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Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on

Issue 8 • Date Oct. 1998

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Displaying Results 1 - 22 of 22
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  • Blind equalization/detection for OFDM signals over frequency-selective channels

    Page(s): 1568 - 1578
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    A novel equalization/detection algorithm for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals transmitted over frequency-selective channels is introduced and investigated. The algorithm stems from the recognition that the Fourier transform processing inherent in OFDM turns a single wideband frequency-selective channel into a set of correlated narrowband frequency-flat fading channels. This suggests that sequence detection techniques, such as those discussed by Vitetta et al. (see IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.43, p.2750-8, 1995, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.43, pt.II, p.1256-9, 1995, and Proc. IEEE Commun. Theory Mini-Conf (Globecom '96), London, UK, p.153-7, 1996), for time-selective flat-fading channels, can be also profitably utilized for joint equalization and decoding of OFDM signals in the frequency domain. Simulation results show that the proposed detection strategy, implemented via a standard Viterbi algorithm, provides improved performance over differential detection, with a moderate increase in receiver complexity and without requiring the periodic transmission of training blocks View full abstract»

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  • A new receiver structure for asynchronous CDMA: STAR-the spatio-temporal array-receiver

    Page(s): 1411 - 1422
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    We propose a spatio-temporal array-receiver (STAR) for asynchronous code division multiple access (CDMA), using a new space/time structural approach. First, STAR performs blind identification and equalization of the propagation channel from each mobile transmitter. Second, it provides fast and accurate estimates of the number, relative magnitude, and delay of the multipath components. From this space/time separation, STAR reconstructs the identified channel with respect to a partially revealed space/time structure and reduces identification errors by the order of the ratio of the processing gain and the number of paths. Therefore, STAR offers a high potential for increasing capacity, with relatively low computational complexity. Simulations confirm the good multipath acquisition and tracking properties of STAR in the presence of strong interference and fast Doppler View full abstract»

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  • A blind adaptive decorrelating detector for CDMA systems

    Page(s): 1530 - 1541
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    The decorrelating detector is known to eliminate multiaccess interference when the signature sequences of the users are linearly independent, at the cost of enhancing the Gaussian receiver noise. We present a blind adaptive decorrelating detector which is based on the observation of readily available statistics. The algorithm recursively updates the filter coefficients of a desired user by using the output of the current filter. Due to the randomness of the information bits transmitted and the ambient Gaussian channel noise, the filter coefficients evolve stochastically. We prove the convergence of the filter coefficients to a decorrelating detector in the mean squared error (MSE) sense. We develop lower and upper bounds on the MSE of the receiver filter from the convergence point and show that with a fixed step size sequence, the MSE can be made arbitrarily small by choosing a small enough step size. With a time-varying step size sequence, the MSE converges to zero implying an exact convergence. The proposed algorithm is distributed, in the sense that no information about the interfering users such as their signature sequences or power levels is needed. The algorithm requires the knowledge of only two parameters for the construction of the receiver filter of a desired user: the desired user's signature sequence and the variance of the additive white Gaussian (AWG) receiver noise. This detector, for an asynchronous code division multiple access (CDMA) channel, converges to the one-shot decorrelating detector View full abstract»

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  • Robust adaptive array for wireless communications

    Page(s): 1352 - 1366
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    In the application of a receiver antenna array to wireless communications, a known signal preamble is used for estimating the propagation vector at the beginning of each data frame. The estimated propagation vector is then used in linear combining of array inputs for interference suppression and demodulation of a desired user's information data stream. Since the training preamble is usually very short, conventional training methods, which estimate the propagation vector based solely on the training preamble, may incur large estimation errors. In many wireless channels, the ambient noise is known to be decidedly non-Gaussian, due to impulsive phenomena. The conventional training methods may suffer further from such impulsive noise. Moreover, performance of linear combining techniques can degrade substantially in the presence of impulsive noise. We first propose a new technique for propagation vector estimation which exploits the whole frame of the received signal. It is shown that as the length of the signal frame tends to infinity, in the absence of noise, this method can recover the propagation vector of the desired user exactly, given a small number of training symbols for that user. We then develop robust techniques for propagation vector estimation and array combining in the presence of impulsive noise. These techniques are nonlinear in nature and are based on the M-estimation method. It is seen that the proposed robust methods offer performance improvement over linear techniques in non-Gaussian noise, with little attendant increase in computational complexity. Finally, we address the extension of the proposed techniques to dispersive channels with intersymbol interference View full abstract»

