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Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date Aug 1998

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 71
  • Modelling of stalling motors during voltage stability studies

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 775 - 781
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB)  

    This paper investigates the effect of induction motor stalling on power system voltage stability assessment. A new time-scale decomposition is suggested when a single motor stalls. This allows a better security margin assessment in cases where motor stalling has no serious consequences on system operation. Case studies on a two motor system and a 34-bus system demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach View full abstract»

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  • A coherency based rescheduling method for dynamic security

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 810 - 815
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (516 KB)  

    For on-line dynamic security analysis, the preventive control or remedial action should be an integral part of the function if instability for a contingency is detected. Research done so far in on-line remedial action has been in rescheduling generation and most of the suggested methods for determining such preventive control use the sensitivities of the stability energy margin to the generator power injections. In this paper, a new coherency based sensitivity method is proposed for generation rescheduling. Different coherency indices have been defined and then compared by ranking the contingencies according to these indices as well as the energy margin index. Since the coherency indices are always functions of the rotor angles, the sensitivity trajectories of a coherency index, such as the most critical rotor angle, with respect to changes of generation can be calculated at every time step of the integration process. This paper suggests that these sensitivities calculated shortly after fault clearing be used for rescheduling the generation. The calculation of these sensitivities are obviously faster than the calculation of the energy margin sensitivities. This paper also shows, with test results using several different systems, that the rescheduling achieved by this method provides the necessary remedial action. It is also noted that this method is intuitively more direct as it uses the sensitivities of the worst affected generator angles for rescheduling View full abstract»

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  • Fast service restoration for large-scale distribution systems with priority customers and constraints

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 789 - 795
    Cited by:  Papers (52)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (712 KB)  

    A fast, effective service restoration method is designed for large-scale distribution systems with priority customers. The service restoration problem is formulated as a constrained multi-objective optimization problem. A ranking-based search method employing analytical information obtained from three-phase power flow simulations is designed to restore service to as many priority customers as possible while maximizing the amount of total load restored and minimizing the number of required switch operations. The proposed method is designed with consideration to networks which have predominantly manual switches. Comprehensive simulation results of the search method, including priority customers, single and multiple faults and multiple out-of-service areas are presented for a 416 bus distribution network View full abstract»

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  • A feasibility study of on-line excitation system parameter estimation

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 910 - 916
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (684 KB)  

    This paper details a feasibility study of estimating excitation system parameters during online operation using time-domain system identification. This study concentrates on identifying the appropriate exciter model, developing an input signal that would provide a proper level of perturbation such that the dynamics of the system can be captured, analyzing the effects of both systematic and random noise, developing algorithms to perform the parameter estimation, testing and validating the obtained system parameters. This study established a strong basis for estimating the system parameters during online operation View full abstract»

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  • An interior point nonlinear programming for optimal power flow problems with a novel data structure

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 870 - 877
    Cited by:  Papers (93)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (852 KB)  

    This paper presents a new interior point nonlinear programming algorithm for optimal power flow problems (OPF) based on the perturbed KKT conditions of the primal problem. Through the concept of the centering direction, the authors extend this algorithm to classical power flow (PF) and approximate OPF problems. For the latter, CPU time can be reduced substantially. To efficiently handle functional inequality constraints, a reduced correction equation is derived, the size of which depends on that of equality constraints. A novel data structure is proposed which has been realized by rearranging the correction equation. Compared with the conventional data structure of Newton OPF, the number of fill-ins of the proposed scheme is roughly halved and CPU time is reduced by about 15% for large scale systems. The proposed algorithm includes four kinds of objective functions and two different data structures. Extensive numerical simulations on test systems that range in size from 14 to 1047 buses, have shown that the proposed method is very promising for large scale application due to its robustness and fast execution time View full abstract»

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  • A general method for small signal stability analysis

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 979 - 985
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (604 KB)  

