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Consumer Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date Aug. 1998

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 102
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  • Real-time implementation of the MPEG-2 audio codec on a DSP

    Page(s): 866 - 871
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB)  

    This paper presents the implementation of MPEG-2 layer 1 audio coding and decoding system on a general purpose fixed-point DSP chip. A modified coding algorithm that alleviates the edge effect is described. This scheme encodes data in frames adjacent to the current frame so that data is closely correlated between frames. Results from the DSP real-time implementation are examined. Bit-rates from 74 to 138 kbps for the signals tested are attainable with transparent quality signal reconstruction View full abstract»

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  • A single-chip DVB-T receiver

    Page(s): 990 - 993
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (260 KB)  

    A low-cost single-chip receiver for terrestrial digital television is presented that is compliant to the European DVB-T standard. The receiver chip contains a digital demodulator for 2K carrier OFDM modulation and a channel decoder for forward error correction codes specified by DVB View full abstract»

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  • A 113 dB SNR oversampling sigma-delta DAC for CD/DVD application

    Page(s): 1019 - 1023
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (468 KB)  

    A sigma-delta (ΣΔ) audio digital-to-analog converter (DAC) for CD and digital versatile disk (DVD) application is presented. The converter uses a 6-bit modulator and a segmented noise-shaped scrambling technique to achieve a 113 dB dynamic-range over a 20 kHz bandwidth. A continuous-time output stage is used to achieve a high signal-to-noise (SNR) in a small die area. This output stage employs a dual return-to-zero scheme to eliminate errors caused by inter-symbol interference (ISI). The converter is fabricated in a 0.6 μm double-poly double-metal CMOS process. The chip occupies 3.1×3.2 squared mm and operates from a single 5 V supply View full abstract»

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  • Minimum drift architectures for 3-layer scalable DTV decoding

    Page(s): 527 - 536
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (828 KB)  

    This paper describes new techniques for implementing a low-cost video decoder that can decode an HDTV bitstream and display the signal at lower resolutions. Two key algorithms are discussed: downconversion and low-resolution motion compensation. In the proposed scheme, incoming blocks are subject to a down-conversion process within the decoding loop, hence motion compensation is performed from the downconverted images. The filters used for down-conversion are based on the concept of frequency synthesis, and the filters used to perform the low-resolution motion compensation are determined by an optimal least squares solution. Using these algorithms, three different architectures that provide equal quality with varying system level complexity are presented; the first is directly derived from the initial model of the low-resolution decoder, another attempts to reduce the amount of computation for the IDCT, while another addresses the concerns regarding the amount of interface with an existing decoder structure. All of the above systems are hierarchical with regard to the logic used for filtering and scalable in the amount of memory which is required to reconstruct each output layer. Our simulation results demonstrate that high quality video can be provided at lower-resolutions with significant memory savings View full abstract»

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  • Improvement of sound image localization for headphone listening by wavelet analysis

    Page(s): 1183 - 1188
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (636 KB)  

    Wavelet analysis of a sound image localization transfer function in headphone listening reveals two important features for spatial hearing. By introducing these features into a localization equalizing filter, the sound image localization is improved View full abstract»

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  • Implementing real-time video decoding on multimedia processors by complexity prediction techniques

    Page(s): 760 - 767
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (868 KB)  

    The implementation of software based video/audio decoders is an advantageous solution over traditional dedicated hardware systems. However, simultaneously guaranteeing real-time performance, needed for processing video/audio bit-streams, and an efficient use of the processing power, remains a very difficult task. In this paper, we briefly discuss the main reasons for such difficulties and we present a new technique able to predict the decoding time of compressed video bit-streams without the need of the actual decoding. This result can be obtained when appropriate statistics about the actual decoding process are included and transmitted with the compressed video data. We also show how such results can be used to implement new efficient processing resource allocation strategies. New possible schemes of intelligent interactions, and in particular an efficient implementation of computational graceful degradation, between the encoder and the real-time OS are also proposed. An example of results obtained implementing the proposed technique for the MPEG-4 VM6 video algorithm is presented. Although the techniques and concepts presented in this paper are of general application, they can only be used for video compression standards capable of transmitting in any appropriate form the associated statistical coding information. This capability has been included in the new defined MPEG-4 standard View full abstract»

