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Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on

Issue 9 • Date Dec. 1998

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 26
  • Guest Editorial Signal Processing For Wireless Communications

    Page(s): 1601 - 1603
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Communications Society Editorial Staff 1998

    Page(s): 1840 - 1841
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Author Index

    Page(s): 1844 - 1849
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Subject index

    Page(s): 1849 - 1867
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A novel adaptive receiver with enhanced channel tracking capability for TDMA-based mobile radio communications

    Page(s): 1630 - 1639
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    The paper presents a novel fast-adaptive nonlinear receiver which exploits soft statistics for tracking the random fluctuations experienced by time division multiple access (TDMA) mobile radio links impaired by frequency-selective time-variant multipath phenomena. The detection task is accomplished by an Abend-Fritchman-like symbol-by-symbol maximum likelihood (SbS-ML) detector which delivers both hard decisions and soft statistics in form of a posteriori probabilities (APPs) of the states of the intersymbol interference (ISI) channel. In the proposed adaptive receiver, these APPs are employed in place of the conventional hard-detected data to feed an ad hoc developed nonlinear recursive Kalman-type channel estimator. Extensive computer simulations show that the exploitation of soft statistics enhances the tracking capability of the channel estimator so that the proposed receiver generally outperforms the usual ones based on adaptive maximum likelihood sequence estimators (MLSEs) for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values over 12-13 dB. Furthermore, the experienced performance gap with respect to more complex per-survivor processing (PSP)-based multi-estimator detectors appears generally small on slowly and moderately fast time-varying channels characterized by values of the product Doppler bandwidth × signaling period BDTS below 5×10-3 View full abstract»

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  • A nonlinear filtering approach to estimation and detection in mobile communications

    Page(s): 1649 - 1659
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    The paper develops an open-loop digital receiver suitable for operation with frequency flat-fading channels disturbed by fast-fading conditions and large carrier phase variations. The receiver consists of a bank of “matched” stochastic nonlinear filters (NLFs) and a maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) decision processor driven by the filters' innovations processes. This structure is able to perform symbol-by-symbol detection while keeping track of multiplicative distortion (carrier amplitude and phase) within the symbol interval. The NLF propagates probability densities represented as products of Tikhonov and Gaussian functions, whose parameters are computed according to a minimum Kullback (1959) distance criterion, i,e,. we adopt an information preserving strategy. This filter is hangup free and outperforms the extended Kalman-Bucy (1972, 1973) filter (EKBF), especially in terms of phase acquisition. These characteristics explain why the NLF-based receiver may exhibit much lower error probabilities than those obtained with an equivalent EKBF-based receiver. Simulations show that the proposed detection/estimation scheme is robust against mistuning of the receiver parameters, being appropriate for all-digital modems in mobile radio communications View full abstract»

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  • Parallel structures for joint channel estimation and data detection over fading channels

    Page(s): 1616 - 1629
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    Joint data and channel estimation for mobile communication receivers can be realized by employing a Viterbi detector along with channel estimators which estimate the channel impulse response. The behavior of the channel estimator has a strong impact on the overall error rate performance of the receiver. Kalman filtering is an optimum channel estimation technique which can lead to significant improvement in the receiver bit error rate (BER) performance. However, a Kalman filter is a complex algorithm and is sensitive to roundoff errors. Square-root implementation methods are required for robustness against numerical errors. Real-time computation of the Kalman estimator in a mobile communication receiver calls for parallel and pipelined structures to take advantage of the inherent parallelism in the algorithm. In this paper different implementation methods are considered for measurement update and time update equations of the Kalman filter. The unit-lower-triangular-diagonal (LD) correction algorithm is used for the time update equations, and systolic array structures are proposed for its implementation. For the overall implementation of joint data and channel estimation, parallel structures are proposed to perform both the Viterbi algorithm and channel estimation. Simulation results show the numerical stability of different implementation techniques and the number of bits required in the digital computations with different estimators View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive algorithms for channel equalization with soft decision feedback