    This paper presents a new general method for computing the different specific power system small signal stability conditions. The conditions include the points of minimum and maximum damping of oscillations, saddle node and Hopf bifurcations, and load flow feasibility boundaries. All these characteristic points are located by optimizing an eigenvalue objective function along the rays specified in the space of system parameters. The set of constraints consists of the load flow equations, and requirements applied to the dynamic state matrix eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Solutions of the optimization problem correspond to specific points of interest mentioned above. So, the proposed general method gives a comprehensive characterization of the power system small signal stability properties. The specific point obtained depends upon the initial guess of variables and numerical methods used to solve the constrained optimization problem. The technique is tested by analyzing the small signal stability properties for well-known example systems View full abstract»

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  • Including a DC network approximation in a multiarea probabilistic production costing model

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1121 - 1127
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (748 KB)  

    A multiarea power system consists of several areas (subsystems) interconnected by a transmission network. In estimating expected generation costs for such systems, transmission capacity limits of the network should be recognized. Transportation network models have generally been used because of their simplicity, but they only enforce Kirchhoff's current law. AC power flow modeling of the transmission network, which recognizes thermal, voltage and stability constraints, is theoretically best, but is too unwieldy for assessing expected costs. The so-called “DC” linearized network model is adopted here as a compromise, as it enforces both Kirchhoff's current and voltage laws while its linearity facilitates incorporation in probabilistic production costing models. In this paper, the authors generalize a bounding-based multiarea probabilistic production costing model to include loop flow and resistance losses based on the DC network model. This is the first multiarea model based on efficient convolution methods for production costing that also includes loop flows and resistance losses. Computational examples are presented to highlight the modeling and solution procedures View full abstract»

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  • Studies of bilateral contracts with respect to steady-state security in a deregulated environment [of electricity supply]

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1020 - 1025
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB)  

    Under a deregulated environment, electricity consumers and suppliers will be permitted to establish various bilateral service contracts. The transmission company however will only have to honour and execute these bilateral contracts as far as the system design and operating conditions permit. A fundamental question is to what extent the system security could affect these contracts and what kinds of system reinforcements will be required to meet the future contract needs. This paper describes a series of studies modelling the bilateral contracts by using a transaction matrix (T). The concept of the transaction matrix is to expand the conventional load flow variables such as generations (Pg) and loads (Pd) into a 2-dimensional matrix (T). Each element of T, namely tij, corresponds to a bilateral contract between a supplier (Pg1) and consumer (Pdj). A generalized linear programming formulation is then proposed to solve various system operation and planning problems under a deregulated environment subjected to the steady-state security constraints (e.g. generation and line flow limits). Examples are presented to illustrate how to use this formulation to maximize any bilateral contract, individual generation or groups of generations; or to minimize the necessary correction needed for a proposed transaction matrix (T°) in order to comply with the security requirements. Other studies such as the use of Monte Carlo methods to study the behaviour of random bilateral contracts are also presented and discussed. It was concluded that the proposed methodology will be an effective tool to study the intricate relationships between the bilateral contracts and system security View full abstract»

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  • Service restoration of primary distribution systems based on fuzzy evaluation of multi-criteria

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1156 - 1163
    Cited by:  Papers (41)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (632 KB)  

    Due to many conflicting goals, the power service restoration problem is a multiple-criteria decision making problem. This paper proposes a new restoration strategy consisting of two steps: candidate set generation and fuzzy decision making, which can generate the most preferable plan. The object-oriented paradigm has been adopted in the development of the system and three models-object model, functional model, dynamic model-have been designed. The test results have shown the effectiveness of the proposed method View full abstract»

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  • A strategy of load leveling by charging and discharging time control of electric vehicles

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1179 - 1184
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB)  

