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Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 7 • Date July 1999

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 35
  • Comments on "A weighted least-squares method for the design of stable 1-D and 2-D IIR digital filters" [with reply]

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 2063 - 2066
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (96 KB)  

    For original paper by Lu et al. see IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol.46, p.1-10 (1998 January). The iterative procedure by Lu et al. for designing IIR filters is recognized as the Sanathanan-Koerner or Steiglitz-McBride iteration, which was proposed originally in 1963 and 1965, respectively, for system identification purposes. We re-examine some claims and issues related to Lu et al.'s paper in view of various properties that have been deduced for the Steiglitz-McBride iteration in the identification literature. In particular, the Steiglitz-McBride procedure is known not to minimize a least-squares distance measure, contrary to Lu et al.'s claim. It can, however, provide good models and remain stable during successive iterations under specific conditions which are reviewed. A reply is given by Lu et al. View full abstract»

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  • Reply to "Comments on 'A weighted least-squares method for the design of stable 1-D and 2-D IIR digital filters'"

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 2066
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (29 KB)  

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  • Comments on "A variational approach to the extraction of in-phase and quadrature components" [with reply]

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 2066 - 2068
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (78 KB)  

    For original paper by Gordon see IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol.46, p.1238-44 (1998 May). With a variational method, Gordon defined the quadratures and carrier frequency different from the analytic signal (AS). This approach ignores, however, that quadratures must be bandlimited. Restriction of bandlimiting results in another solution and leads to the AS model. Gordon replies to this comment. View full abstract»

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  • Reply to "Comments on 'A variationl approach to the extraction of in-phase and quadrature components'"

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 2068
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (24 KB)  

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  • Optimal multifilter banks: design, related symmetric extension transform, and application to image compression

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1878 - 1889
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1168 KB)  

    The design of optimal multifilter banks and optimum time-frequency resolution multiwavelets with different objective functions is discussed. The symmetric extension transform related to multifilter banks with symmetric properties is presented. It is shown that such a symmetric extension transform is nonexpensive. More optimal multifilter banks for image compression are constructed, and some of them are used in image compression. Experiments show that optimal multifilter banks have better performances in image compression than Daubechies' orthogonal wavelet filters and Daubechies' least asymmetric wavelet filters, and for some images, they even have better performances than the scalar (9,7)-tap biorthogonal wavelet filters. Experiments also show that the symmetric extension transform provided in this paper improves the rate-distortion performance compared with the periodic extension transform View full abstract»

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  • Performance of cumulant based inverse filters for blind deconvolution

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1922 - 1935
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (396 KB)  

    Chi and Wu (1963) proposed a class of inverse filter criteria J r,m using rth-order and rth-order cumulants (where r is even and m>r⩾2) for blind deconvolution (equalization) of a (nonminimum phase) linear time-invariant (LTI) system with only non-Gaussian measurements. The inverse filter criteria Jr,m for r=2 are frequently used such as Wiggins' (1978) criterion, Donoho's (1981) criteria, and Tugnait's (1993) inverse filter criteria for which the identifiability of the LTI system is based on infinite signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We analyze the performance of the inverse filter criteria J2,m (r=2) when the SNR is finite. The analysis shows that the inverse filter associated with J2,m is related to the minimum mean square error (MMSE) equalizer in a nonlinear manner, with some common properties such as perfect phase (but not perfect amplitude) equalization. Furthermore, the former approaches the latter either for higher SNR, cumulant-order m, or for wider system bandwidth. Moreover, as the MMSE equalizer does, the inverse filter associated with J2,m, also performs noise reduction besides equalization. Some simulation results, as well as some calculation results, are provided to support the proposed analytic results View full abstract»

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  • Polynomial phase signal analysis based on the polynomial derivatives decompositions

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1954 - 1965
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (372 KB)  

    An exact decomposition of the derivatives of any order of a polynomial φ(t) is proposed in terms of φ(t-t0), ..., φ(t-tn). This result allows us to introduce generalized time-frequency distributions for studying signals having a polynomial phase and a constant amplitude in order to determine the degree and the coefficients of the corresponding phase. The relationships between these distributions and the already known polynomial distributions, i.e., the polynomial phase transform and the polynomial Wigner-Ville distribution, are discussed. Illustrations by example are proposed View full abstract»

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  • One- and two-dimensional constant geometry fast cosine transform algorithms and architectures

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 2023 - 2034
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (352 KB)  

