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Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology, Part C, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date July 1998

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Displaying Results 1 - 13 of 13
  • Abstracts of manuscripts in issue

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 162 - 164
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  • Active Controller: utilizing active databases for implementing multistep control of semiconductor manufacturing

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 217 - 224
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (31)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (260 KB)  

    Whenever the fabrication process consists of several steps and the dynamic modification of individual steps or step sequences of the process is allowed, multistep feedback and feed-forward control can be utilized to improve the quality of the fabrication process. In this paper, we describe the Active Controller-an adaptable and portable software enabler for multistep control in manufacturing facilities. The Active Controller utilizes a recently emerging technology, called active databases, to define and automatically execute powerful and expressive rules for implementing multistep control algorithms. The conditions of Active Controller rules are defined to check for scenarios in which multistep control is needed. The Active Controller keeps track of relevant processing events and data, and when the conditions for multistep control hold, executes appropriate actions to compensate for the errors in processing. We show that the Active Controller, with its capability for the definition of complex rules over a history of processing events and its ability to invoke user-provided analysis routines, provides for a portable and adaptable system that can be used to implement different algorithms for multistep control. View full abstract»

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  • High Temperature Electronics [Book Reviews]

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 238
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Air Cooling Technologies For Electronic Equipment [Book Reviews]

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 238 - 239
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Effective modeling of the reflow soldering process: use of a modeling tool for product and process design

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 165 - 171
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (652 KB)  

    The increasing component packing density and consequent reduction in feature size in printed circuit assemblies (PCA's) continues to place manufacturers under extreme pressures. The most significant demand is for improved first-off process yields because of the high cost and technical difficulty of rework processes and concerns over the reliability of reworked products. The dominant process for the production of PCA's is reflow soldering of a stencil/screen printed solder paste to form the interconnection between the component termination and the substrate. It is crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that each termination experiences a suitable thermal history throughout the reflow cycle. Despite the advances in processes to cope with complex product features, such as increasing the uniformity and amount of heat transfer in the process, ensuring right-the-first-time is still a problem leading to increased lead-times, reduced yields and the scrapping of assemblies used to establish the ideal process parameters for each particular product. This paper describes the utilization of a predictive model as a tool for the off-line determination of the most appropriate process and its specific set-up for a PCA. Results are also presented where PCA design is altered to improve thermal mass distribution View full abstract»

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  • Solder transfer technique for flip-chip and electronic assembly applications

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 182 - 188
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (5)
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    There are numerous applications that could benefit from a capability of providing solder at a stage when it is inconvenient or not possible to be deposited by conventional flip-chip or packaging technology methods. For example, flip-chip solder bumps are usually fabricated as wafers by evaporation or plating, whereas the solder necessary for component attachment is achieved by extruding or stenciling solder paste onto a card. These methods, although well suited for initial fabrication, are not practical at subsequent stages of assembly. However, decals, which consist of solder bumps of any desired configuration and volume deposited onto a nonwettable carrier (e.g., glass, scrap silicon wafers, etc.), can often be utilized as a solder source in these situations. The paper focuses on decal fabrication, solder transfer, potential problem areas, and solutions. Applications of the technology are discussed as well. Among these are restoration and altering composition of flip-chip solder bumps, chip carrier pretinning, wettability testing, and deposition to enable direct chip attach (DCA) View full abstract»

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  • Addressing environment, health, and safety in semiconductor process development

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 233 - 237
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Motorola has traditionally focused on cost, yield, performance, and logistics as primary drivers for decision-making. In the semiconductor industry, environment, health, and safety (EHS) issues have resulted in major modifications of tools and process steps, as well as the addition of environmental controls to the facility, because they are not routinely considered when making process design and manufacturing choices, nor is their impact on cost, yield, and cycle time. Certain business driving forces, such as cost, sustainability of processes/tools, time to market, market access, and market share, are leading Motorola to a cultural change in which EHS impacts must be considered during product and process design; however, design and process engineers have not been able to adequately address these impacts. Motorola's Advanced Process Research and Development Laboratory (APRDL) in the Semiconductor Product Sector (SPS) has recognized this and has established its own environmental group (separate from the site EHS compliance group) to implement a design for EHS (DFEHS) strategy. The APRDL environmental group works with several project teams to address EHS issues in process development. These teams have been investigating copper metallization, wet cleans processes and tools, and other areas to ensure that the long-term EHS implications are identified and addressed before a process is transferred or a tool set recommended to a manufacturing fab. To empower engineers to consider, on their own, the EHS impacts of their materials and processes at the earliest possible stage, the APRDL environmental group has developed a DFEHS training course. This self-instructed, web-based course targets semiconductor design and process engineers and is available through Motorola University, the corporate training institution. The group has also established a procedure for approving new materials for the development lab in which EHS criteria are included View full abstract»

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  • Designed experiments to investigate the solder joint quality output of a prototype automated surface mount replacement system

