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Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 11  Part 2 • Date Nov. 1989

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 132
  • Experimental dependence of resonant tunnel diode current on accumulation layer band profiles

    Publication Year: 1989
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (154 KB)  

    Accurate predictive modeling and control of the negative differential conductance region of resonant tunnel diodes are important for their use in microwave circuit applications. Present ballistic transport models give much smaller currents in the negative differential conductance region than are measured for GaAs/AlAs devices. While an accumulation of charge in the cathode spacer just outside the barrier is necessary to produce a voltage drop across the structure, these models neglect the themialization of charge into this layer and its contribution to the current. We demonstrate the dependence of resonant tunnel diode characteristics on spacer accumulation layer band profiles by comparing a control sample with a sample which has an InGaAs "prewell" in the cathode spacer layer. The prewell sample has a relative valley or excess current that is reduced by 38 percent, on average, compared to the control sample. View full abstract»

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  • An X-band tuned amplifier with a field-emission cathode

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2738 - 2741
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (472 KB)  

    A design of a compact X-band tuned amplifier based on a thin field-emitter array (TFFEC) is presented. An output power above 10 W with more than 10 dB of gain at 50-MHz bandwidth is expected. The amplifier also serves as a vehicle for gaining practical experience in the application of the TFFEC in an RF environment. It is concluded that the TFFEC has properties suggesting that a whole new generation of microwave amplifiers of high frequency, moderate power, and possibly low cost can be developed.<> View full abstract»

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  • Proceedings of 47th Annual Device Research Conference (papers in summary form only received)

    Publication Year: 1989
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Preparation and characterization of zirconium carbide field emitters

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2697 - 2702
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (728 KB)  

    The authors report on experiments to determine the feasibility of using the refractory transition metal carbide ZrC as a stable field-emission cathode. Emphasis is on the preparation and analysis of methods needed to obtain stable electron emission from a cold field-emission cathode. ZrC single-crystal specimens were prepared by arc floating zone refinement from sintered stock, yielding an average bulk stoichiometry of C/Zr=0.913. Due to its brittle nature and the high temperatures required for cleaning of this carbide, new mounting methods were developed. Emitter etching procedures are reported for ZrC, as well as in situ tip sharpening techniques of neon-ion bombardment and temperatures required for thermal cleaning. A temperature of 1500 degrees C is required to remove adsorbates including oxygen. A clean ZrC field-emission pattern is shown. Ordering of work functions of various crystal planes is reported through field-emission microscopy, and comparisons are made with thermionic projection microscopy. Effective thermionic work functions are presented for clean surfaces to support further the ordering obtained. The ability of ZrC field emitters to operate at pressures far above those commonly found for field-emission cathodes is demonstrated. View full abstract»

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  • A generalized model for total electrical characterization of bulk traps and interface properties in semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor structure: static, dynamic, and transient approaches

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2621 - 2622
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (389 KB)  

    Summary form only given. The authors present a novel theoretical and experimental approach using independent static, dynamic, and transient measurements to analyze the double interfaces and volume trapping properties of SOI (silicon-on-insulator) materials. In particular, they develop a generalized model appropriate for the study of interfaces, bulk traps, and buried oxide properties using the inherent semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor (SIS) capacitor structure of the unprocessed SOI substrate. The model is based on the extension of conventional MOS capacitor theory to the two Si-SiO2 interfaces of the SIS capacitor. The validity of the model is demonstrated by independent static, dynamic, and transient measurements on the SIMOX (separation by implantation of oxygen) based SIS capacitors. The results of this study reveal that the substrate-oxide interface has fewer electrically active defects than the film-oxide interface. View full abstract»

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  • High-performance salicide shallow-junction CMOS devices for submicrometer VLSI application in twin-tub VI

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2530 - 2536
    Cited by:  Papers (16)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (746 KB)  

    A 3.3-V CMOS technology with 0.6- mu m design rules in sixth-generation twin-tub CMOS (twin-tub VI) was developed. The major features of the device in this technology are: HIPOX twin-tub structure, n+/p+ dual-type poly gate, 125-AA thin gate oxide, shallow junctions, rapid thermal anneal activation, and thin TiSi2 as the source/drain/gate silicide layer. Electrical measurements show good I-V characteristics, ideal low junction leakage, latchup immunity for 4.5- mu m n+-to-p+ spacing, more than 6.0-V NMOSFET snapback breakdown voltage, good hot-carrier aging properties, and undetectable dopant interlateral diffusion through a TiSi2 shunt layer of a different type of poly. The transistors were scaled to 0.45- and 0.40- mu m effective channel length without punchthrough at Vds=3.6 V for NMOS and PMOS, respectively. A 100-ps stage delay was obtained on a 101-stage CMOS ring oscillator at an operating voltage of 3.3 V. View full abstract»