    This paper presents general radix one- and two-dimensional (1-D and 2-D) constant geometry fast cosine transform algorithms and architectures suitable for VLSI, owing to their regular structures. A constant geometry algorithm is obtained by shuffling the rows and columns of each decomposed DCT matrix that corresponds to a butterfly stage. The 1-D algorithm is derived, and then, it is extended to the 2-D case. Based on the derived algorithms, the architectures with a flexible degree of parallelism are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Redundant filterbank precoders and equalizers. II. Blind channel estimation, synchronization, and direct equalization

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 2007 - 2022
    Cited by:  Papers (114)  |  Patents (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (484 KB)  

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.47, no.7, p.1988-2006 (1999). Transmitter redundancy introduced using finite impulse response (FIR) filterbank precoders offers a unifying framework for single- and multiuser transmissions. With minimal rate reduction, FIR filterbank transmitters with trailing zeros allow for perfect (in the absence of noise) equalization of FIR channels with FIR zero-forcing equalizer filterbanks, irrespective of the input color and the channel zero locations. Exploiting this simple form of redundancy, blind channel estimators, block synchronizers, and direct self-recovering equalizing filterbanks are derived in this paper. The resulting algorithms are computationally simple, require small data sizes, can be implemented online, and remain consistent (after appropriate modifications), even at low SNR colored noise. Simulations illustrate applications to blind equalization of downlink CDMA transmissions, multicarrier modulations through channels with deep fades, and superior performance relative to CMA and existing output diversity techniques relying on multiple antennas and fractional sampling View full abstract»

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  • The continuous wavelet transform as a maximum entropy solution of the corresponding inverse problem

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 2046 - 2050
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (176 KB)  

    The continuous wavelet transform is obtained as a maximum entropy solution of the corresponding inverse problem. It is well known that although a signal can be reconstructed from its wavelet transform, the expansion is not unique due to the redundancy of continuous wavelets. Hence, the inverse problem has no unique solution. If we want to recognize one solution as “optimal”, then an appropriate decision criterion has to be adopted. We show here that the continuous wavelet transform is an “optimal” solution in a maximum entropy sense View full abstract»

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  • Optimum interference excision in spread spectrum communications using open-loop adaptive filters

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1966 - 1976
    Cited by:  Papers (25)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (300 KB)  

    A generalized approach for interference suppression in PN spread spectrum communications using open-loop adaptive excision filtering is introduced. The excision filter coefficients under this technique depend on the jammer power and its instantaneous frequency (IF) information, and both values can be gained in the time-frequency domain. The dependency of the excision filter characteristics on the interference power, which was absent in past contributions in this area, is of significant importance as it allows optimum tradeoff between interference removal and the amount of self-noise generated from the induced correlation across the PN chip sequence, due to filtering. This tradeoff is bounded by the two extreme cases of no self-noise, which implies preprocessing disabled, and full interference excision, which the case previously considered. In this paper, we derive the FIR excision filters that maximize the receiver signal-to-noise ratio for narrowband interference and discuss the generalization to nonstationary jamming environment View full abstract»

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  • Matching pursuit and atomic signal models based on recursive filter banks

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1890 - 1902
    Cited by:  Papers (43)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (268 KB)  

    The matching pursuit algorithm can be used to derive signal decompositions in terms of the elements of a dictionary of time-frequency atoms. Using a structured overcomplete dictionary yields a signal model that is both parametric and signal adaptive. In this paper, we apply matching pursuit to the derivation of signal expansions based on damped sinusoids. It is shown that expansions in terms of complex damped sinusoids can be efficiently derived using simple recursive filter banks. We discuss a subspace extension of the pursuit algorithm that provides a framework for deriving real-valued expansions of real signals based on such complex atoms. Furthermore, we consider symmetric and asymmetric two-sided atoms constructed from underlying one-sided damped sinusoids. The primary concern is the application of this approach to the modeling of signals with transient behavior such as music; it is shown that time-frequency atoms based on damped sinusoids are more suitable for representing transients than symmetric Gabor atoms. The resulting atomic models are useful for signal coding and analysis modification synthesis View full abstract»

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  • Design and multiplierless realization of maximally flat FIR digital Hilbert transformers

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1946 - 1953
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (208 KB)  

