By Topic

Consumer Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Nov. 1998

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 30
  • 1998 Index IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics Vol. 44 - Author Index

    Page(s): 1413 - 1420
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (1223 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Subject index

    Page(s): 1420 - 1438
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (2515 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • High dynamic class-D power amplifier

    Page(s): 1329 - 1333
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB)  

    Class-D amplifiers have high efficiency and are used when high audio frequency power is necessary and also when low power consumption in battery powered equipment is required. A new kind of class-D amplifier is presented and analyzed. The ripple of the high power class-D amplifier stage is compensated by a small (low power) high dynamic amplifier, which can be realized either as an analog one or as a second power class-D converter. The main part of the power is handled by a half-bridge with relatively small switching frequency (compared to the output bandwidth) and therefore low switching losses. Furthermore, the compensation mechanism leads to no additional current or voltage stress in the main switching stage. In the presented example the switching frequency of the main power processor is selected at only twice the required output bandwidth of the amplifier. The resulting output ripple is compensated by using the transformer coupled supplement power processor. Only small filters are necessary. The concept is well suited for consumer as well as aerospace applications as due to the improved efficiency, and the battery lifetime can be increased without any quality reduction View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A remote controller for home and office appliances by telephone

    Page(s): 1291 - 1297
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB)  

    This paper describes the design and development of a phone-based remote controller for home and office automation. The circuit is designed based on the Turkish telephone standards and connected to the telephone network just like any normal telephone sets. Any tone dialing dual tone multiple frequency (DTMF) telephone set or hand-held tone dialer may be used to send commands to the control unit, and remotely control, a wide range of mains appliances in homes and offices. The designed circuit can also detect the user identification number for preventing non-authorized use of the control unit. The feedback signal informs the user about the results of the commands View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Digital signal processor with efficient RGB interpolation and histogram accumulation

    Page(s): 1389 - 1395
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (704 KB)  

    We present a new digital signal processor developed for digital camcorder applications. Taking the digital image signal from A/D converter, the signal processor generates luminance and chrominance signals of the image using an efficient RGB interpolation algorithm and histogram accumulation. We propose a low-cost RGB interpolation algorithm that has little image degradation and show the usefulness of histogram accumulation implemented in the signal processor View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Experience in designing a using TCP as transport protocol VOD system over a dedicated network

    Page(s): 1379 - 1388
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (744 KB)  

    We address the problem of designing a TCP and IP (TCP/IP) based video on demand (VOD) system over a dedicated network based on standard internet protocols, i.e., transmission control protocol (TCP) and Internet protocol (IP). TCP and IP are usually referred together as TCP/IP. Despite of the general belief that TCP/IP is not suitable for real-time multimedia applications, after testing in a laboratory environment for about one year, we are confident in announcing that our prototype is both efficient and reliable. This success depends on several important factors. First of all, the system operates on a dedicated network in which there exists no other traffic except a light of background traffic generated by the Ether Switch, the major network component used by our prototype. Second, system overhead due to the VOD server and the network adaptor card is minimized. Third, we maximize the disk bandwidth by implementing a proprietary disk file system. Our experiment shows that it requires only about 330 KBytes at the client buffer to smooth packet delay jitters. In our experimental environment, due to resource limitations, up to 40 clients had been tested successfully. By looking at the network bandwidth and CPU utilization, we estimate that a single VOD server should be able to handle more than 40 interactive clients playing MPEG-1 system streams simultaneously View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • 10 base-T transmission over existing telephone wire within homes

    Page(s): 1250 - 1260
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (908 KB)  

    Existing in-home telephone wire can be used to create a 10Base-T (10 Mbps Ethernet) customer premises network (CPN) that may be used to connect consumer electronic devices to a hub or to a residential gateway (RG). This paper presents measurements of attenuation and crosstalk performance at 10Base-T frequencies made on four different types of in-home telephone cables, including quad and twisted-pair. Computer simulations use the measured response of the cables to determine the performance of 10Base-T transmitted over them. Simulations are verified by experimental transmission tests using a LAN analyzer. It is found that some of the in-home telephone cables have good performance, which actually exceeds that of the Category 3 wiring specified for 10Base-T use. Some of the cables are not so good and do not even come close to meeting Category 3 specifications. Even so, 10Base-T was able to transmit error-free over 100 meters (328 ft) of the worst cable tested here with no bridged taps. Tree-and-branch wiring has unterminated branches connected to the cable between the transmitter and receiver. These branches are called bridged taps. It was found that 10 Base-T can function with bridged taps shorter than about 8 ft, but bridged taps longer than about 12 ft generally cause 10 Base-T to fail View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Perceptual digital watermark of images using wavelet transform