    By ZEV regulation of the California government in 1992, not only The United States but also many developing countries are interested in replacing gasoline cars by electric vehicles (EV). The electric utility expects that the electric vehicle improves the difference between the daytime and nighttime of recent demand as a new market of electric power demand. There are some reports that indicate on the danger which generates the new peaks as the electric vehicles spread through the market in charging start hour. As a countermeasure for avoiding this problem, the authors propose that (1) the regional charging time shift method is introduced in the midnight charging time zone, and (2) inverse load flow by the discharge of the contract private use EV is carried out as an energy shift in daytime, in this paper. Therefore, the actual energy consumption of the automobile was investigated, and future demand is predicted by the mathematical consumption modeling. Especially, it shows a strategy of optimum introduction on scheme and rate of electric vehicle for effective energy shift. The authors point out the necessity of market regulation for an electric vehicle View full abstract»

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  • Integer modelling of spinning reserve requirements in short term scheduling of hydro systems

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 959 - 964
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB)  

    In short-term power system scheduling, reserve margins are kept in order to maintain the security of the system if a nonforecasted event occurs. The security is maintained by re-dispatch of the generators in the system. During the first seconds of the disturbance, it is only possible to re-dispatch the online units. The maximal increase of the generation during these first seconds of the disturbance is called the spinning reserve. In hydro-dominated power systems, the spinning reserve is kept in the hydro system, since hydro units are easy to re-dispatch. For an online hydro unit, the spinning reserve is the marginal between maximum generation and the actual generation. If a hydro plant has several units, only the online units will contribute to the spinning reserve. This means that one needs to introduce integer variables to model the spinning reserve contribution from a hydro plant with several units. In the literature, there are several examples of integer models for representation of the generation of hydro plants. The contribution of this paper is that it incorporates the integer representation of the spinning reserve into an integer model of generation scheduling. To this model, the authors apply variable splitting and Lagrange relaxation to decompose the problem into one subproblem for the hydrological constraints and one subproblem for each hydro plant. In order to find feasible solutions, they use a combination of network programming and heuristic search. The dual problem constructed by the decomposition is solved by a subgradient method. In the paper, they apply the proposed method to a numerical example View full abstract»

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  • Generalized observability analysis and measurement classification

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1090 - 1095
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB)  

    Network observability analysis is formulated in a way to incorporate the conventional as well as unconventional measurements, including line currents. This formulation has two essential advantages over the existing methods of network observability analysis: (1) it detects not only unobservability but also uniqueness of the observed state, (2) it can directly identify the unobservable or nonuniquely observable branches without having to remove the irrelevant injections in an iterative manner. In addition, unlike the numerical observability analysis methods proposed so far, it can readily identify residual spread components and critical measurements. The proposed formulation is implemented and tested on sample power systems View full abstract»

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  • Design of a TLM application program based on an AM/FM/GIS system

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 904 - 909
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (580 KB)  

    This paper introduces the design of a transformer load management (TLM) application program based on an automated mapping/facilities management/geographic information system (AM/FM/GIS). The data required for this application is mainly extracted from the databases of the AM/FM/GIS system and customer information system (CIS) and combined with customer daily load patterns obtained by load surveys over a long-term period. This integration environment including graphic and nongraphic databases enhances the TLM program by taking full advantages of AM/FM/GIS capabilities. The program provides a general system information inspection function as well as a load analysis and inquiry function which allow engineers to examine in detail the distribution system facilities or to perceive the loading conditions of a specified distribution device. In addition, the program provides a load distribution map overview function for easily investigating a feeder-wide load distribution through a full-color graphic screen. This application program can be applied to keep the distribution transformers from being damaged due to overloading or to prevent inefficient operation by reason of very light-loading conditions View full abstract»

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  • A tracking time domain simulator for real-time transient stability analysis

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 992 - 998
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (704 KB)  