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  • Semiconductor fabrication technology applied to micrometer valves

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2703 - 2708
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1363 KB)  

    The authors describe the first stages of process development of silicon field-emitting structures together with novel techniques for improving individual processing steps. It is demonstrated that refined lithographic techniques, originally developed for semiconductor device fabrication, can be readily applied to the manufacture of micrometer-sized field emitters. The modifications needed for optimum tip shaping and dielectric planarization are examined in detail, and satisfactory results are obtained. View full abstract»

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  • Comparative rating of logic active devices

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2592 - 2593
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    The change in a logic figure of merit as the ultimate speed of logic active devices is tracked over a period of years. Current high-speed FET devices have ultimate speeds corresponding to an equivalent wire length of 3.4 mm, which is comparable to the distance between input and output terminals. Consequently, further significant increases in logic speed for active devices cannot be expected. View full abstract»

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  • Wet etching of cusp structures for field-emission devices

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2709 - 2714
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (874 KB)  

    The use of wet chemical etching to produce sharp tip structures for field-emission device applications is investigated by considering the etching of silicon in potassium hydroxide and nitric/acetic/hydrofluoric acid etchants. The basic theory of etch front propagation is presented. This theoretical description is used, with experimentally determined etch rates, to obtain a complete phenomenological description of both etch systems. The accuracy of this description is illustrated by comparison of theoretical and experimental tip shapes. Guided by this, the general features of such etching processes are highlighted with specific reference to their application in producing accurate field-emission tip structures. View full abstract»

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  • Hot-electron damage-resistant Si-gate submicrometer MOSFETs with a fluorinated oxide

    Publication Year: 1989
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (259 KB)  

    Summary form only given. It has been reported previously (see E.F. da Silva, Jr. et al., 1987) that, by introducing minute amounts of fluorine in thermal SiO2, the reliability of MOS capacitors can be significantly improved. The authors present a new technique to incorporate fluorine into the gate oxide, and the subsequent improvement of the resistance to hot-electron damage of the resulting micrometer-size and submicrometer MOSFETs. This technique utilizes low energy F implantation onto the surface of the polysilicon gate electrode, followed by annealing at 950 degrees C to diffuse F into the gate SiO2 toward the SiO2/Si interface. The MOSFETs investigated covered a wide range of gate lengths (0.6-10 mu m on mask; 0.2-9.6 mu m after processing) and widths (0.8-10 mu m on mask; 0.2-9.4 mu m after processing). Among other findings, it is shown that the incorporation of F causes a reduction of midgap interface trap density and an increase of maximum transconductance in as-processed devices over a wide range of the F-implant doses studied (0-1016/cm2). View full abstract»

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  • Imaging and manipulating molecules with the scanning tunneling microscope

    Publication Year: 1989
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (253 KB)  

    Summary form only given, as follows. In a very short time the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) has become an important surface analysis tool for real-space imaging of surface structure on an atomic scale. The visualization of atoms on a surface and even distinguishing one element from another can be performed routinely in many labs around the world. This technique has been extended to imaging organic adsorbates on conducting surfaces. The STM can resolve individual molecules and can even distinguish individual parts within complicated molecules. While the primary use of the STM has been as an imaging tool and sensitive topographic mapper, recently efforts have been made to use the STM as a manipulator of materials. Two applications are lithography and molecular manipulation including transformations on single molecules. View full abstract»

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  • Quantum interference devices fabricated using molecular-beam epitaxy and ultra-high-resolution electron-beam lithography

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2617 - 2618
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    Summary form only given. The authors have fabricated various new lateral quantum interference devices (QIDs) using molecular-beam epitaxy and ultra-high-resolution electron-beam lithography and have observed conductance oscillations in these devices. These QIDs have a structure which is similar to that of a conventional MODFET, except for the gate(s), which consists of various nanometer patterns instead of a plain gate. The gate nanometer patterns create electrostatic potential barriers and well(s) in the channel. At low temperatures, as the electron mean-free path approaches or becomes longer than the gate length, quantum interference of the electron wave with the barriers and wells results in the formation of quasi-bound states or subbands, and, as a result, the conductance oscillates as either the gate voltage or the source-drain voltage is scanned. Several novel QIDs are presented with emphasis on a new lateral quantum box transistor (LQBFET), which has a railway track gate. View full abstract»