    Page(s): 1267 - 1272
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (420 KB)  

    A perceptually based watermarking technique for an image is proposed. Based on the just-noticeable difference model in the wavelet domain, the watermark is inserted in the wavelet coefficients and its amplitudes are controlled by the wavelet coefficients so that watermark noise does not exceed the just-noticeable difference of each wavelet coefficient. Meanwhile, the order of inserting watermark noise in the wavelet coefficients is the same as the order of the visual significance of the wavelet coefficients. Hence, our approach is adapted with the image content and transparency, and the robustness of the digital watermark can be guaranteed. Experimental results show our approach has excellent performance in the quality of the watermarked images and the robustness of the watermark View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Data hiding in images via multiple-based number conversion and lossy compression

    Page(s): 1406 - 1412
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1016 KB)  

    A novel and easy method to embed any form of secret messages into a cover image with controlled distortion is proposed. Any lossy image compressor may be applied first to a cover image to produce a lossily-processed result as the basis for embedding data in the cover image. The stego-image is produced by embedding data in each pixel of a cover image by changing its gray value without excessing the range of the gray value difference of the corresponding pixels of the cover image and its lossily-processed one. The quantity of distortion that is caused by embedding data is never in excess of that is caused by the lossy compressor. A multiple-based number system is proposed to convert the information in the secret bit stream into values to be embedded in the choosing pixels of the cover image. Pseudo-random mechanisms may be used to achieve cryptography. It is found from experiments that the values of the peaks of the signal-to-noise ratio of the stego-images are larger than those yielded by the chosen compressor, which means that the distortion in the embedding result is more imperceptible than that in the compressed one View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Performance analysis of OFDM on the shadowed multipath channels

    Page(s): 1323 - 1328
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB)  

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a very popular scheme for signaling at high data rates over the time-dispersive multipath channel. We analyze the symbol error probability of OFDM on the shadowed multipath channels, and present the numerical results using the typical millimeter-wave channel parameter values. The two-ray model is used as a multipath channel model. Two types of OFDM systems are considered: OFDM with and without the guard interval. We show that channel shadowing is a dominant factor that deteriorates the performance of OFDM and the guard interval is not a great contributor to multipath compensation View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A cost-effective architecture for HDTV video decoder in ATSC receivers

    Page(s): 1353 - 1359
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (908 KB)  

    We describe the architecture of an HDTV video decoder, Vincent5, for MPEG2 MP@HL video decoding and format conversion of all 18 ATSC DTV formats in real-time. Vincent5 adopts a dataflow architecture for its main decoding functions in contrast to the conventional decoders that use a strict pipelined structure. Consequently, this makes it possible for us to explore wide design choices in the architecture decision for each decoding function. In Vincent5 we introduce a new memory control scheme of reducing the memory bandwidth, which is necessary in MPEG2 MP@HL decoding for a cost-effective solution. Without increasing the hardware complexity of Vincent5, we embed three programmable cores into the dedicated hardware to maximize its programmability. Vincent5 was described using the VHDL and its functionality was verified with standard MPEG2 bitstreams. Vincent5 includes 115 K logic gates, 118 Kb RAM, and 32 Kb ROM after logic synthesis and had been fabricated utilizing 3 ML 0.5 μm CMOS technology View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A new timing recovery method for DTV receivers

    Page(s): 1243 - 1249
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (436 KB)  

    We report a new unsynchronized timing recovery method designed for receiving digital TV signals modulated in 256QAM, QPSK and VSB format. The new method includes a simplified and efficient interpolator design, and fast converging PLL. It can be used for fixed rate as well as variable rate applications. The algorithm was developed using SPW, and implemented using an FPGA-based prototype board using real data View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Image coding using discrete sine transform with axis rotation

    Page(s): 1284 - 1290
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1096 KB)  

    The blocking effect is a common problem that is always present in image coding when using the blocking transform. A simple method for image coding, with low blocking effect, using pre- and post-axis rotation and the discrete sine transform, is proposed. It uses the overlap of only the sample and the total number of transform coefficients remains the same as the number of pixels in the original image. The method was implemented, and the results obtained by simulation in the image coding are compared with image coding by DCT, DST, and LOT View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Robust direct seek control for high-speed rotational optical disk drives