    Real-time transient stability analysis requires analysis of hundreds of contingencies in tens of minutes using on-line data from the state estimation. The final objective is to present timely information about transfer limits and stability margins and eventually implement corrective actions. In this paper, we assume that the dynamic contingency analysis (DCA) has to be repeated every 15 minutes. During this period of time the loading and configuration conditions of the system change significantly but not drastically. We verify that the set of the relevant contingencies remains almost the same in the time interval comprised between two cycles of the functions associated to DSA. Parallel-in-time formulated algorithms can be used in tracking the load conditions in real time adopting as initial guess for the simulation of each contingency, the trajectories obtained for the same contingency at the previous cycle of DSA functions (that is the ones calculated in the previous 15 minutes). In this way, the information obtained In a previous cycle of DCA is not lost completely as in step-by step algorithms. The feasibility of the approach has been tested on the Italian 380-220 kV transmission system operated by ENEL SPA. A parallel implementation of the approach on an nCUBE multiprocessor is reported View full abstract»

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  • An analytical formula for the mean and variance of marginal costs for a power generation system

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 731 - 737
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (508 KB)  

    In the upcoming deregulated environment, the marginal cost of power generation will play an important role. This paper provides an analytical formula for estimating the expected value and variance of the average marginal cost over a given study horizon using an enhanced stochastic version of the Baleriaux model. For the numerical example considered, this procedure provides accurate estimates in much less computer time as compared to a Monte Carlo simulation View full abstract»

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  • The application of multi-criteria analysis to substation design

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1172 - 1178
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB)  

    This paper presents an approach to substation design based on a multicriteria analysis. It describes the four criteria and how they are applied, first of all to the selection of credible designs and then to the evaluation of these designs to arrive at the most promising result. The substation structure is described in terms of its five composite groups and defined by the single-line diagram and the associated equipment. The process of selecting suitable configurations (single-line diagram) and associated electrical equipment is based on the multi-criteria approach. This approach is further refined to incorporate user preferences with respect to the chosen four criteria so as that the final design is representative of both the design specifications and the concerns of the user View full abstract»

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  • Improvement of transient stability limit in power system transmission lines using fuzzy control of FACTS devices

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 917 - 922
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB)  

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the application of FACTS devices to increase the maximum loadability of the transmission lines which may be constrained by a transient stability limit. Hence, the on-line fuzzy control of the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) and the static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) are suggested. The fuzzy rule-bases are defined and explained. The validity of the suggested control strategies are confirmed by simulation tests. The simulation results show that by the use of the proposed method, the line power transfer can be increased via the improvement of the transient stability limit. Finally, the effect of the control loop time delay on the performance of the controller is presented View full abstract»

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  • Short term generation scheduling in photovoltaic-utility grid with battery storage

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1057 - 1062
    Cited by:  Papers (36)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (580 KB)  

    This paper presents an efficient approach to short term resource scheduling for an integrated thermal and photovoltaic-battery generation. The proposed model incorporates battery storage for peak load shaving. Several constraints including battery capacity, minimum up/down time and ramp rates for thermal units, as well as natural photovoltaic (PV) capacity are considered in the proposed model. A case study composed of 26 thermal units and a PV-battery plant is presented to test the efficiency of the method View full abstract»

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  • Probabilistic choice vs. risk analysis-conflicts and synthesis in power system planning

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1038 - 1043
    Cited by:  Papers (42)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (644 KB)  

    This paper shows the conceptual differences between adopting a probabilistic weighting of the futures and a risk averse strategy, in power system planning under uncertain scenarios. It is illustrated with a distribution planning problem, where optimal solutions in both cases are determined by a genetic algorithm. It shows that the probabilistic approach is less safe and cannot detect some interesting solutions View full abstract»

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  • A new approach to dynamic security assessment using trajectory sensitivities

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 953 - 958
    Cited by:  Papers (39)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (420 KB)  

    The transient stability of power systems is investigated using a new analytical tool. Instead of computing the sensitivities of energy margins, trajectory sensitivity functions of the post-fault system with respect to parameters are computed. The goal is to find how sensitive the trajectories of each state are to variations in system parameters. When the system becomes more stressed, the state trajectories become more sensitive to variations in parameters. Thus these trajectory sensitivities can be used as a measure of system security. This concept is illustrated on the IEEE single- and seventeen-machine systems, and it is shown that dynamic sensitivity functions can also be applied to systems of differential-algebraic equations where the TEF method has limitations View full abstract»