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  • A 3D graphics library for 32-bit microprocessors for embedded systems

    Page(s): 1107 - 1114
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (680 KB)  

    A 3D graphics library for a 32-bit embedded, microprocessor which employs neither a floating point unit nor a specific graphics engine has been developed. The graphics library has been designed to reduce the rendering time because rendering occupies the major part of the total processing time. Accordingly three proposals, changing the decimal point of coordinate data by targeting the screen size for 1/4 VGA, adopting a suitable multiplication size for the rendering operations and reducing the number of divisions, are made. By adopting these sophisticated techniques, the library achieves 10000 polygons/sec using only software View full abstract»

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  • A VLSI implementation of a reconfigurable rational filter

    Page(s): 1076 - 1085
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1132 KB)  

    We propose an implementation of a reconfigurable system which exploits the features and the robustness of rational filters in order to accomplish various image processing tasks. This particular architecture is able to implement various different algorithms as noise-smoothing edge preserving filtering, interpolation, blocking artifacts removal. The architecture is structured as a bit-level pipeline and can work at frequency of 200 MHz, maintaining a quite small size of 7×5 mm2 View full abstract»

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  • Audio transfer system on PHS using error-protected stereo twin VQ

    Page(s): 1032 - 1038
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (724 KB)  

    We propose an efficient stereo audio coding scheme with error protection based on transformed vector quantization. This scheme includes a new stereo coding method, called adaptive inter-channel prediction stereo, that achieves high-efficiency stereo coding at a low coding bit rate. This scheme also includes an unequal error protection (UEP) method that achieves high-efficiency error protection against radio transmission error. We also report a real-time audio transfer system on the Japanese Personal Handyphone System (PHS) using the proposed coding scheme, which enables a high-quality audio transfer service over mobile channels View full abstract»

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  • Software control of I/O subsystem on media core processor

    Page(s): 939 - 943
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (460 KB)  

    To reduce the cost of a DVD player, we have integrated peripheral functions to the audio and video decoder LSI. The peripheral functions are controlled by the I/O processing tasks on single I/O control processor. I/O processing tasks are switched in constant cycle without overhead, to achieve real-time performance and flexibility of software control. In the case of video output handling, software can control each line parameter. Therefore software with line level support of hardware can perform many kinds of functions; image resizing, copy guard and dynamic blending of the image and graphics View full abstract»

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  • An algorithm to extract camera-shaking degree and noise variance in the peak-trace domain

    Page(s): 1159 - 1168
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (824 KB)  

    A method is proposed which estimates the degree of motion blur caused by the shaking of a digital camera during the exposure time. A new domain called the peak-trace domain is introduced to clearly specify the signal dominant region (used for extracting the camera-shaking degree) and the noise dominant region (used for estimating the noise variance). The experimental results show that the proposed method offers an efficient way to precisely detect the camera shaking and to restore the noisy blurred image View full abstract»

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  • Real-time 2-3 pull-down elimination applying motion estimation/compensation in a programmable device

    Page(s): 930 - 938
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (932 KB)  

    A software package realizes real-time video processing on a commercially available programmable device. The software implements a motion estimator and a picture rate convertor to provide judder-free display of movie material broadcast in 2-3 pull-clown mode. A new object-based true-motion estimation algorithm efficiently uses the VLIW core of the processor. It permits quasi-simultaneous motion estimation/segmentation for a fixed maximum number of objects View full abstract»

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  • A new fast symbol timing recovery algorithm for OFDM systems

    Page(s): 1134 - 1141
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (616 KB)  

