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Computing in Science & Engineering

Issue 2 • Date March-April 1999

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Displaying Results 1 - 16 of 16
  • Cosmology and computation [Guest Editorial]

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 17 - 18
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Finite elements: theory, fast solvers, and applications in solid mechanics [Book and Web reviews]

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 81
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Pattern formation on the Web [Book and Web reviews]

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 82
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Recent advances in large-scale atomistic materials simulations

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 10 - 11, 16
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (340 KB)  

    There has been a great leap forward in large scale molecular dynamics simulations due to both the growing availability of massively parallel supercomputers and the algorithmic work on parallel neighbor-list and cell-based MD codes. Simulations involving tens or hundreds of millions of atoms have gone from being a computational curiosity to being a routine scientific tool used to study diverse phenomena; everything from the propagation of cracks and shock waves through various materials to the surprisingly complex processes that occur when a pair of extended dislocations intersect. We convey some of the more exciting developments that have greatly helped our own research efforts, addressing the structural properties of metals by large-scale MD simulations (http://bifrost.lanl.gov/MD/MD.html) and that can be applied to many other subfields of scientific computation View full abstract»

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  • A perspective on computational science in the 21st Century

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 14 - 16
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (132 KB)  

    Computational science's driving force has been and will continue to be the steady and rapid growth in available raw computing power. This growth exceeds anything else witnessed in the history of technology. The challenge for the 21st Century is to exploit properly this enormous potential. Several fairly obvious directions of development can (and do) present great technical challenges, but the author's focus is on the less obvious challenges. He considers multiphysics phenomena, software validation, multiscale phenomena and computational intelligence View full abstract»

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  • A jump on visualization: the bottom-up approach

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 83 - 87
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    Visualization-using computer graphics to gain insight into complex phenomena-is a powerful tool for scientific computing, but visualization experts and computational scientists seem to live in separate worlds. Recently, however, the gap between these two worlds has narrowed, and scientific visualization has come to represent the marriage of supercomputing and graphics. Computer graphics provides the basic functions for generating complex images from abstract data; visualization employs graphics to make pictures that provide insight into abstract data and symbols. The pictures can directly portray data or present it in an innovative form. Learning programming in graphics and visualization might seem time-consuming or difficult, and the many tools and programs might seem overwhelming. Fortunately, if you know what graphics provide and how they work, you can start using and researching visualization without becoming a graphics expert. In this article, I explain how to work with graphics and I discuss various visualization techniques, tools and areas of research View full abstract»

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  • Shadow-object interface between Fortran 95 and C++

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 63 - 70
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (576 KB)  

    The authors aim to automatically interface C++ and Fortran 95 code, with either language playing the role of main and with user-defined types from one language available in the other. To physically interface C++ and Fortran 95 they: ensure that procedure names are visible and sensible across the language interface; reduce procedure arguments to the common set of built-in types available in both languages; and ensure that the proper code initialization takes place in both languages View full abstract»

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  • Exploring high-dimensional energy landscapes

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 74 - 80, 82
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB)  

    Maps are not reserved for geography. Chemical reactions, atomic diffusion and protein folding all involve atomic displacements determined by the topography of a complex energy landscape. These landscapes are largely unexplored, and our first priority is to identify their key features: the energy minima and the connecting paths between them. Such a study represents a formidable task. The effort needed to map a space increases exponentially with its dimensionality and becomes rapidly out of reach for the high-dimensional problems of interest in physics, chemistry and biology. Therefore, we have to satisfy ourselves with only a very crude knowledge of these energy landscapes. Recently, many researchers have been developing algorithms for exploring and mapping the potential energy landscapes of systems as diverse as polypeptides, chemical reactions, Lennard-Jones clusters and silica glass. In this article, we address some of the general issues and present an algorithm, called the activation-relaxation technique (ART), which we developed for mapping high-dimensional landscapes View full abstract»

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  • The importance of importance sampling