    Page(s): 1660 - 1669
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    A new approach based on joint entropy maximization (JEM) is taken and adaptive algorithms are developed for channel equalization with a decision feedback equalizer (DFE). The proposed work generalizes the existing algorithms for DFE with a hard decision device. Previous research has shown that when the hard decisions in a DFE are replaced with soft decisions, the performance of the adaptive algorithms [e.g., minimum mean square error (MMSE)] improves dramatically. The soft decisions can be introduced naturally via the viewpoint taken here. Additionally, constant modulus and other (blind) algorithms for DFE with soft decisions can be derived from this JEM approach View full abstract»

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  • VLSI implementation of a signal recognition and code acquisition algorithm for CDMA packet receivers

    Page(s): 1796 - 1808
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    The widespread application of direct-sequence spread-spectrum code division multiple access (DS/SS-CDMA) to wireless communication systems asks for ever faster and more reliable real-time signal processing operations to be performed by highly integrated and low-power consumption digital receivers. One of the most critical signal processing tasks to be performed by the DS/SS-CDMA receiver is signal presence detection and code epoch estimation. This paper deals with the design and realization of an application-specific integrated-circuit (ASIC) for fast signal recognition and code acquisition (SR/CA) in packet DS/SS-CDMA receivers operating in a satellite or terrestrial radio network. In particular, we show how a parallel acquisition circuit can be effectively implemented on a single-chip with a 1.0-μm CMOS technology according to the specifications of the ARCANET Ku-band CDMA VSAT satellite network sponsored by the European Space Agency (ESA). It is shown that the ASIC performance closely follows analytical predictions View full abstract»

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  • Decision feedback sequence estimation for unwhitened ISI channels with applications to multiuser detection

    Page(s): 1785 - 1795
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    Decision feedback sequence estimation (DFSE), which is a reduced-complexity alternative to maximum likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE), can be used effectively for equalization of intersymbol interference (ISI) as well as for multiuser detection. The algorithm performs very well for whitened (minimum-phase) channels. For nonminimum-phase channels, however, the algorithm is not very effective. Moreover, DFSE requires a noise-whitening filter, which may not be feasible to compute for time-varying channels such as a multiuser direct-sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) channel. Noise-whitening is also cumbersome for applications that involve bidirectional equalization such as the global system for mobile communication (GSM) system. In such conditions, it is desirable to use the Ungerboeck (1974) formulation for sequence estimation, which operates directly on the discrete-time unwhitened statistic obtained from conventional matched filtering. Unfortunately, DFSE based on matched filter statistics is severely limited by untreated interference components. We identify the anticausal interference components, using an error probability analysis. This leads us to a modified unwhitened decision feedback sequence estimator (MUDFSE) in which the components are canceled, using tentative decisions. We obtain approximate error probability bounds for the proposed algorithm. Performance results indicate that the modified algorithm, used on unwhitened channels with relatively small channel correlations, provides similar performance/complexity tradeoffs as the DFSE used on the corresponding whitened minimum-phase channels. The algorithm is especially attractive for multiuser detection for asynchronous DS-CDMA channels with long spreading codes, where it can achieve near-MLSE performance with exponentially lower complexity View full abstract»

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  • Hidden Markov modeling of flat fading channels

    Page(s): 1809 - 1817
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    Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are a powerful tool for modeling stochastic random processes. They are general enough to model with high accuracy a large variety of processes and are relatively simple allowing us to compute analytically many important parameters of the process which are very difficult to calculate for other models (such as complex Gaussian processes). Another advantage of using HMMs is the existence of powerful algorithms for fitting them to experimental data and approximating other processes. In this paper, we demonstrate that communication channel fading can be accurately modeled by HMMs, and we find closed-form solutions for the probability distribution of fade duration and the number of level crossings View full abstract»

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  • A suboptimal approach to channel equalization based on the nearest neighbor rule

    Page(s): 1640 - 1648
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    Applications of clustering and neural network techniques to channel equalization have revealed the classification nature of this problem. This paper illustrates an implementation of a global system for mobile communications (GSM) receiver in which channel equalization and demodulation are realized by means of the nearest neighbor (NN) classifier algorithm. The most important advantage in using such techniques is the significant reduction in terms of the computational complexity compared with the maximum likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE) equalizer. The proposed approach involves symbol-by-symbol interpretation and the knowledge of the channel is embedded in the mapping process of the received symbols over the symbols of the training sequence. This means that no explicit channel estimation need be carried out, either with correlative blocks or using neural networks thus speeding up the entire process. The performance of the proposed receiver, evaluated through a channel simulator for mobile radio communications, is compared with the results obtained by means of a 16-state Viterbi algorithm and other suboptimal receivers. It is shown that the presented algorithm increases the bit error rate (BER) compared with the MLSE demodulator, but the performance degradation, despite the simplicity of the receiver, is kept within the limits imposed by the GSM specifications View full abstract»