    Page(s): 1273 - 1283
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (992 KB)  

    This paper presents a new direct seek control scheme (SCS) that provides fast data access capability and robust performance for high-speed rotational optical disk drives (ODD). When a disk is rotated at a high speed to obtain fast data transfer in ODD, the magnitude and frequency of disturbances caused by eccentric rotation of the disk increase in proportion to the rotational speed of the disk. Such disturbances make it almost impossible for the conventional SCS to achieve stable and satisfactory seek performance. We analyze the problems that may arise when the conventional SCS are applied to high-speed rotational ODD and propose a new direct SCS that will solve such problems. In the proposed scheme, a seek control system is designed such that its performance is guaranteed for a set of plants with parameter perturbations. The performance of the proposed SCS are shown by experiments using a 24×CD-ROM drive View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A fast reconstruction method for transmitting images progressively

    Page(s): 1225 - 1233
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2268 KB)  

    To transmit an image over narrow bandwidth channels is an important issue in networks. We proposed a new progressive image transmission (PIT) method. We call it the fast reconstruction method (FRM). There are three techniques in this method. First, we use vector quantization (VQ) to compress the image. Then, we design the central sampling technique, and employ it to select the indices of the compressed image. These indices will be transmitted to the receiver phase by phase. Finally, the receiver applies the pixels copy technique and the received indices to reconstruct the image. From the experimental results, we see that FRM just needs 3.6% reconstruction time of the selective progressive image transmission method (SPITM) to reconstruct the image. Besides, the PSNR of our method is better than that of SPITM at the beginning phases. FRM is therefore effective and efficient in PIT View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A fast LBG codebook training algorithm for vector quantization

    Page(s): 1201 - 1208
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (680 KB)  

    A fast codebook training algorithm based on the Linde, Buzo and Gray (1980) LBG algorithm is proposed. The fundamental goal of this method is to reduce the computation cost in the codebook training process. In this method, a kind of mean-sorted partial codebook search algorithm is applied to the closest codeword search. At the same time, a generalized integral projection model is developed for the generation of test conditions, which are used to speed up the search process in finding the closest codeword for each training vector. With this proposed method, a significant time reduction can be achieved by avoiding the computation of unnecessary codewords. Our simulation results show that a significant reduction in computation cost is obtained with this proposed method. Besides, this method provides a flexible way of selecting the test conditions to accommodate the different image training sets View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The realpush network: a new push-type content delivery system using reliable multicasting

    Page(s): 1216 - 1224
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (868 KB)  

    We have developed a new push system that uses the Internet for simultaneous Web content delivery to multiple users. This system is more efficient than conventional push systems and facilitates the delivery of content in a more timely fashion by using reliable multicasting. This paper reports on the system's end-user browser software, broadcast servers for content providers, reliable multicasting for implementing efficient delivery, and a trial service using this system View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Finite element analysis investigating thermal stress characteristics and weight reduction design for perfectly flat CRT

    Page(s): 1209 - 1215
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (612 KB)  

    For the perfectly flat CRT (PFCRT), corner cracking of the panel while passing through the exhaust furnace has been a long standing problem. These cracks frequently occur during the heat-up cycle for the evacuation in the exhaust furnace and originate on the corner of the inner surface of the panel. The transient stresses for the perfectly flat CRT during the heat-up cycle for the evacuation in the exhaust furnace in which both thermal and vacuum loads are applied are analyzed by the finite element method. From the results, the transient stress states and the crack propagation are clearly explained. Also by using the numerical analysis, a design aimed at the weight reduction is investigated. For the PFCRT with 1 mm reduced panel glass, the thermal stresses are calculated with consideration of vacuum load taken into account View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Software pixel interpolation for digital still cameras suitable for a 32-bit MCU

    Page(s): 1342 - 1352
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1160 KB)  

    This paper discusses the interpolation technique applied to the Bayer primary color method, used frequently as the pixel structure of CCD image sensors for digital still cameras. Eight typical types of interpolation methods are discussed from three viewpoints: the characteristics of the interpolated images, the processing time required to realize their methods based on a 32-bit MCU for embedded applications, and the quality of the resultant images. In terms of reducing the occurrences of pseudocolor and achieving good color restoration, the linear interpolation method taking G's correlation determined by using R/B pixels into consideration was found to be excellent. The measured machine cycle of the interpolation methods was approximately 46 cycles per pixel. Therefore, every method was able to interpolate a VGA-size image in approximately 0.2 seconds with the MCU operating at 60 MHz. In terms of the S/N ratio, a good image quality was obtained through the linear interpolation methods, even with shorter processing time. Based on these results it is concluded that the linear interpolation method, which takes correlation into consideration, is the most suitable for consumer product applications such as digital still cameras View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Zero IF satellite tuners for DBS