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  • Ionization thresholds in silicon and germanium avalanche photodiodes under hydrostatic pressure and strain

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2625 - 2626
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    Summary form only given. Silicon has the lowest multiplication noise of any known semiconductor for avalanche photodiodes (APDs), due to the large ratio of the hole-initiated ionization threshold energy to the electron threshold energy ( approximately=1.5). In order to identify the bandstructure features responsible for this behavior and to investigate the expected noise performance of Si-Ge strained-layer APDs, the bandstructure dependence of threshold energies in Si and Ge was studied both experimentally and theoretically. In Si the lowest calculated thresholds are for electron-initiated umklapp processes with the ionizing electron relaxing into the X minima. The measured breakdown voltage of Si APDs decreased with pressure at a rate determined by the pressure dependence of the X minima. This provides experimental evidence that umklapp processes are indeed important in indirect bandgap semiconductors. In Ge, the Gamma , L, and X minima are close in energy and there are several possible ionization processes involving the different minima. The measured breakdown voltage increased with pressure up to approximately=5 kbar, and then decreased. This pressure is close to that at which the Gamma and X minima cross. Thus, by tuning the bandstructure, it is possible to select which process will dominate. The results show that strained layers fabricated in indirect bandgap semiconductors are potentially attractive for low-noise avalanche multiplication. View full abstract»

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  • A new high-resolution 11-mm diagonal image sensor for still-picture photography

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2466 - 2474
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1093 KB)  

    The author describes a novel CCD (charge coupled device) frame-transfer image sensor is designed to be used in high-resolution cameras for still-picture photography. The device has the capability of capturing both TV fields at the same time and storing the data in two independently addressable field memories. The novel architecture permits operation in various modes ranging from the movie to a high-resolution mode with 968 lines. Additional features include operation in both an interlaced or sequential line-scanning mode and in an electronic-shutter mode if a small amount of image smear is tolerated or electronically subtracted from the signal. The image sensing area has an 11-mm diagonal, 486 lines, and 1134 active pixels in each line. The sensor fabrication is based on the virtual-phase technology with electron-hole recombination antiblooming. This allowed an easy implementation of a relatively complex charge domain multiplexing into three signal channels. The device can be used for color-sensing applications if a striped-color filter is attached to the chip or directly fabricated on the chip. The characterization results confirm the expected high device performance and demonstrate that the new concept is a viable alternative to existing architectures developed for similar applications. View full abstract»

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  • High performance AlInAs/GaInAs HBTs for high speed, low power digital circuits

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2601 - 2602
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (383 KB)  

    Summary form only given. The authors describe high-performance single-heterojunction (SH) and double-heterostructure (DH) AlInAs/GaInAs HBTs (heterojunction bipolar transistors) for low-power digital circuits. They report record results in both DC and RF performance of AlInAs/GaInAs HBTs and circuits, including the highest unity current gain frequency, ft=78 GHz, reported for AlInAs/GaInAs HBTs, and a divide-by-four frequency divider operating up to a frequency of 17.1 GHz with a total power consumption of only 67 mW. View full abstract»

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  • A cross section of alpha -particle-induced soft-error phenomena in VLSIs

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2567 - 2575
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (852 KB)  

    The alpha -particle-induced soft-error phenomena for VLSIs are investigated using a three-dimensional device simulator and a new experimental method. The scope of the present work includes a description of: the scalability of the funneling length (size effects and proximity effects), the effects of reduced supply voltages, the potential barrier effect of an n+-p+-p (substrate) structure, compulsory exposure experiments, and a new effect that causes the soft error ( alpha -particle source-drain penetration effect, or ALPEN). A new funneling length behavior that cannot be explained by Hu's model (1982) is discussed. According to this behavior, it was found that a critical charge for a given soft-error rate, which determines the limitation of planar and trench memory cells, can be scaled down. Furthermore, it is shown that the ALPEN effect, which occurs when an effective channel length of a MOSFET is comparable to the effective funneling length, puts a new constraint on deep submicrometer VLSI design. View full abstract»

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  • Microwave characterization of the contiguous domain oscillator

    Publication Year: 1989
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (252 KB)  

    Summary form only given. The authors report the first observation of microwave oscillation in the contiguous domain oscillator (CDO). Computer simulations indicate that, if the channel field VGG/L is in the regime of negative differential mobility for electrons in GaAs, a contiguous sequence of charge domains will form spontaneously along the entire length of the channel, continuously drifting into the drain. Experimental devices were fabricated using a standard ion-implanted MESFET process, modified to include a WSiN resistive gate. The gate resistivity is 30 k Omega /sq, channel doping is 1.2*1017 cm-3, and channel thickness is 150 nm. Channel widths range from 200 to 400 mu m and lengths from 10 to 50 mu m. Devices were mounted in a waveguide insertion unit, and operation was characterized between 26 and 140 GHz using a Tektronix 2755P spectrum analyzer. Modulation of the oscillation frequency by the gate-to-source VG1-s was observed, as predicted by the computer simulation. View full abstract»