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  • A robust voice activity detector for wireless communications using soft computing

    Page(s): 1818 - 1829
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    Discontinuous transmission based on speech/pause detection represents a valid solution to improve the spectral efficiency of new generation wireless communication systems. In this context, robust voice activity detection (VAD) algorithms are required, as traditional solutions present a high misclassification rate in the presence of the background noise typical of mobile environments. This paper presents a voice detection algorithm which is robust to noisy environments, thanks to a new methodology adopted for the matching process. More specifically, the VAD proposed is based on a pattern recognition approach in which the matching phase is performed by a set of six fuzzy rules, trained by means of a new hybrid learning tool. A series of objective tests performed on a large speech database, varying the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the types of background noise, and the input signal level, showed that, as compared with the VAD standardized by ITU-T in Recommendation G.729 annex B, the fuzzy VAD, on average, achieves an improvement in reduction both of the activity factor of about 25% and of the clipping introduced of about 43%. Informal listening tests also confirm an improvement in the perceived speech quality View full abstract»

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  • Multiuser detection in fast-fading multipath environments

    Page(s): 1691 - 1701
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    We propose a new framework for multiuser detection in fast-fading channels that are encountered in many mobile communication scenarios. Existing multiuser RAKE receivers, developed to combat multipath fading and multiuser interference in slow fading, suffer substantial degradation in performance under fast fading due to errors in channel state estimation. The detectors proposed in this paper employ a novel receiver structure based on time-frequency (TF) processing that is dictated by a canonical representation of the wide-sense stationary uncorrelated scatterer (WSSUS) channel model. The workhorse of the framework is a TF generalization of the RAKE receiver that exploits joint multipath-Doppler diversity. Analytical and simulated results based on realistic fast-fading assumptions demonstrate that the proposed multiuser detectors promise substantially improved performance compared to existing systems due to the inherently higher level of diversity afforded by multipath-Doppler processing View full abstract»

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  • Soft-output equalization and TCM for wireless personal communication systems

    Page(s): 1679 - 1690
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    This paper investigates the use of a maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) algorithm to realize soft-output equalization in a concatenated equalization and trellis-coded modulation (TCM) decoding-based wireless communication system. Specifically, we first begin with a general MAP algorithm and then focus on studying Bahl's (1974) MAP and Lee's (1974) MAP algorithms. We then propose a modified version of Lee's MAP algorithm which is much simpler than the original, in terms of complexity, and is more practical. In particular, a very simple channel estimation method which employs orthogonal training sequences is proposed. In order to improve the system performance, equal-gain combining and selection diversity are also considered. Finally, we compare the performance of the MAP algorithm-based equalization with our previously proposed equalization scheme, which combines decision feedback equalization and TCM View full abstract»

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  • Joint MLSE receiver with dynamic channel description

    Page(s): 1604 - 1615
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    In this paper, we address the problem of receiving a digitally modulated signal in the presence of another identically modulated cochannel interfering (CCI) signal. We propose a joint MLSE algorithm that uses a dynamic channel description (J-MLSE/DCD). This algorithm deals with CCI more effectively while keeping the overall complexity low. In the proposed algorithm, we adaptively truncate the channels of both the desired signal and the CCI according to their individual power, thereby greatly reducing the complexity. We also describe the channel by using only a small number of channel parameters to reduce the channel mismatch before the Viterbi algorithm is applied. Analytic bit-error rate (BER) lower bounds for the J-MLSE algorithms in the time-varying specular multipath Rayleigh-fading channels are derived. Simulation results of the GMSK modulated signals used in the GSM system with path delay spread up to three symbols are presented. We find that the proposed algorithm performs significantly better than the spatial-whitened MLSE and is comparable to the high-complexity joint MLSE View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive interference cancellation for DS-CDMA systems using neural network techniques