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  • Modeling of an island grid

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 971 - 978
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (428 KB)  

    An operating model of a small electric power system grid has been developed. The power system generators are predominantly gas turbine-driven and the turbines and generators are all modeled according to the IEEE recommended models and in some cases, by models as given by various turbine manufacturers. The system model was then tested on the digital computer for various load changes. Using a developed personal computer-based data acquisition system, various operational load changes were made on the power system and the transient effect on the power system was measured. These changes were then used as inputs into the computer model of the power system and the theoretical reaction of the power system was obtained This was then compared with the measured reaction. It was found that the theoretical and the actual results compared very favorably View full abstract»

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  • Consumer payment minimization in power pool auctions

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 986 - 991
    Cited by:  Papers (33)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (632 KB)  

    This paper presents a new methodology within the framework of centralized optimization for calculating optimal generation schedules that minimize energy payments by power pool consumers. This paper addresses issues related to market structure and the operation of power pools, such as bid evaluation, generator no-load and start-up cost recovery, generator unit operating constraints, and market clearing price determination. Unlike conventional unit commitment algorithms that minimize total energy production costs, the method presented here minimizes payments by power pool consumers. A payment minimization objective leads to a different unit commitment and dispatch solution, and lower market clearing prices. Additionally, optimal allocation of generator no-load and start-up costs over the scheduling period is integrated in the bid evaluation process, leading to a further reduction in consumer payments View full abstract»

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  • Intelligent decision support for diagnosis of incipient transformer faults using self-organizing polynomial networks

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 946 - 952
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (740 KB)  

    To serve as an intelligent decision support for the transformer fault diagnosis, a new self-organizing polynomial networks (SOPNs) modeling technique is proposed and implemented in this paper. The technique heuristically formulates the modeling problem into a hierarchical architecture with several layers of functional nodes of simple low-order polynomials. The networks handle the numerical, complicated, and uncertain relationships of dissolved gas contents of the transformers to fault conditions. Verification of the proposed approach has been accomplished through a number of experiments using practical numerical diagnostic records of the transformers of Taiwan power (Taipower) systems. In comparison to the results obtained from the conventional dissolved gas analysis (DGA) and the artificial neural networks (ANNs) classification methods, the proposed method hits been shown to possess far superior performances both in developing the diagnosis system and in identifying the practical transformer fault cases View full abstract»

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  • A method for computing the value of corrective security

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1096 - 1102
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (540 KB)  

    This paper describes a method for computing the optimal balance between preventive and corrective security actions. This method relies on a three-stage Benders decomposition and is capable of handling the mixed integer linear nature of this problem. A number of cases studies are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method and to illustrate the consequences of introducing demand side corrective actions. In particular, it is shown that using corrective actions can significantly reduce the total cost of security and that the reliability of the transmission system affects the optimal mix of preventive and corrective security. The proposed method provides a basis for negotiations between the transmission operator and potential providers of demand side corrective actions View full abstract»

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  • A new digital filter for phasor computation. I. Theory [power system protection]

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1026 - 1031
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB)  

    A new pair of orthogonal filters for power system phasor computation is presented. They have excellent time-frequency characteristics for fault location and measurement. Their impulse responses are obtained applying the inverse Fourier transform to a single-lobe function with a strong stopband. From this process, a new window emerges. Without side lobes, it overcomes the temporal barriers imposed by the rectangular window, implicit in digital Fourier filtering. Its length is not restricted to a multiple of one cycle, and it can be adjusted to cover totally the available samples of the fault, extracting the fundamental component with growing precision. On the other hand, its sampling frequency can be reduced to twice the fundamental frequency. In particular, at this minimum sampling frequency, the digital Cosine filter rejects the even harmonics and the aperiodic component View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Covers the requirements, planning, analysis, reliability, operation, and economics of electric generating, transmission, and distribution systems for general industrial, commercial, public, and domestic consumption.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Antonio J. Conejo
The Ohio State University