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Oceanic Engineering, IEEE Journal of

Issue 1 • Date Jan 1999

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Displaying Results 1 - 9 of 9
  • A modeling study of acoustic propagation through moving shallow-water solitary wave packets

    Page(s): 16 - 32
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (860 KB)  

    Propagation of 400-Hz sound through continental-shelf internal solitary wave packets is shown by numerical simulation to be strongly influenced by coupling of normal modes. Coupling in a packet is controlled by the mode coefficients at the point where sound enters the packet, the dimensions of the waves and packet, and the ambient depth structures of temperature and salinity. In the case of a moving packet, changes of phases of the incident modes with respect to each other dominate over the other factors, altering the coupling over time and thus inducing signal fluctuations. The phasing within a moving packet varies with time scales of minutes, causing coupling and signal fluctuations with comparable time scales. The directionality of energy flux between high-order acoustic modes and (less attenuated) low-order modes determines a gain factor for long-range propagation. A significant finding is that energy flux toward low-order modes through the effect of a packet near a source favoring high-order modes will give net amplification at distant ranges. Conversely, a packet far from a source sends energy into otherwise quiet higher modes. The intermittency of the coupling and of high-mode attenuation via bottom interaction means that signal energy fluctuations and modal diversity fluctuations at a distant receiver are complementary, with energy fluctuations suggesting a source-region packet and mode fluctuations suggesting a receiver-region packet. Simulations entailing 33-km propagation are used in the analyses, imitating the SWARM experiment geometry, allowing comparison with observations View full abstract»

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  • Broad-band geoacoustic inversion in shallow water from waveguide impulse response measurements on a single hydrophone: theory and experimental results

    Page(s): 41 - 66
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    The paper discusses an inversion method that allows the rapid determination of in situ geoacoustic properties of the ocean bottom without resorting to large acoustic receiving apertures, synthetic or real. The method is based on broad-band waterborne measurements and modeling of the waveguide impulse response between a controlled source and a single hydrophone. Results from Yellow Shark '94 experiments in Mediterranean shallow waters using single elements of a vertical array are reviewed, inversion of the bottom parameters is performed with an objective function that includes the processing gain of a model-based matched filter (MBMF) receiver relative to the conventional matched filter. The MBMF reference signals incorporate waveguide Green's functions for known geometry and water column acoustic model and hypothesized bottom geoacoustic models. The experimental inversion results demonstrated that, even for complex environmental conditions, a single transmission of a broad-band (200-800 Hz) coded signal received at a single depth and a few hundred forward modeling runs were sufficient to correctly resolve the bottom features. These included the sound speed profile, attenuation, density, and thickness of the top clay sediment layer, and sound speed and attenuation of the silty clay bottom. Exhaustive parameter search proved unequivocally the low-ambiguity and high-resolution properties of the MBMF-derived objective. The single-hydrophone results compare well with those obtained under identical conditions from matched-field processing of multitone pressure fields sampled on the vertical array. Both of these results agree with expectations from geophysical ground truth. The MBMF has been applied successfully to a field of advanced drifting acoustic buoys on the Western Sicilian shelf, demonstrating the general applicability of the inversion method presented View full abstract»

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  • Functional inputs to passive correlation detectors for oscillatory transient signals

    Page(s): 67 - 80
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    This research investigates whether passive detection of transient signals can be improved by replacing received signals with functionals of the received signals in correlation detectors. Specifically, this paper assesses the impact of using energy spectrum and autocorrelation functional inputs to the cross-correlation (energy), bicorrelation, and tricorrelation detectors. Test signals with differing autocorrelation and energy spectrum properties are used in computer simulations with independent Gaussian noise to evaluate detector performance. Detection results are presented for the case when only two channels of input data are available to form the correlations, as well as the case when three and four channels of input data are available to form the higher order correlations. In the former case, it is shown that detection performance can be improved for the narrow-band signals by using the energy spectrum and autocorrelation functional inputs rather than the original received signal. In the latter case, it is shown that detection performance can be improved by using the autocorrelation input for the broadband signal and the energy spectrum input for the narrow-band signals, and that the tricorrelation detector performs best for the signals tested View full abstract»

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  • Effects of sensor placement on acoustic vector-sensor array performance

    Page(s): 33 - 40
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    We consider the role played by the sensor locations in the optimal performance of an array of acoustic vector sensors, First we derive an expression for the Cramer-Rao bound on the azimuth and elevation of a single far-field source for an arbitrary acoustic vector-sensor array in a homogeneous wholespace and show that it has a block diagonal structure, i.e., the source location parameters are uncoupled from the signal and noise strength parameters. We then derive a set of necessary and sufficient geometrical constraints for the two direction parameters, azimuth and elevation, to be uncoupled from each other. Ensuring that these parameters are uncoupled minimizes the bound and means they are the natural or “canonical” location parameters for the model. We argue that it provides a compelling array design criterion. We also consider a bound on the mean-square angular error and its asymptotic normalization, which are useful measures in three-dimensional bearing estimation problems. We derive an expression for this bound and discuss it in terms of the sensors' locations. We then show that our previously derived geometrical conditions are also sufficient to ensure that this bound is independent of azimuth. Finally, we extend those conditions to obtain a set of geometrical constraints that ensure the optimal performance is isotropic View full abstract»