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  • Antenna diversity combining and finite-tap decision feedback equalization for high-speed data transmission

    Page(s): 1367 - 1375
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    The next-generation wireless communication systems are expected to support high-speed data transmission. Associated with high transmission rates, however, is the problem of multipath intersymbol interference (ISI) due to frequency-selective fading. Decision feedback equalization (DFE) and antenna diversity combining are two practical techniques for combating multipath ISI. Through simulations we investigate the performance of diversity combining, together with DFE, under various numbers of antenna branches and equalization taps, in a quasistationary frequency-selective fading environment with additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and cochannel interference (CCI). We consider joint optimization combining and power selection diversity combining. We simulate the combiner, using quaternary phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation with up to four antenna branches. Our results show that using antenna diversity and DFE with joint optimization combining provides performance improvement with lower computational complexity, as compared to that of using either DFE or diversity combining alone for combating ISI View full abstract»

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  • Transmit beamforming and power control for cellular wireless systems

    Page(s): 1437 - 1450
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    Joint power control and beamforming schemes are proposed for cellular systems where adaptive arrays are used only at base stations. In the uplink, mobile power and receiver diversity combining vectors at the base stations are calculated jointly. The mobile transmitted power is minimized, while the signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR) at each link is maintained above a threshold. A transmit diversity scheme for the downlink is also proposed where the transmit weight vectors and downlink power allocations are jointly calculated such that the SINR at each mobile is above a target value. The proposed algorithm achieves a feasible solution for the downlink if there is one and minimizes the total transmitted power in the network. In a reciprocal network it can be implemented in a decentralized system, and it does not require global channel response measurements. In a nonreciprocal network, where the uplink and downlink channel responses are different, the proposed transmit beamforming algorithm needs to be implemented in a centralized system, and it requires a knowledge of the downlink channel responses. The performances of these algorithms are compared with previously proposed algorithms through numerical studies View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive array processing MLSE receivers for TDMA digital cellular/PCS communications

    Page(s): 1340 - 1351
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    Array processing is a promising approach for improving quality, coverage, and capacity in digital cellular communication systems. By combining array processing with maximum likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE), intersymbol interference (ISI) introduced by multipath propagation can be mitigated as well. Novel symbol-spaced and fractionally spaced adaptive array processing MLSE receivers are developed for both diversity and phased array antenna configurations. The practical issues of synchronization and channel estimation are addressed. A novel approach to automatic frequency error correction (AFC) is proposed and is shown to be critical when cancelling cochannel interference. Performance is evaluated for the reverse link of the IS-136 TDMA-based digital cellular system. Substantial improvements are obtained over conventional antenna configurations for receiver sensitivity (2.5-4 dB) and over traditional antenna combining when cochannel interference is present (0.5-25 dB) View full abstract»

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  • A CDMA interference canceling receiver with an adaptive blind array

    Page(s): 1542 - 1554
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    Interference cancelling receivers have been suggested as low complexity multiuser receivers for code division multiple access (CDMA) systems. A multi-element interference cancelling receiver is proposed, and it is demonstrated that using spatial information about the users will improve the performance of the receiver. Two blind algorithms are suggested to adaptively combine the outputs of the antenna elements. The performances of these algorithms are compared, and it is shown that without requiring any additional information, the receiver can spatially discriminate between the users and improve the error performance View full abstract»

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  • A space-time coding modem for high-data-rate wireless communications