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 172 - 181
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
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    A robotic remanufacturing system at Rensselaer has been developed to replace fine pitch surface mounted components on a populated printed circuit board (PCB). The performance goal is to maximize the quality of the solder joint output to optimize the system's throughput. The purpose of this paper is to present the process parameters determined for obtaining a good solder joint with the rework cell. Developed here and to show an analysis of the solder joint quality obtained from the developed system. Maximizing the rate of correctly reworked components by the system is not chosen as a goal for measuring the system's performance. This is because rework is a low volume process and the cell being used, is an experimental prototype system View full abstract»

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  • Advanced encapsulant systems for flip-chip-on-board assemblies: underfills with improved manufacturing properties

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 196 - 203
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (156 KB)  

    Underfill materials for flip chip on board (FCOB) were developed to address the issues observed during assembly of consumer electronic products on a high volume manufacturing FCOB/surface mount technology (SMT) line. The development of underfill materials with enhanced flow properties and faster curing kinetics is critical to continue the move toward the integration of FCOB assemblies as an alternative packaging system in electronic products. The results from this study showed that materials with enhanced flow properties were enveloped and. Some approached a 10X reduction in the time to underfill a flip chip when compared to the control underfill. The viscosity, surface tension, and filler particle sizes were studied in an attempt to correlate these properties to the recorded underfill times. Also, materials characterization studies were performed to determine the glass transition temperatures (Tg), tensile elastic and loss moduli (E' and E"), flow profiles, coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE), and apparent strengths of adhesion (ASA). Thermodynamic and microdielectrometry studies were conducted to identify the optimal thermal cure schedules of the underfills. These kinetic studies identified materials which completed curing in 6× shorter times as compared to the control underfill. In addition, reliability tests were performed using FR4 substrates and continuity die to determine the relationship between materials properties and reliability responses. The experimental results showed that there was a strong potential to develop materials for FCOB assemblies with enhanced flow properties and shorter cure schedules without compromising reliability performance View full abstract»

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  • Manufacturing process for combination lead frame/TAB BGA

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 204 - 210
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The combination lead frame/tape automated bonding ball grid array (TAB BGA) has been studied to improve the manufacturability of thin ball grid array (TBGA) large scale integrated (LSI) packages. Ordinary lead frames and the TAB tape carriers have been applied to make the assembly of TBGA easier. The base technologies, the materials of the lead frame, and the TAB tape were thoroughly applied to the heat spreader and the fine routing flexible substrate. The lead frames as the heat spreader and the tape (manufactured by the line of the TAB tape for wire bonding substrate) are combined with a high thermal resistive adhesive (Tg473K). As the solder balls are reflowed prior to die attach, current assembly houses will never need the ball mounter to produce the TBGA View full abstract»

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  • A study of the reliability of brazed AlO3 joint systems

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 211 - 216
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    Brazing experiments were performed at 830°C for Al2O3/Al2O3 and Al2 O3/Fe-Ni-Co alloy joints, which are used in electronic and structural applications. The brazing was done with Ag-Cu and Ag-Cu-Ti and changes in fracture mode and fracture strength of the Al 2O3-Al2O3 joint were investigated after heat treatment at 400 and 600°C for 100 h. For as-brazed samples, the fracture occurred within Al2O3 , but a long heat exposure at a medium temperature caused the fracture path to move to the joint region. For the ceramic-metal joining, Al2O3/Fe-Ni-Co alloy joints were prepared with a variety of interlayers. Among the interlayer materials, a Mo-Ni double-interlayer provided the highest fracture strength. The fracture strength of the joints was measured and interpreted in terms of microstructure changes View full abstract»

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  • The effects of flux materials on the moisture sensitivity and reliability of flip-chip-on-board assemblies

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 189 - 195
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
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    This paper discusses the nonproprietary aspects of the work-in-progress regarding developments in flux materials to improve the moisture-induced stress sensitivity of flip chip plastic ball grid array devices. Studies addressing the moisture characterization and preconditioning, using JEDEC Level 3, of assemblies built with four proprietary fluxes and two alternative underfill materials will be presented. This report includes the evaluation of the weight loss during a simulated die attach reflow profile for each flux type using thermogravimetric analysis. Also, the underfill adhesion strength to the die surface after assembly, after moisture preconditioning and after 48 h of autoclave stressing will be discussed. The integrity of the solder joint corresponding to each flux type and measured using die pull techniques will also be presented. The effects of the experimental variables on underfill to die/substrate adhesion will also be reviewed using C-SAM imaging methods. Proprietary aspects of Motorola's FC-PBGA materials and assembly technology will not be disclosed View full abstract»

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  • Challenges in determining electronics equipment take-back levels

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 225 - 232
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
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    Industrial ecology requires life cycle planning and implementation. In order to replace product disposal with product take-back, reverse logistics networks and product take-back centers must be set up. Product take-back can be for reuse (repair, upgrade, and resale), recycling, or disposal. This paper focuses on the challenges in estimating product take-back levels. Current product take-back activities around the world are summarized. Product take-back cycles are defined and an improved product take-back estimation framework is proposed View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transaction ceased production in 1998. The current publication is titled IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology.

Full Aims & Scope