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  • DOA estimation of wide-band signals based on time-frequency analysis

    Page(s): 116 - 121
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (136 KB)  

    A numerical study on an approach based on the time-frequency analysis is performed for the high-resolution direction finding applications of wide-band signals. In this method, the direction of arrival (DOA) is estimated using a subband of the incoming signal instead of the whole signal spectrum. This treatment forces the DOA of the wide-band signals to be similar to that of the DOA of the narrow-band signals. The reason behind this can be thought of as the after effects of reducing the signal bandwidth, which constrains the signal subspace. An empirical analysis of the performance of the DOA estimator Is also investigated. This is done to compare the correct and estimated angles of separation between the targets, and it is demonstrated that there is a good agreement which implies that the use of prefiltering does not affect the resolution of the DOA estimator View full abstract»

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  • SAMI: a low-frequency prototype for mapping and imaging of the seabed by means of synthetic aperture

    Page(s): 4 - 15
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    The objective of the Synthetic Aperture Mapping and Imaging (SAMI) project was to develop and to test at sea a wide-band synthetic aperture sonar prototype, capable of providing high-resolution seafloor images together with bathymetry maps. This system used the motion of a physically small array in order to synthesize a longer array, providing images with an across-track resolution independent of both range and transmit frequency. Such systems are clearly very relevant to the high-precision long-range (low-frequency) imaging of the sea bottom. The project has led to the construction of a prototype tested at sea on several well-known areas for comparison with existing images and maps. These areas included several types of sea bottom, depths, and geological structures. The results obtained in real time, on-board ship, have shown the relevance of the proposed wide-band techniques. The many profiles produced have provided high-resolution images and maps of various seafloors. Interpretation by geologists showed that the system was capable of providing the same or finer detail than a deep-sea short-range, high-frequency system and maintained a higher resolution over a wider swath. The sea data processed have shown that the system provided maps with a cubic meter voxel. The resolution cell is constant over the whole range (50 to 2500 m) thanks to the dynamic focusing of the synthetic aperture. Postprocessing of a part of the data stored during the experiments has been carried out in the laboratory. This work has shown that techniques such as autofocusing can give an increase in resolution (i.e., gain in contrast and resolution of about 3 dB). The results displayed in the paper show the relevance of the techniques developed to the provision of a complete high-performance imaging tool for the oceanographic community View full abstract»

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  • The AMADEUS dextrous subsea hand: design, modeling, and sensor processing

    Page(s): 96 - 111
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (924 KB)  

    This paper describes the mechanical design, finger modeling, and sensor signal processing for a dextrous subsea robot hand incorporating force and slip contact sensing. The hand uses a fluid-filled tentacle for each finger, which has inherent passive compliance, and no moving parts. Force sensing uses strain gauges mounted in the fingertip, potted within a silicon elastomer. Slip sensing uses a piezoelectric strip to detect vibration, embedded 1 mm below the elastomer surface. Static models of finger motion are presented and validated based on bending moments and hydraulic pressure. The design of a stochastic estimator is also described for sensor fusion of contact force magnitude and direction data, obtained using redundant strain gauges in the fingertip. Finally, linear dynamic models of the finger dynamics in contact with a rigid surface are obtained using least squares and recursive least squares parameter estimation, as a precursor to closed-loop force control during grasping View full abstract»

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  • Computer vision techniques for quantifying, tracking, and identifying bioluminescent plankton

    Page(s): 81 - 95
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    This paper applies computer vision techniques to underwater video images of bioluminescent biota for quantifying, tracking, and identification. Active contour models are adapted for computerized image segmentation, labeling, tracking, and mapping of the bioluminescent plankton recorded by low-light-level video techniques. The system automatically identifies luminous events and extracts features such as duration, size, and coordinates of the point of impact, and uses this information to taxonomically classify the plankton species. This automatic classification can aid oceanographic researchers in characterizing the in situ spatial and temporal relationships of these organisms in their underwater environment. Experiments with real oceanographic data are reported. The results indicate that the approach yields performance comparable to human expert level capability. Furthermore, because the described technique has the potential to rapidly process vast quantities of video data, it may prove valuable for other similar applications View full abstract»

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  • Microseisms and ocean wave measurements

    Page(s): 112 - 115
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    Measurements of microseisms in Auckland, New Zealand, are compared with ocean wave data taken on the west coast of New Zealand, about 150 km southwest of Auckland. There is strong correlation at most times. Exceptions are when the Auckland area is subject to strong winds from the easterly quarter. Microseism activity in Auckland in the 0.05-1-Hz band appears to be entirely due to ocean waves View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering (ISSN 0364-9059) is published quarterly by the IEEE Oceanic Engineering Society (IEEE OES). The scope of the Journal is the field of interest of the IEEE OES, which encompasses all aspects of science, engineering, and technology that address research, development, and operations pertaining to all bodies of water. This includes the creation of new capabilities and technologies from concept design through prototypes, testing, and operational systems to sense, explore, understand, develop, use, and responsibly manage natural resources.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
N. Ross Chapman
School of Earth & Ocean Sciences
University of Victoria
3800 Finnerty Road
Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 Canada
chapman@uvic.ca