    Page(s): 1459 - 1478
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    This paper presents the theory and practice of a new advanced modem technology suitable for high-data-rate wireless communications and presents its performance over a frequency-flat Rayleigh fading channel. The new technology is based on space-time coded modulation (STCM) with multiple transmit and/or multiple receive antennas and orthogonal pilot sequence insertion (O-PSI). In this approach, data is encoded by a space-time (ST) channel encoder and the output of the encoder is split into N streams to be simultaneously transmitted using N transmit antennas. The transmitter inserts periodic orthogonal pilot sequences in each of the simultaneously transmitted bursts. The receiver uses those pilot sequences to estimate the fading channel. When combined with an appropriately designed interpolation filter, accurate channel state information (CSI) can be estimated for the decoding process. Simulation results of the proposed modem, as applied to the IS-136 cellular standard, are presented. We present the frame error rate (FER) performance results as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the maximum Doppler frequency, in the presence of timing and frequency offset errors. Simulation results show that for a 10% FER, a 32-state eight-phase-shift keyed (8-PSK) ST code with two transmit and two receive antennas can support data rates up to 55.8 kb/s on a 30-kHz channel, at an SNR of 11.7 dB and a maximum Doppler frequency of 180 Hz. Simulation results for other codes and other channel conditions are also provided. We also compare the performance of the proposed STCM scheme with delay diversity schemes and conclude that STCM can provide significant SNR improvement over simple delay diversity View full abstract»

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  • Nonorthogonal pulseshapes for multicarrier communications in doubly dispersive channels

    Page(s): 1579 - 1589
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    A new approach to multicarrier digital communication over time-varying, frequency selective fading channels is presented. We propose a transmission signal set whose basic structure is similar to standard orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDM)-setups, i.e., a system of functions generated by time and frequency-shifted versions of a pulse-like prototype function known as a Weyl-Heisenberg (WH) system. Unlike previous OFDM studies, however, which are restricted to the case of orthonormal pulses, we consider nonorthogonal pulses that are adapted to realistically available a priori knowledge of the channel. Perfect transmultiplexing in the case of an ideal channel is incorporated as a mathematical side-constraint. We derive the expected intersymbol/interchannel interference of such a nonorthogonal FDM (NOFDM) system under the assumption of a wide-sense stationary uncorrelated scattering (WSSUS) channel. Based on this result, we compare OFDM and NOFDM schemes with regard to robustness against delay/Doppler spread View full abstract»

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  • Efficient use of side information in multiple-antenna data transmission over fading channels

    Page(s): 1423 - 1436
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    We derive performance limits for two closely related communication scenarios involving a wireless system with multiple-element transmitter antenna arrays: a point-to-point system with partial side information at the transmitter, and a broadcast system with multiple receivers. In both cases, ideal beamforming is impossible, leading to an inherently lower achievable performance as the quality of the side information degrades or as the number of receivers increases. Expected signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and mutual information are both considered as performance measures. In the point-to-point case, we determine when the transmission strategy should use some form of beamforming and when it should not. We also show that, when properly chosen, even a small amount of side information can be quite valuable. For the broadcast scenario with an SNR criterion, we find the efficient frontier of operating points and show that even when the number of receivers is larger than the number of antenna array elements, significant performance improvements can be obtained by tailoring the transmission strategy to the realized channel View full abstract»

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  • Residual ISI cancellation for OFDM with applications to HDTV broadcasting

    Page(s): 1590 - 1599
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    An iterative technique is developed for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems to mitigate the residual intersymbol interference (ISI) that exceeds the length of the guard interval. The technique, called residual ISI cancellation (RISIC), uses a combination of tail cancellation and cyclic restoration and is shown to offer large performance improvements. The effects of imperfect channel estimation are also considered. The RISIC algorithm is applied to a typical terrestrial high-definition television (HDTV) broadcasting system that uses a concatenated coding scheme for error control. Results show that the RISIC algorithm can effectively mitigate residual ISI on static or slowly fading ISI channels View full abstract»

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  • MAP selection-diversity DFE for indoor wireless data communications