    The orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technique has been adopted for the European digital terrestrial broadcasting standard, which is called the digital video broadcasting for terrestrial (DVB-T). In this paper, we propose a new symbol timing recovery algorithm for the (OFDM) system to achieve a fast start-up using the scattered pilots under the frequency offset, the common phase error, and severe noise. With the proposed algorithm, we can detect up to ±35 sample offsets and can recover the sampling timing phase even in the carrier frequency offset of up to ±0.35 OFDM subcarrier space. So, we can much reduce the start-up time by simultaneously operating both the carrier and symbol timing recovery loops View full abstract»

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  • A study of characteristics of disk vibration and rotating airflow in magneto optical disk drives

    Page(s): 601 - 605
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (588 KB)  

    A study on the dynamic characteristics of rotating disks in magneto optical disk drives is presented. The natural frequencies of the rotating disks are investigated experimentally and numerically. The frequency response and critical speeds of the advanced storage magneto optical (ASMO) disk are discussed. The characteristics of airflow around the disk and their effects on the disk vibrations are also investigated. It is found that the numerical calculation of the natural frequencies of the rotating disks agrees well with the experimental results. The airflow around the disk in the cartridge affects the characteristics of the disk vibrations to reduce the modal frequencies of the disk. The experiment shows that negative vertical offsets of the disk in the cartridge possibly increase the vibration amplitudes. Being influenced by the geometry of the cartridge, the rotation of the disk causes an asymmetric airflow in the presence of a window View full abstract»

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  • Closed-captioning for PIP

    Page(s): 922 - 925
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1064 KB)  

    The usefulness of picture in picture (PIP) is often impaired by its lack of audio. Using closed-captioning data provides an ideal solution to this problem. PIP captions are displayed in a window directly beneath the PIP and are reformatted to maximize readability and intelligibility View full abstract»

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  • IMAGE: a low cost, low power video processor for high quality motion estimation in MPEG-2 encoding

    Page(s): 774 - 783
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1292 KB)  

    A low cost low power architecture dedicated to perform high quality motion estimation on MPEG-2 CCIR 601 sequences is presented. The chip implements a new high performance motion estimation algorithm based on a modified genetic search strategy that can be enhanced by tracking motion vectors through successive frames. When tested on several sequences at different bit rates, the algorithm delivers nearly full search quality (less than -0.1 dB for a ±75 H/V search range) while decreasing the processing power to 0.5%. The proposed MIMD processor exposes software programmability at different levels allowing the user to define his own searching strategy and combine multiple chips in Master-Salve configuration to meet the required processing power. Moreover post-processing of motion vectors, computation of dual prime vectors for low delay coding and selection of macroblock prediction mode can be programmed on this architecture. A low power strategy was also developed that mainly relies on an adaptive clocking scheme and low power caches implementation. The chip has been integrated in a 0.35 μm 5L CMOS technology on an area of 50 mm2 View full abstract»

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  • ATSC VSB IF/demodulation IC development

    Page(s): 803 - 810
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    The VSB IF demodulator IC was developed for the ATSC VSB digital receiver system. Major functions of this IC include IF signal amplification with automatic gain control, carrier recovery of the pilot frequency using an FPLL (frequency phase locked loop), and synchronous demodulation of the I and Q channels View full abstract»

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  • A conferencing system for real-time, multiparty, multimedia services

    Page(s): 857 - 865
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (856 KB)  

    We describe a conferencing system designed to provide real-time, multiparty, fully interactive multimedia services in a LAN environment. The requirements of the multimedia conferencing service can be summarized as follows. First, there are a number of participants, and the number of participants varies dynamically for the service duration. So there must be a provision which allows members to join and leave a conference. Second, each multimedia data has its own characteristics, and they have very close relationships to one another. So, the quality of service (QoS) requirements of each media must be satisfied separately, and at the same time their relationship first be maintained at playback time. For example, the audio and video data must be synchronized at playback time. Considering the above requirements, we designed a multiparty, multimedia conferencing system. It is mainly composed of two control entities: the group manager and media manager. A group manager controls and maintains the participants group according to group attributes, and a media manager performs call admission control according to its anticipation of network states at the call request time, and controls the media data sending rate based on the receivers' periodic media reception quality reports. For more efficient control, we take into consideration the group characteristics in the media control algorithm. Feasibility has been confirmed by laboratory trials View full abstract»