    A unified treatment of approximation and realization of type-3 finite impulse response (FIR) linear-phase Hilbert transformers is presented. A simple method based on Bernstein polynomials and half-band filters is proposed to derive the transfer function of the system, and a triangular array realization based on the de Casteljau algorithm is developed from the Bernstein form of the transfer function. It is shown that the array structure, consisting of multiplierless identical modules, can be realized hierarchically using complex and real signal processing techniques View full abstract»

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  • Detection of random transient signals via hyperparameter estimation

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1823 - 1834
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (328 KB)  

    Difficulties arise with the generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) in situations where one or more of the unknown signal parameters requires an enumeration that is computationally intractable. In the transient signal detection problem, the frequency characteristics of the signal are typically unknown; therefore, even if an aggregate signal bandwidth is assumed, the estimation problem intrinsic to the GLRT requires an enumeration of all possible sets of signal locations within the monitored band. In this paper, a prior distribution is imposed over those portions of the signal parameter space that traditionally require enumeration. By replacing intractable enumeration over possible signal characteristics with an a priori signal distribution and by estimating the “hyperparameters” (of the prior distribution) jointly with other signal parameters, it is possible to obtain a new formulation of the GLRT that avoids enumeration and is computationally feasible. The GLRT philosophy is not changed by this approach-what is different from the original GLRT is the underlying signal model. The performance of this new approach appears to be competitive with that of a scheme of emerging acceptance: the “power-law” detector View full abstract»

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  • Parameter estimation of 2-D random amplitude polynomial-phase signals

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1795 - 1810
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (956 KB)  

    Phase information has fundamental importance in many two-dimensional (2-D) signal processing problems. In this paper, we consider 2-D signals with random amplitude and a continuous deterministic phase. The signal is represented by a random amplitude polynomial phase model. A computationally efficient estimation algorithm for the signal parameters is presented. The algorithm is based on the properties of the mean phase differencing operator, which is introduced and analyzed. Assuming that the signal is observed in additive white Gaussian noise and that the amplitude field is Gaussian as well, we derive the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRB) on the error variance in jointly estimating the model parameters. The performance of the algorithm in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise is illustrated by numerical examples and compared with the CRB View full abstract»

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  • Hyperstable adaptive IIR algorithms with polyphase structures: analysis and design

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 2043 - 2046
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (160 KB)  

    We consider adaptive identification algorithms based on hyperstability concepts with polyphase structures. The SPR condition required for convergence of these schemes can be always met by using a sufficiently high polyphase expansion factor M. The degree of persistent excitation required for parameter convergence is obtained. If some a priori knowledge about the system to identify is available, a compensating filter can be designed to avoid the need for a high M View full abstract»

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  • Multidimensional polynomial transform algorithm for multidimensional discrete W transform

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 2050 - 2053
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (116 KB)  

    The multidimensional (MD) polynomial transform is used to convert the MD W transform (MDDWT) into a series of one-dimensional (1-D) W transforms (DWTs). Thus, a new polynomial transform algorithm for the MDDWT is obtained. The algorithm needs no operations on complex data. The number of multiplications for computing an r-dimensional DWT is only 1 times that of the commonly used row-column method. The number of additions is also reduced considerably View full abstract»

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  • Improved weighted least squares algorithm for the design of quadrature mirror filters

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1866 - 1877
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB)  

    This paper presents an improved weighted least squares (WLS) algorithm for the design of quadrature mirror filters (QMFs), First, a new term is incorporated into the objective function that effectively prevents an optimization algorithm from producing suboptimal QMFs. These suboptimal QMFs exhibit a transition band anomaly; the frequency responses of the filters have large oscillatory components in the transition band. The new term can be applied to the WLS design of any FIR filter to prevent a similar transition band anomaly. Next, we present an algorithm to obtain the QMF coefficients that minimize the objective function incorporating the new term. The computational requirement of this algorithm is also briefly discussed. Last, we include a set of practical design rules for use with our algorithm. These rules simplify the design process by providing good estimation of the design parameters, such as the minimum filter length, to meet a given set of QMF specifications View full abstract»

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  • Hidden Markov models for multiaspect target classification

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 2035 - 2040
    Cited by:  Papers (49)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (212 KB)  

    This article presents a new approach for target identification, in which we fuse scattering data from multiple target-sensor orientations. The multiaspect data is processed via hidden Markov model (HMM) classifiers, buttressed by physics-based feature extraction. This approach explicitly accounts for the fact that the target-sensor orientation is generally unknown or “hidden”. Discrimination results are presented for measured scattering data View full abstract»