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 71 - 73
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (208 KB)  

    Importance sampling is an underappreciated Monte Carlo technique. The authors have used it with great success. They share their insights. Importance sampling is designed to reduce the variance of the estimators for a given-size sample View full abstract»

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  • Computing challenges of the cosmic microwave background

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 21 - 35
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1044 KB)  

    The authors address the challenge of extracting high-precision measurements of cosmological parameters from upcoming megapixel cosmic-microwave data sets. They discuss the computational challenges associated with current methods for going from the time streams to multifrequency sky maps, from these maps to the different sky signals, and from there to the statistical properties of the cosmic microwave background View full abstract»

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  • Fluids in the universe: adaptive mesh refinement in cosmology

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 46 - 53
    Cited by:  Papers (51)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB)  

    Using galactic clusters, galactic formation, and the first stars as examples, the author demonstrates how adaptive mesh refinement techniques can be successfully applied to cosmological research. The method combines adaptive refinement of interesting regions with modern grid-based methods for solving hydrodynamic equations View full abstract»

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  • Fitting the universe on a supercomputer

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 36 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1312 KB)  

    Simulations run on the largest available parallel supercomputers are answering the question of how today's rich cosmic structure developed from a smooth, near featureless early universe. The paper presents two such simulations which illustrate how algorithm and implementation strategies can be optimized for specific cosmological problems. The first aims to outline structure in the largest possible volume of the universe. The second treats a single galaxy cluster's evolution with the highest possible resolution View full abstract»

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  • The Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 54 - 62
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4556 KB)  

    Astronomy is about to undergo a major paradigm shift, with data sets becoming larger and more homogeneous, designed for the first time in a top-down fashion. The paper discusses the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. By digitally mapping half of the northern sky, this project promises to radically improve the way scientists do astronomy. In putting a digital sky on the desktops of astronomers, the SDSS could well lead to major new discoveries View full abstract»

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  • Computer algebra takes on the vibrating-membrane problem

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 88 - 93
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (376 KB)  

    The vibrating membrane is a classic problem of mathematical physics. It provides a particularly good example of how a computer algebra system (CAS) can serve as a pedagogic tool for scientific analysis. In this article, we focus on the oscillation of a circular membrane. We concentrate on the pedagogical aspects and on the part of the theory in which a CAS can be the most helpful. Maple is an appropriate environment to analyze the membrane problem. We used the Maple system's main aspects together to solve the problem. We used the algebraic aspect to develop the problem step by step from the wave equation. We used the graphical aspect to animate the normal modes and the movement caused by initial conditions. We used the numerical aspect to find the zeros of the Bessel functions, to perform numerical integration when needed and to plot the results. The programming aspect let us make packages containing tools to analyze the problem. With these tools, we can change physical parameters and choose many kinds of initial conditions View full abstract»

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  • High-performance special-purpose computers in science

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 12 - 13, 16
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (152 KB)  

    The next decade will be an exciting time for computational physicists. After 50 years of being forced to use standardized commercial equipment, they will finally be able to adapt their computing tools to their own needs. The first step in this breakthrough is the widespread availability of programmable chips that allow virtually every computational scientist to design his or her own special-purpose computer. The paper considers the Grape project which is one example in which computational physicists developed special-purpose computers successfully View full abstract»

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  • Totally Rad: planning radiation therapy in 3D

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 6 - 9
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (180 KB)  

    Since the first successful treatment of a cancer patient with radiation a century ago, shortly after the discovery of X rays, radiation therapy has become more sophisticated. It now relies heavily on the use of computers to control X-ray or other particle sources, map the tumor's site with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and plan the safe use of multiple, intersecting beams to deliver the required dose to tumor tissue (and not the surrounding normal cells). The paper considers the use of 3D radiation therapy planning systems for the treatment of cancer patients View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Computing in Science & Engineering presents scientific and computational contributions in a clear and accessible format.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
George K. Thiruvathukal
Loyola University