm is presented for describing and discriminating binary images of planar shapes. The descriptor is a matrix that the dimensions dependent on the maximum radius of the shape. The descriptor is obtained by a polar quantization of the shape and is independent of the shape's position, orientation, and size. The descriptors discriminate two or more shapes by measuring their degree of similar... View full abstract»

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  • Textural features corresponding to textural properties

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):1264 - 1274
    Cited by:  Papers (217)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1436 KB)

    Five properties of texture, namely, coarseness, contrast, business, complexity, and texture strength, are given conceptual definitions in terms of spatial changes in intensity. These conceptual definitions are then approximated in computational forms. In comparison with human perceptual measurements, the computational measures have shown good correspondences in the rank ordering of ten natural tex... View full abstract»

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  • A knowledge-based system for stacker crane control in a manufacturing environment

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):932 - 945
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1152 KB)

    A knowledge-based intelligent crane scheduling (INCS) system is developed for controlling a stacker crane in a CIM environment where PCBs are made. INCS involves two types of rules, one for cyclic scheduling, which is shown to be near optimal if there is no machine breakdown, and another for handling machine breakdowns, which adjusts the cyclic schedule to real-time disturbances. After briefly rev... View full abstract»

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  • A hypothesis evaluation model for human operators

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):1091 - 1100
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1072 KB)

    A study of a model that portrays the response of a person given a situation-assessment task is presented. The model is expressed in terms of stochastic differential equations in order that it be compatible with the usual modeling paradigm for describing dynamically varying situations. The measured response of a test subject has been compared with a sample response of a model. The subject was prese... View full abstract»

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  • Target detection in urban clutter

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):1242 - 1250
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2100 KB)

    Experiments were conducted to determine the influence of urban background clutter on observer target detection performance. Tests consisted of measuring observer ability to find tank targets in synthetic images displayed on a TV monitor. Results were measured in terms of detection probability versus false alarm probability for various spatial resolutions and clutter levels. The results were compar... View full abstract»

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  • The depth first picture-expression as an image thresholding strategy

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):1321 - 1328
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (792 KB)

    A novel image thresholding method called minimal complexity measure thresholding (MCMT) is presented. It is based on the idea that image thresholding should produce the simplest picture possible, which in turn is based on the idea that a simple pattern is easier for humans to perceive. A hierarchical MCMT (HMCMT) algorithm is also shown; it categorizes portions of each local image area as `signifi... View full abstract»

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  • Efficient parallel algorithms and VLSI architectures for manipulator Jacobian computation

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):1154 - 1166
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (920 KB)

    The real-time computation of the Jacobian that relates the manipulator joint velocities to the linear and angular velocities of the manipulator end-effector is pursued. Since the Jacobian can be expressed in the form of a first-order linear recurrence, the time lower bound for computing the Jacobian can be proved to be of order O(N) on uniprocessor computers and of order ... View full abstract»

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  • Optimal subclasses with dichotomous variables for feature selection and discrimination

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):1194 - 1198
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (564 KB)

    The authors present an efficient algorithm for finding optimal subclasses of a class whose members are represented by several dichotomous features with 0 or 1. Each subclass is expressed by a logical formula with common features among its members. It is shown that some typical subclasses, which contain a large number of samples from a class, consist of a few features. Thus one can select these fea... View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive design of Petri net controllers for error recovery in automated manufacturing systems

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):963 - 973
    Cited by:  Papers (114)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (912 KB)

    The concept of Petri net controllers is extended to include automatic error recovery and adaptive design. In the Petri net controller considered, a place that represents an operation or a state of a machine is attached to two functions and a constant so that it can represent a system working with both normal states and abnormal states. In addition, it is possible to detect an error with the contro... View full abstract»

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  • Fast and reliable image enhancement using fuzzy relaxation technique

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):1276 - 1281
    Cited by:  Papers (52)  |  Patents (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB)

    A fast and reliable image enhancement technique based on the fuzzy relaxation algorithm is proposed. Different orders of fuzzy membership functions and different rank statistics are used to improve the enhancement speed and quality, respectively. The proof of the convergence of the algorithm and some experimental results are provided View full abstract»

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  • Sufficient and ε-sufficient statistics in pattern recognition and their relation to fuzzy techniques

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):1261 - 1263
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (260 KB)

    An approach to the selection of essential features of objects to be recognized, which is based on sufficient and ε-sufficient statistics, is presented. It is shown how sufficient and ε-sufficient statistics can be used to construct partitions of the space of outcomes of an experiment in order to simplify the pattern recognition process. Whereas the sufficient partitions involve inexactne... View full abstract»

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  • Pattern classification in dynamic environments: tagged feature-class representation and the classifiers

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):1203 - 1209
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (732 KB)

    The author discusses: a tagged feature and class representation of the pattern recognition problem in a dynamic environment; univariate cooperative classifiers that are based on statistical feature evaluation and impose no constraint on the variations of the sets of classes and features; and inductive learning procedures that are used to create a class-feature space adaptive to the variations of t... View full abstract»

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  • An evaluation of motor models of handwriting

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):1060 - 1072
    Cited by:  Papers (83)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (972 KB)

    A general method is presented for describing and analyzing biomedical handwriting models. Using Laplace's transform theory, a model can be represented in what is called the neural firing-rate domain. Consistent terminology is proposed to facilitate model evaluation and comparison. An overview of previously published models suggests that they could be described using this method, with second- and t... View full abstract»

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