    Page(s): 1774 - 1784
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    The objective of this study is to apply and investigate a neural network-based decision feedback scheme for interference suppression in direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) wireless networks. It is demonstrated that a decision feedback functional link equalizer (DFFLE) in combination with an eigenvector network can closely approximate a Bayesian receiver with significant advantages, such as improved bit-error ratio (BER) performance, adaptive operation, and single-user detection in a multiuser environment. It is assumed that the spreading codes of the interfering users will be unknown to the receiver. This detector configuration is appropriate for downlink communication between a base station and a mobile user in a digital wireless network. The BER performance in the presence of interfering users is evaluated. The improved performance of such a DFFLE receiver for CDMA is attributed to the nonlinear decision boundary it evaluates for the desired user. The receiver structure is also capable of rapid adaptation in a dynamic communications scenario for which there is entry/exit of users and imperfect power control. The convergence performance and error propagation of the DFFLE receiver are also considered and exhibit reasonable promise for third generation wireless DS-CDMA networks View full abstract»

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  • Cyclostationarity-based filtering for narrowband interference suppression in direct-sequence spread-spectrum systems

    Page(s): 1747 - 1755
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    This paper addresses the problem of narrowband interference suppression in direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DS/SS) techniques, which have been adopted to implement code division multiple access (CDMA) systems for wireless mobile communications. The theory of cyclic Wiener filtering, based on the cyclostationarity assumption for the signals involved in the reception problem, is applied to design single-channel adaptive frequency-shift filters which exploit both temporal and spectral correlation properties, i.e., the correlation between time- and frequency-shifted versions of the received signal. The numerical results show that receiving structures based on the proposed cyclostationarity-based interference suppression schemes largely outperform receivers that utilize conventional linear time-invariant suppressors, when they operate in highly contaminated interference environments View full abstract»

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  • Recursive structures and finite impulse response implementations of linear multiuser detectors for an asynchronous CDMA system

    Page(s): 1736 - 1746
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    We present order-recursive structures for implementing the linear decorrelating and linear minimum mean square error (MMSE) detectors in a computationally efficient manner. These infinite memory length, linear time invariant, noncausal systems can be approximated by implementing them as K-input K-output finite impulse response (FIR) filters. We developed a linear multiuser receiver architecture called a recursive linear multiuser detector which has lower computational and memory requirements then an equivalent tap delay line FIR filter implementation. We establish the tradeoff between window length and bit error rate and find that relatively small window size yields performance indistinguishable from the ideal decorrelating detector and the ideal MMSE detector View full abstract»

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  • Joint coding and decision feedback equalization for broadband wireless channels

    Page(s): 1670 - 1678
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    This paper introduces a new approach for joint convolutional coding and decision feedback equalization (DPE). To minimize error propagation, the DFE uses a combination of soft decisions and delayed tentative decisions to cancel intersymbol interference (ISI). Soft decisions are obtained by passing the DFE output through a (soft) nonlinear device. This simple method is shown to perform almost as well as an optimum soft feedback approach on wireless channels with diversity. Tentative decisions from the Viterbi decoder are used to cancel ISI due to multipath with large delays, thus remedying the increasing effect of error propagation in channels with large delay spreads. We consider the use of this soft/delayed feedback DFE (S/D-DFE) technique in broadband wireless channels (with delay spreads up to several tens of the symbol period) typical in high-bitrate mobile data applications. Simulation results indicate that the proposed joint coding and S/D-DFE technique performs to within 1-2 dB [in required signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)] of an ideal coded DFE without error propagation. When combined with antenna diversity and a reduced-complexity DFE concept with adaptive feedforward tap assignment, it provides high packet throughput against Rayleigh fading, severe delay spreads, and high Doppler rates View full abstract»

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  • Identification of active users in synchronous CDMA multiuser detection