    Page(s): 1376 - 1384
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    Indoor high-speed wireless data networks encounter signal fading and delay-spread multipath propagation. Hence, the realization of low error rate transmission requires measures to combat the performance degradation due to both signal fading and intersymbol interference (ISI). Receiver diversity has been known to be an efficient way of coping with the former problem, while adaptive equalization could be used to mitigate the effects of the latter. Incorporation of receiver diversity with adaptive equalization is therefore desirable. We propose a novel selection-diversity approach with an adaptive decision-feedback equalizer (DFE). In this method, selection is done on a symbol-by-symbol basis such that the output of the branch with the lowest estimated a posteriori probability of error is used as the final decision. This final (and hence more reliable) decision is used to adapt the DFE for all diversity branches. It is shown in this paper that the proposed selection rule is optimal for selection-diversity in the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) sense. A very simple selection metric can be derived from this selection rule and practical ways of computing the selection metric are also presented. Simulation results show that the proposed method is very efficient. It is capable of achieving almost the same performance as an optimal [least squares (LS)], but computationally intensive, combining diversity approach. Furthermore, at an average bit error rate (BER) of 10-4, a gain of approximately 1.25 dB can be achieved over a previously proposed selection-diversity equalization approach View full abstract»

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  • A simple transmit diversity technique for wireless communications

    Page(s): 1451 - 1458
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    This paper presents a simple two-branch transmit diversity scheme. Using two transmit antennas and one receive antenna the scheme provides the same diversity order as maximal-ratio receiver combining (MRRC) with one transmit antenna, and two receive antennas. It is also shown that the scheme may easily be generalized to two transmit antennas and M receive antennas to provide a diversity order of 2M. The new scheme does not require any bandwidth expansion or any feedback from the receiver to the transmitter and its computation complexity is similar to MRRC View full abstract»

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  • Is blind channel estimation feasible in mobile communication systems? A study based on GSM

    Page(s): 1479 - 1492
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    We compare the effect of blind and nonblind channel estimates on the performance of Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) receivers. More precisely, we investigate whether two blind approaches, based on higher order statistics (HOS), can compete with two conventional methods, exploiting training sequences. For blind and nonblind estimates of six fast and slowly fading mobile radio channels, we give simulated bit error rates (BERs), after Viterbi detection, in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We also study the influence of cochannel interferers at different values of the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR). Averaged over the six channel examples, we demonstrate that the blind channel estimation algorithm eigenvector approach to blind identification (EVI) leads to an SNR loss of 1.2-1.3 dB only, while it saves the 22% overhead in GSM data rate caused by the transmission of training sequences. Since just 142 samples are used for blind channel estimation, we consider this performance outstanding for an approach based on HOS View full abstract»

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  • Closed-form blind channel identification and source separation in SDMA systems through correlative coding

    Page(s): 1506 - 1517
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    We address the problem of blind identification of multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) finite-impulse response (FIR) digital systems. This problem arises in spatial division multiple access (SDMA) architectures for wireless communications. We present a closed-form, i.e., noniterative, consistent estimator for the MIMO channel based only on second-order statistics. To obtain this closed form we introduce spectral/correlation asymmetry between the sources by filtering each source output with adequate correlative filters. Our algorithm uses the closed form MIMO channel estimate to cancel the intersymbol interference (ISI) due to multipath propagation and to discriminate between the sources at the wireless base station receiver. Simulation results show that, for single-user channels, this technique yields better channel estimates in terms of mean-square error (MSE) and better probability of error than a well-known alternative method. Finally, we illustrate its performance for MIMO channels in the context of the global system for mobile communications (GSM) system View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive frequency-domain equalization and diversity combining for broadband wireless communications

    Page(s): 1385 - 1395
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    We introduce a new kind of adaptive equalizer that operates in the spatial-frequency domain and uses either least mean square (LMS) or recursive least squares (RLS) adaptive processing. We simulate the equalizer's performance in an 8-Mb/s quaternary phase-shift keying (QPSK) link over a frequency-selective Rayleigh fading multipath channel with ~3 μs RMS delay spread, corresponding to 60 symbols of dispersion. With the RLS algorithm and two diversity branches, our results show rapid convergence and channel tracking for a range of mobile speeds (up to ~100 mi/h). With a mobile speed of 40 mi/h, for example, the equalizer achieves an average bit error rate (BER) of 10 -4 at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 15 dB, falling short of optimum linear receiver performance by about 4 dB. Moreover, it requires only ~50 complex operations per detected bit, i.e., ~400 M operations per second, which is close to achievable with state-of-the-art digital signal processing technology. An equivalent time-domain equalizer, if it converged at all, would require orders-of-magnitude more processing View full abstract»