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  • 105 times biasing current improvement in an electron wave interference device with vertical superlattices

    Publication Year: 1989
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (257 KB)  

    Summary form only given. The authors have fabricated a novel WBT (washboard transistor) with an (AlAs)14/ (GaAs)34/ vertical superlattice. The vertical superlattice (FLS) has a 10-nm-order periodicity perpendicular to the growth direction. The FLS improves the WBT's biasing current by about 105 times compared to the previous WBT with a 500-nm grating gate. The modulation-doped AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction structure with FLSs is grown on [001]-oriented semi-insulating GaAs substrate with a misorientation angle of 1.0 degrees toward the [110] direction. The electron concentration is about 103 larger than that of the previous WBT, resulting from periodicity reduction from 500 to 16.2 nm. View full abstract»

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  • Superconducting versus optical interconnections

    Publication Year: 1989
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (255 KB)  

    Summary form only given. The authors contrast the results of work on long (30 cm) YBaCuO microstrip interconnections and short (<10 cm) waveguided optical interconnections. 4000-AA YBaCuO films were coevaporated on 1-in2 LaGaO3 substrates and a 30-cm microstrip was patterned by lift-off. Measurements suggest (1) that flux motion does not introduce significant nonlinearities below 76 K, (2) that Jc rather than Hc is the appropriate limit on maximum current density, and (3) that high-performance transmission lines can be achieved if the low surface resistance expected for superconductors is achieved. The authors have also evaluated an alkyl-silicon polymer waveguide material in which the waveguide is defined simply by exposure to deep ultraviolet, requiring no etching or other patterning of the material. Attenuations less than 0.5 dB/cm were measured on 1-cm waveguides, and low loss bends (1-mm radius) and single-plane crossovers were demonstrated. The optical interconnects formed are directly compatible with underlying electronics and optoelectronics and suitable for lengths of up to several centimeters (limited by attenuation). View full abstract»

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  • Super-miniaturization of low-power vacuum microwave devices

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2742 - 2743
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB)  

    The main advantages of low-power vacuum microwave devices, e.g. insensitivity to temperature, radiation, and electromagnetic fields of high amplitude, are maintained at any level of miniaturization. Furthermore, superminiaturization of vacuum devices brings about new features that substantially surpass the capabilities of both nonminiaturized vacuum devices and miniaturized solid-state semiconductor devices, such as unusual accuracy, stability, and low noise. These new features can be realized both in devices with lumped constants and in devices that have a distributed interaction with the microwave field. View full abstract»

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  • High speed and compact CMOS circuits with multi-pillar surrounding gate transistors

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2605 - 2606
    Cited by:  Patents (109)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (386 KB)  

    Summary form only given. In order to overcome the scaling limitations on planar transistors for future LSIs, the authors propose a novel surrounding gate transistor (SGT), whose gate electrode surrounds multipillar silicon islands. The new SGT offers large drain currents even in a very small occupied area. The large channel width is achieved by using all the sidewalls of the crowded multipillar silicon islands as the channel regions. Owing to this multichannel structure, a transistor with extremely small occupied area and sufficient drivability can be obtained. The small occupied area and the mesh-structured gate electrode lead to small gate electrode RC delay and small junction capacitance, resulting in very high-speed operation, contrary to the cases of the planar transistor and the conventional SGT. A new SGT CMOS inverter chain was fabricated. The propagation delay is reduced to 20% of that for the case of the planar transistors. This new SGT is extremely attractive for future high-speed ULSI devices. View full abstract»

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  • High-efficiency 0.25- mu m gate-length pseudomorphic power heterostructure FETs at millimeter-wave frequencies

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2616 - 2617
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (371 KB)  