    Page(s): 1367 - 1370
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (200 KB)  

    A 950-2150 MHz zero IF (direct conversion) tuner for worldwide application and a simplified 950-1450 MHz version for the North American market are presented. A comparison to earlier digital satellite architecture, including adjacent channel filtering, matched filtering, and analog-to-digital conversion, is presented. An integrated circuit including many of the functions of a direct conversion tuner is detailed View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Visual compander in wavelet-based image coding

    Page(s): 1261 - 1266
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (260 KB)  

    In this paper, we propose a new wavelet-based image coding scheme which exploits jointly the statistical redundancy and the irrelevance properties of the human visual system. We first establish the visibility threshold model in the wavelet transform domain. Then, a visual compander is designed so that the output data of the compressor is visually uniform. A uniform quantizer and entropy coding are used for the output data. Experiment results show that our image coding scheme provides slightly improved visual quality without no degradation in PSNR, compared with the result of Shaprio's (1993) scheme View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • An efficient bath fractal transform-based image coding technique

    Page(s): 1298 - 1308
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1592 KB)  

    A computationally efficient image compression technique is presented, which is based on visual patterns as well as least squares fractal approximation by a self-affine system (SAS). Simulation studies demonstrate that the use of visual pattern-based technique can code the shade (flat) regions of an image more efficiently than fractal techniques. Furthermore, the proposed technique not only gives an encoding speed several times faster than other SAS-based fractal coding techniques but also achieves higher compression ratios and better fidelity View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Software JPEG for a 32-bit MCU with dual issue

    Page(s): 1334 - 1341
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (620 KB)  

    This paper describes a new software solution for DCT-based JPEG image compression using a 32-bit microcontroller unit (MCU) with parallel execution (dual issue). Taking the constraints of the MCU hardware resources into consideration, various fast algorithms for DCT are investigated. As a result, it is concluded that the optimal fast algorithm for MCUs capable of parallel execution differs from the optimal algorithm for MCUs which do not support parallel execution. Comparing the number of JPEG image compression cycles using software on MCUs with and without parallel execution capability, it is concluded that the processing speed of the latter type of MCU is approximately 30% higher than the former type. When this former processing speed is applied to a 640×480 (VGA-size) YCbCr image in 4:2:2 format, compression can be performed in about 0.15 seconds (using a 100 MHz MCU with parallel execution capability) View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Video allocation methods in a multi-level server for large-scale VOD services

    Page(s): 1309 - 1318
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1144 KB)  

    Although the characteristics of a hard disk are more suitable for the interactive environment of a VOD service, using hard disks as permanent storage devices can suffer from the relatively high cost and frequent failure rate of a hard disk. Several VOD servers with tertiary storage devices have been proposed but the response time for a user's request in most approaches is too long to be used in the interactive environment of a VOD service. This paper proposes another structure of a VOD server that utilizes the jukeboxes of optical disks for a video database. Since the jukeboxes of optical disks are more reliable and inexpensive, it is useful for storing the huge volume of video streams. as a result, it can be a part of a cost-effective server configuration for large-scale VOD services. Several allocation methods for video streams in the jukeboxes are devised and compared in order to improve the performance of the proposed structure View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A novel derivative envelope detector

    Page(s): 1396 - 1405
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (880 KB)  

    A novel and efficient algorithm for envelope detection based upon Hilbert transformation techniques is presented. The method relies exclusively on using differentiation to approximate the Hilbert transformation. The resulting detector is causal and does not require exact knowledge of carrier phase or frequency. The effectiveness of the method is illustrated through investigations of the estimation error performance in comparison with that of existing detectors. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

Aims & Scope

The primary purpose for publishing the Transactions of the Consumer Electronics Society is to present to the membership and the engineering community in general, papers on new technology oriented to Consumer Electronics.

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
R. Simon Sherratt
School Director for Teaching and Learning, School of Systems Engineering
The University of Reading
Reading, Berkshire  RG6 6AY  RG6 6AY  U.K.
r.s.sherratt@reading.ac.uk; sherratt@ieee.org
Phone:+44 (0) 118 3788588
Fax:+44 (0) 118 3788583