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  • On MMSE real-time antenna array processing using fourth-order statistics in the US cellular TDMA system

    Page(s): 1396 - 1410
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    The antenna array processing problem in the reverse link of the current US digital cellular communication system is studied and higher-than-second-order-statistics (HOS) baseband processing is proposed as a possible candidate solution. The remarkable difference of our approach as compared to other existing similar techniques is the idea of the minimization of the mean squared error using fourth-order cumulants alone and nonblind criteria. A recursive Jacobi total least squares algorithm is used in the adaptive implementation to mitigate the effects of high error variance in the estimates of the cumulants based on sample statistics. The method is shown to be very effective in a fast fading environment with multiple cochannel interferers View full abstract»

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  • Single-channel blind equalization for GSM cellular systems

    Page(s): 1493 - 1505
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    This paper focuses on the study of blind equalization global system for mobile communications (GSM) systems using a single antenna. In order to utilize the well-known linear system model in conventional studies of blind equalization, an equivalent baseband quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) approximation is used for the nonlinear GMSK signal in GSM systems. Since the GMSK signal in GSM has very little excess bandwidth to warrant oversampling, a derotation scheme is developed to create two subchannels for each received GMSK signal sampled at the baud rate. Linear approximation of the GMSK signal makes the traditional QAM blind equalization system model applicable for GSM. Derotation induces channel diversity without an additional antenna and reduces the number of necessary radio frequency (RF) receivers (sensors) without increasing hardware or computational costs. Several second-order statistical and higher order statistical methods of blind equalization are adopted for GSM signals View full abstract»

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  • Blind acquisition characteristics of PSP-based sequence detectors

    Page(s): 1518 - 1529
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    The blind acquisition characteristics of binary sequence detection algorithms based on per-survivor processing (PSP) are demonstrated via computer simulations. These capabilities are impressive as compared to those of traditional blind equalizers. It is demonstrated that the short-term acquisition performance of PSP-based algorithms is dominated by the poor performance obtained when certain sequences are transmitted. These sequences are those that cannot be distinguished by the joint maximum likelihood (ML) channel and sequence estimator or do not allow for a complete identification of the channel impulse response. Such sequences are defined and analytically characterized, resulting in asymptotic results on performance for joint ML channel and sequence estimators. Typical misacquisition conditions, the effects of initialization, and the impact of increased tree search complexity are also all characterized by simulations and motivated by the analytical results View full abstract»

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  • Blind beamforming on a randomly distributed sensor array system

    Page(s): 1555 - 1567
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    We consider a digital signal processing sensor array system, based on randomly distributed sensor nodes, for surveillance and source localization applications. In most array processing the sensor array geometry is fixed and known and the steering array vector/manifold information is used in beamformation. In this system, array calibration may be impractical due to unknown placement and orientation of the sensors with unknown frequency/spatial responses. This paper proposes a blind beamforming technique, using only the measured sensor data, to form either a sample data or a sample correlation matrix. The maximum power collection criterion is used to obtain array weights from the dominant eigenvector associated with the largest eigenvalue of a matrix eigenvalue problem. Theoretical justification of this approach uses a generalization of Szego's (1958) theory of the asymptotic distribution of eigenvalues of the Toeplitz form. An efficient blind beamforming time delay estimate of the dominant source is proposed. Source localization based on a least squares (LS) method for time delay estimation is also given. Results based on analysis, simulation, and measured acoustical sensor data show the effectiveness of this beamforming technique for signal enhancement and space-time filtering View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications focuses on all telecommunications, including telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television, by electromagnetic propagation.

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Editor-in-Chief
Muriel Médard
MIT