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  • Regularized iterative image interpolation and its application to spatially scalable coding

    Page(s): 1042 - 1047
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1468 KB)  

    This paper presents a regularized iterative image interpolation algorithm, which can restore high frequency details in the original high resolution image. In order to apply the regularization approach to the interpolation procedure, we first present a two-dimensional separable image degradation model for a low resolution imaging system. According to the model, we propose a regularization based spatial image sequence interpolation algorithm and apply the proposed algorithm to a spatially scalable coding View full abstract»

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  • Pilot tone selection for channel estimation in a mobile OFDM system

    Page(s): 1122 - 1128
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB)  

    Channel estimation for mobile OFDM systems requires transmission of pilot tones. This paper addresses the important issue of selecting these pilot tones, so as to achieve a good quality estimate. It is shown that the best set of tones to be used are those which are equally spaced. Furthermore, it is shown using the case of a first order Markov channel, that it is more efficient to use a few pilot tones in all symbols, rather than use all tones as pilot tones in some symbols View full abstract»

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  • High-quality bit-rate transformation for the Home Media Station

    Page(s): 587 - 590
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (364 KB)  

    This paper discusses methods for bit-rate transformation of previously encoded compressed video bitstreams. The proposed high-quality, low complexity bit-rate transformation algorithms are especially suitable for consumer devices such as the Home Media Station-a sophisticated multimedia receiver/decoder/recorder for consumer use View full abstract»

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  • CCD noise filtering based on 3-dimensional nonlinear partial differential equation

    Page(s): 1086 - 1090
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (612 KB)  

    A three dimensional anisotropic diffusion equation is proposed to remove noise in video sequences. The three dimensional anisotropic diffusion equation utilizes the fact that consecutive frames of high correlation can be obtained in video sequences. It is shown that the three dimensional diffusion equation gives better results than the two dimensional diffusion equation which only deals with still images and slowly smoothes the edge boundaries View full abstract»

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  • A novel adaptive vector quantization method for memory reduction in MPEG-2 HDTV decoders

    Page(s): 537 - 544
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    A novel method to reduce the external memory needed by an MPEG-2 HDTV decoder architecture is presented and discussed. The total amount of memory is reduced from 96 to 32 Mbits preserving a good picture quality. Furthermore the approach chosen maintains a low hardware complexity and increases less than 5%, in 0.35 μm technology, the total decoder silicon area with respect to the standard decoder View full abstract»

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  • Perception adaptive temporal TV-noise reduction using contour preserving prefilter techniques

    Page(s): 1091 - 1096
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (524 KB)  

    The reduction of Gaussian noise is still an important task in video systems. For this purpose a spatio-temporal noise reduction scheme for interlaced video is presented. It consists mainly of a subband based temporal recursive filter which makes use of some special properties of the human visual system. This temporal system is supported by a preceding detail preserving spatial filter with low hardware expense, which consists of an image analysing highpass filter bank and an adaptive lowpass FIR-filter for noise reduction. Both the spatial and temporal noise reduction have been evaluated with a large amount of simulations which result in a very good objective and subjective efficiency. Furthermore the chain of both temporal and spatial noise reduction may even yield results which are better than the sum of pure spatial and temporal techniques View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The primary purpose for publishing the Transactions of the Consumer Electronics Society is to present to the membership and the engineering community in general, papers on new technology oriented to Consumer Electronics.

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
R. Simon Sherratt
School Director for Teaching and Learning, School of Systems Engineering
The University of Reading
Reading, Berkshire  RG6 6AY  RG6 6AY  U.K.
r.s.sherratt@reading.ac.uk; sherratt@ieee.org
Phone:+44 (0) 118 3788588
Fax:+44 (0) 118 3788583