    Page(s): 1723 - 1735
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    The level of multiple access interference (MAI) in code division multiple access (CDMA) communication systems is a time-varying parameter related to the number of active users. Almost all existing multiuser detection schemes were designed based on a priori information of the active users. In many situations, however, the multiuser receiver does not know the number of active users, and the receiver designed for the detection of all users may lead to poor performance. To develop a more efficient detection scheme in practical applications, we propose a two-stage detection structure consisting of preprocessing (identification) and postprocessing (detection). In the preprocessing, we apply the subspace concept and a method based on the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm to identify the active users while requiring only a priori knowledge of all of the users' signature sequences. The proposed preprocessor is shown to be asymptotically near-far resistant, and to have the ability to identify the active users in a simple and reliable way. While in the detection process, as we efficiently use the active users' information in every observation interval, the performance is clearly improved compared to the conventional structure without identification. Moreover, the effect of imperfect identification on the decorrelating detector is also extensively analyzed. Though the decorrelating detector's inherent near-far resistant characteristic is impaired by imperfect identification, the proposed structure still outperforms the conventional structure in the general near-far environment View full abstract»

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  • The necessity for and use of CDMA transmitter filtering in overlay systems

    Page(s): 1756 - 1764
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    The concept of code division multiple access (CDMA) overlay has been proposed as a way to take advantage of the unused bandwidth available in sparsely populated narrowband systems. Most research up to this point has focused on the effects of the narrowband system on the CDMA system. However, because the CDMA system is likely to be overlaid on a narrowband system that is already established, it is of equal or greater importance to examine how the CDMA overlay would affect the narrowband system's performance. It is shown that even a lightly loaded CDMA system can have a detrimental effect on a narrowband system to the point where the possibility of overlay may be precluded. To solve this problem, the idea of notch filtering the CDMA signals in an effort to avoid those bands already occupied by narrowband users is examined. For certain filtering methods the effects of CDMA interference on the narrowband system are shown to be greatly reduced, thus making overlay feasible from the perspective of the narrowband system. For the CDMA system, the performance of the minimum mean-squared error (MMSE) receiver was evaluated and it was found to work quite well with CDMA signals that have been notched. With CDMA transmitter filtering, the prospects for overlay become very encouraging View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive source-channel subband video coding for wireless channels

    Page(s): 1830 - 1839
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    This paper presents a general framework for combined source-channel coding within the context of subband coding. The unequal importance of subbands in reconstruction of the source is exploited by an appropriate allocation of source and channel coding rates for the coding and transmission of subbands over a noisy channel. For each subband, the source coding rate as well as the level of protection (quantified by the channel coding rate) are jointly chosen to minimize the total end-to-end mean-squared distortion suffered by the source. This allocation of source and channel coding rates is posed as a constrained optimization problem, and solved using a generalized bit allocation algorithm. The optimal choice of source and channel coding rates depends on the state of the physical channel. These results are extended to transmission over fading channels using a finite state model, where every state corresponds to an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. A coding strategy is also developed that minimizes the average distortion when the channel state is unavailable at the transmitter. Experimental results are provided that demonstrate application of these combined source-channel coding strategies on video sequences View full abstract»

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  • Blind multiuser detection using linear prediction

    Page(s): 1702 - 1710
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    We propose a blind multiuser detection technique for array processing and code division multiple access (CDMA) systems that does not require knowledge of the array geometry or transmitter signature sequences. The technique has two key elements: an adaptive algorithm for separating the signal subspace from the noise subspace and an adaptive whitener based on linear prediction. The proposed algorithm offers low complexity, fast convergence, compatibility with shaped signal constellations, near-Wiener steady-state performance, and optimal near-far resistance View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive maximum SINR RAKE filtering for DS-CDMA multipath fading channels

    Page(s): 1765 - 1773
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    The conventional signature-matched RAKE processor for multipath direct-sequence code division multiple access channels is viewed as a regular linear tap-weight filter of length equal to the sum of the system processing gain and the user channel memory. In this paper, performance improvements are sought in the context of adaptive filtering under maximum signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio criteria. The minimum-variance-distortionless-response RAKE (RAKE-MVDR) filter and the lower complexity scalar optimized auxiliary-vector RAKE (RAKE-AUX) filter are developed. Bit error rate (BER) comparisons with the conventional RAKE signature-matched filter are carried out for training sets of reasonably small size, perfectly known, and mismatched/estimated channel coefficients, and extreme near-far system configurations View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications focuses on all telecommunications, including telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television, by electromagnetic propagation.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Muriel Médard
MIT