    Summary form only given. The authors compare the 35-GHz power performance of four different 0.25- mu m gate-length pseudomorphic AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs heterostructure FET (HFET) devices. The devices that are examined include the HEMT (high-electron-mobility transistor), double-heterojunction HEMT (DHHEMT), doped-channel HFET (DCHFET), and the doped-channel MODFET (DCHMODFET). A maximum 35-GHz power-added-efficiency and a power density of 49% and 0.94 W/mm were measured, for the DCHMODFET; 43% and 0.97 W/mm for the DHHEMT, 32% and 0.75 W/mm for the HEMT, and 31% and 0.77 W/mm for the DCHFET. The DC parameters that influence RF power performance were analyzed, and it was found that the I-V linearities of the DCHMODFET, DCHFET, and DHHEMT are much better than that of the HEMT and that the pinchoff characteristics of the DCHMODFET are superior to those of the DHHEMT. The first point explains why the efficiencies of the DCHMODFET and DHHEMT are significantly better than that of the HEMT. It is believed that the second point is responsible for the better efficiency in the DCHMODFET compared to the DHHEMT. View full abstract»

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  • Capacitance-voltage analysis and current modeling of pulse-doped MODFETs

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2394 - 2404
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1055 KB)  

    The correlation of the capacitance-voltage characteristics of fat MODFETs (FATFETs) to the current-voltage characteristics of FATFETs and the pulse-doped MODFET is reported. The measured gate capacitance is fitted using a noniterative numerical algorithm. The effective doping concentration of the GaAs buffer region and AlGaAs pulse-doped region is extracted along with the dependence of two-dimensional electron gas concentration upon the applied gate voltage. An excellent agreement between the threshold voltages calculated from the measured gate capacitance relation and the I-V characteristics is obtained for FATFETs. The correlation of the average threshold voltages of MODFETs and FATFETs appears to be technology-dependent. A good correlation of the average threshold voltage of MODFETs and FATFETs is observed on a wafer featuring Schottky gate diodes with good ideality coefficients. The comparison of the present semianalytic I-V model with a hydrodynamic model demonstrates that velocity overshoot above the GaAs peak stationary velocity does not appreciably improve the saturation transconductance. The two-dimensional field effects associated with the 2DEG channel width are also shown to bring a minimal contribution to the drain conductance of MODFETs. View full abstract»

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  • Monolithic infrared sensor array in heteroepitaxial Pb1-xSnxSe on Si with 12- mu m cutoff wavelength

    Publication Year: 1989
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (255 KB)  

    Summary form only given. An array of photovoltaic infrared sensors with cutoff wavelengths as high as 12 mu m has been fabricated in a narrow-gap semiconductor layer (Pb1-xSnxSe, LTS) grown heteroepitaxially on Si. The LTS sensors are diffusion noise current limited down to 95 K, followed by a depletion noise dominated region. Resistance-area products are up to 0.3 Omega -cm2 at 77 K (cutoff 11.6 mu m), and quantum efficiencies are >0.25 without antireflection coating. This corresponds to a junction noise limited detectivity D*>2*1010 cm Hz/W. The sensitivities achieved are only approximately=5 times lower than those of state-of-the-art photovoltaic Hg1-xCdxTe sensors with the same cutoff wavelength. Also presented are results which demonstrate that LTS growth and infrared (IR) sensor fabrication are compatible with active silicon substrates, thus allowing the construction of a heteroepitaxial but full monolithic narrow-gap semiconductor on a silicon IR focal plane array. View full abstract»

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  • Non-linear optical rectification at 10.6 mu m in compositionally asymmetrical GaAs/AlGaAs multi-quantum wells

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2613 - 2614
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (381 KB)  

    Summary form only given. The authors present evidence of nonlinear optical rectification in compositionally asymmetrical GaAs/AlGaAs MQWs (multi-quantum wells). The structure consisted of 12 periods of 30-AA GaAs-65-AA Al0.2Ga0.8As wells separated by 500-AA Al0.4Ga0.6As barriers, epitaxially grown on a 3*1018 cm-3 Si-doped GaAs wafer. The GaAs well is 3*1017 cm-3 Si doped, while the rest of the wells and barriers are nonintentionally doped. A 3000-AA 1018-cm-3 Si-doped GaAs contact layer is grown. The optical rectification is measured at 77 K as a bias appearing at the diode electrodes (with no photocurrent) when it is illuminated by a 10.6- mu m CO2 laser. An optical rectification coefficient chi ( omicron = omega - omega ) of 5*10-6 m/V for each well was determined that is an effective electrooptical coefficient of 4.5*10-9 m/V in the whole structure. This value of chi ( omicron = omega - omega ) is more than three orders of magnitude higher than in a natural nonlinear medium such as GaAs or InP at 10.6 mu m. This structure can thus be used as a highly effective electrooptic medium in infrared waveguides. View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices publishes original and significant contributions relating to the theory, modeling, design, performance and reliability of electron and ion integrated circuit devices and interconnects.

 

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Acting Editor-in-Chief

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University of California San Diego