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  • Two algorithms for fast approximate subspace tracking

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1936 - 1945
    Cited by:  Papers (34)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (592 KB)  

    New fast algorithms are presented for tracking singular values, singular vectors, and the dimension of a signal subspace through an overlapping sequence of data matrices. The basic algorithm is called fast approximate subspace tracking (FAST). The algorithm is derived for the special case in which the matrix is changed by deleting the oldest column, shifting the remaining columns to the left, and adding a new column on the right. A second algorithm (FAST2) is specified by modifying FAST to trade reduced accuracy for higher speed. The speed and accuracy are compared with the PL algorithm, the PAST and PASTd algorithms, and the FST algorithm. An extension to multicolumn updates for the FAST algorithm is also discussed View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive detection of range distributed targets

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1844 - 1851
    Cited by:  Papers (44)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (192 KB)  

    A modified generalized likelihood ratio test (MGLRT) for the adaptive detection of a target or targets that are distributed in range is derived. The unknown parameters associated with the hypothesis test are the complex amplitudes in range of the desired target and the unknown covariance matrix of the additive interference, which is assumed to be characterized as complex zero-mean correlated Gaussian random variables. The target's or targets' complex amplitudes are assumed to be distributed across the entire input data block (sensor×range). Results on probabilities of false alarm and detection are derived, and a bounded constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detector is developed. Simulation results are presented. It is shown that the derived MGLRT of range distributed targets is much more effective in detecting targets distributed in range than an M out of K detector, which is cascaded with a single-point target Kelly (1986) detector View full abstract»

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  • Application of infinite dimensional linear programming to IIR filter design with time domain constraints

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 2060 - 2063
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (168 KB)  

    Previously developed infinite dimensional linear programming techniques are used for the design of recursive filters with complex Chebyshev error criteria and time-domain constraints. The approach is applied to a numerical example that deals with the design of a Laguerre network as an equalization filter for a digital transmission channel View full abstract»

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  • Separation of cochannel GSM signals using an adaptive array

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1977 - 1987
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (332 KB)  

    The Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) is a digital cellular radio network that employs time division multiple access (TDMA). In such a cellular system, frequencies are reused in different regions for spectral efficiency, and thus, the transmissions in a given cell can interfere with those in distant cells. This cochannel interference can be a major impairment to the signal of interest. In this paper, we describe a beamformer and equalizer system that is capable of separating and demodulating several cochannel GSM signals. The signal model includes intersymbol interference (ISI) induced by the Gaussian transmit filter, and the channel model incorporates multipath propagation and additive white Gaussian noise. The GSM synchronization sequences are used to compute the beamformer weights and achieve frame synchronization simultaneously. Decision-feedback equalization is employed to compensate for the transmit filter ISI and to demodulate the data View full abstract»

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  • A rank test based approach to order estimation. I. 2-D AR models application

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 2069 - 2072
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (104 KB)  

    In system identification and parametric spectral estimation by two-dimensional (2-D) autoregressive (AR) and 2-D autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models, the order selection problem is often required. In this correspondence, we show that the information of 2-D AR model order is implicitly contained in a correlation matrix. An algorithm for 2-D quarter-plane AR model order determination is proposed. Numerical simulations are presented to show the efficiency of the proposed singular value decomposition (SVD) based algorithm View full abstract»

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  • Redundant filterbank precoders and equalizers. I. Unification and optimal designs

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1988 - 2006
    Cited by:  Papers (320)  |  Patents (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (612 KB)  

    Transmitter redundancy introduced using filterbank precoders generalizes existing modulations including OFDM, DMT, TDMA, and CDMA schemes encountered with single- and multiuser communications. Sufficient conditions are derived to guarantee that with FIR filterbank precoders FIR channels are equalized perfectly in the absence of noise by FIR zero-forcing equalizer filterbanks, irrespective of the channel zero locations. Multicarrier transmissions through frequency-selective channels can thus be recovered even when deep fades are present. Jointly optimal transmitter-receiver filterbank designs are also developed, based on maximum output SNR and minimum mean-square error criteria under zero-forcing and fixed transmitted power constraints. Analytical performance results are presented for the zero-forcing filterbanks and are compared with mean-square error and ideal designs using simulations View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing covers novel theory, algorithms, performance analyses and applications of techniques for the processing, understanding, learning, retrieval, mining, and extraction of information from signals

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Editor-in-Chief
Sergios Theodoridis
University of Athens