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Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, IEEE

Issue 3 • Date May-June 1999

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Displaying Results 1 - 13 of 13
  • From the guest editor - Neural Engineering

    Page(s): 26
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The past, present, and future of cochlear prostheses

    Page(s): 27 - 33
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    The author discusses the accomplishments and challenges in treating sensorineurnal deafness through electrical stimulation. View full abstract»

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  • Signal-processing techniques for cochlear implants

    Page(s): 34 - 46
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    Cochlear implants have been successful in restoring partial hearing to profoundly deaf people. The success of cochlear implants can be attributed to the combined efforts of scientists from various disciplines, including bioengineering, physiology, otolaryngology, speech science, and signal processing. Each of these disciplines contributed to various aspects of the cochlear implant design. Signal processing, in particular, played an important role in the development of different techniques for deriving electrical stimuli from the speech signal. The purpose of this article is to present a review of various signal-processing techniques that have been used for cochlear prosthesis over the past 25 years. View full abstract»

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  • Neuro-electronic interfacing with multielectrode arrays

    Page(s): 47 - 55
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    This article reports on the selectivity experimentally obtained with a hand-made 24-fold 2D array with electrodes spaced at 120 μm in the rat peroneal nerve and extensor digitorum longum muscle. We call the device 2D, as all the electrode tips lie in the same plane. The device itself is a 3D multiple needle array. The design and construction of a 128-fold 3D array in silicon- and glass technology is briefly described, as well as the fabrication of a 2D 128-fold array in silicon- and LIGA technology. Special attention is given to efficiency; i.e., the ratio of the number of successful electrodes contacting a single motor fiber to the total number of electrodes in the device. We also discuss whether microfabrication technology will allow a further increase in the number of electrode sites, or if an alternative way of interfacing, namely employing cell cultures on electrode substrates, will lead to higher efficiencies. View full abstract»

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  • Detecting the onset of epileptic seizures

    Page(s): 78 - 83
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    Seizure is a phenomenon occurring in a large percentage of the population in every country of the world. It represents a distinctive indicator of an abnormality in the central nervous system. The main indicators in the EEG that predict a seizure are the presence of focal or multifocal receptive spikes or sharp waves (or both) and focal mono-rhythmic discharges. In this article we discuss the hardware and software that we developed for a system for automatic detection of these EEG signal characteristics at the beginning of an epileptic seizure. The patient is warned by the sounding of a special alarm. Such early detection helps to alert the patient to an impeding epileptic seizure and so allows him/her to take appropriate action to mitigate its effects. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear analysis of time series generated by schizophrenic patients

    Page(s): 84 - 90
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    Focusing on a particular feature, the ability to create random rhythms, our study is aimed at the analysis of cognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia, comparing them with normal subjects. We have developed a new cognitive test using methods from nonlinear dynamical systems theory, with the objective of measuring the subject's capacity of developing a random rhythm. View full abstract»

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  • Cuff electrodes for long-term recording of natural sensory information

    Page(s): 91 - 98
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    Cuff electrodes for recording of the electro-neurogram from peripheral nerves were introduced by Hoffer [1974] and Stein, et al. [1975]. The cuffs were used to obtain higher signal amplitudes than previously possible, at least in chronic recordings, and to decrease the pick-up of noise, especially from muscles. Cuff electrodes are relatively stable in long-term recordings, but the stability has never been quantified in terms of input-output relationships; i.e., in terms of responses to repeatable stimuli over time. Moreover. The relationship between nerve damage and electrophysiological parameters has never been assessed. In this article, after reviewing the development of cuff electrodes and their applications, we present a long-term study of tactile peripheral nerve signals, electrically activated nerve signals, and impedance measurements. We show how the recordings vary over a 16-month period after implantation of nerve cuff electrodes in rabbits, and how nerve damage is reflected in the recorded signals. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling neuronal dynamics-transition during sleep

    Page(s): 99 - 107
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    We review phenomenology of the dynamics-transition of single neuronal activities during sleep and summarize results of simulation. We study the generation mechanism underlying the dynamics-transition, based on the structural analysis of network attractors under various conditions. From these studies, we discuss what is happening in actual neural networks, with possible contribution to brain function. View full abstract»

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  • Biomagnetic approaches to studying the brain

    Page(s): 108 - 120
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    Biomagnetic approaches to understanding the functional organization of the human brain include (1) transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), (2) magnetoencephalography (MEG) by superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), and (3) the imaging of electrical currents and impedance distributions of the head based on new principles of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. These techniques are noninvasive and very useful for studying higher brain functions of humans such as memory and cognition. This article discusses these techniques, including the histories, principles, advantages, and disadvantages of each method, by using examples from studies recently conducted primarily in the author's laboratory. View full abstract»

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  • Bioelectricity and Biomagnetism - [Book Reviews]

    Page(s): 123
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Fuzzy and Neuro-Fuzzy Systems in Medicine - [Book Reviews]

    Page(s): 123 - 124
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Oscillatory brain theory: a new trend in neuroscience

    Page(s): 56 - 66
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    During the “Decade of the Brain”, brain science is coming to terms with its ultimate problem: understanding the mechanisms by which the immense number of neurons in the human brain interact to produce the higher cognitive functions. The analysis of the brain's natural frequencies opens a new window toward a combined analysis of sensory and cognitive functions at the level of single neurons and the field potentials. In the last decade, our research group has been strongly involved in the development of nonlinear brain dynamics and with the oscillatory processes of neural assemblies. Recently, three new volumes extensively described this new evolution in neuroscience by concluding that a new integrative neurophysiology and a new “brain theory” is needed in order to confront the problems recognized in this decade of the brain. This article provides a brief outline of how the findings in the last 20 years of research have led to such a development View full abstract»

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  • Source analysis of lesional frontal-lobe epilepsy

    Page(s): 67 - 77
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    Patients with frontal-lobe epilepsy comprise the second largest group undergoing epilepsy surgery. It has been reported that the difficulty in localizing the epileptogenic zone in these patients is due to the rapid spread of the epileptiform activity within the frontal lobe and to adjoining regions of the brain. We formulated the question of whether the functional localization of dynamic sources of interictal activity in patients with well-defined frontal lesions would yield clear evidence regarding both the topology of the primary sources in relation to the epileptogenic lesion and the pattern of spread of the epileptiform activity throughout the brain. In order to achieve this, we used high-resolution EEG recordings combined with MRI, and advanced source-reconstruction algorithms. In this article, the source-imaging procedures used will be discussed extensively, based on one exemplary patient with complex partial FLE View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine contains articles on current technologies and methods used in biomedical and clinical engineering.

 

This Magazine ceased publication in 2010. The current retitled publication is IEEE Pulse.

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