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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 8 • Aug. 1998

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Displaying Results 1 - 23 of 23
  • Introduction To "a Brief History Of Electrical Engineering Education"

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):1788 - 1791
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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  • A Brief History Of Electrical Engineering Education

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):1792 - 1800
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (109 KB)

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  • Man~machine Coupling - 2012 A.D.

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):1801 - 1802
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  • John Hopkinson And The Rationalization Of Dynamo Design

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):1808 - 1809
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  • Micromachined thermally based CMOS microsensors

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):1660 - 1678
    Cited by:  Papers (167)  |  Patents (23)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (484 KB)

    An integrated circuit (IC) approach to thermal microsensors is presented. The focus is on thermal sensors with on-chip bias and signal conditioning circuits made by industrial complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) IC technology in combination with post-CMOS micromachining or deposition techniques. CMOS materials and physical effects pertinent to thermal sensors are summarized together wit... View full abstract»

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  • High-aspect-ratio micromachining via deep X-ray lithography

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):1586 - 1593
    Cited by:  Papers (82)  |  Patents (29)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (200 KB)

    High-aspect-ratio microsystems technology (HARMST) can be implemented by using thick photoresist technology, which requires X-ray photons for exposure. This was first realized in Germany via the so-called LIGA process. To make this process cost effective, exposures with high-energy photons were introduced in 1993 via a University of Wisconsin-Brookhaven National Laboratory cooperation. The additio... View full abstract»

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  • Micromachined inertial sensors

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):1640 - 1659
    Cited by:  Papers (891)  |  Patents (193)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB)

    This paper presents a review of silicon micromachined accelerometers and gyroscopes. Following a brief introduction to their operating principles and specifications, various device structures, fabrication, technologies, device designs, packaging, and interface electronics issues, along with the present status in the commercialization of micromachined inertial sensors, are discussed. Inertial senso... View full abstract»

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  • Human-computer coupling

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):1803 - 1807
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (40 KB)

    “Man-machine coupling,” effecting the transfer of a human's thoughts, movements, and feelings to a computer, remains a challenge today. Alas, the 1960's reigning belief in the use of control theory for directly coupling us to machines and removing the need for “teams of programmers” has not provided the solution, although control theory has been of great use in the developm... View full abstract»

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  • Microelectromechanical systems

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):1534 - 1535
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    The evolution and maturity of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) in the coming years will be driven less by captive fabrication facilities and process development and more by innovative, aggressive electromechanical systems design. MEMS is poised to take full advantage of advances in information technology and couple them to advances in other disciplines to drive a fundamentally new approach to... View full abstract»

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  • Application of MEMS technology in automotive sensors and actuators

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):1747 - 1755
    Cited by:  Papers (67)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (136 KB)

    Sensors and actuators are the critical system components that collect and act on information in the analog environment and link it to the world of digital electronics. The functional groups of sensors, software, controller hardware, and actuators from the backbone of present and future automotive systems. Unit volumes for sensors and actuators in the automotive industry are measured in millions pe... View full abstract»

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  • CAD challenges for microsensors, microactuators, and microsystems

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):1611 - 1626
    Cited by:  Papers (107)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (200 KB)

    In parallel with the development of new technologies, new device configurations, and new applications for microsensors, microactuators, and microsystems, also referred to as microelectromechanical devices and systems (MEMS), there has arisen a growing need for computer-aided engineering and design systems. There is a wide range of design problems: process simulation, solid-body geometric rendering... View full abstract»

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  • Microfabricated devices for genetic diagnostics

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):1769 - 1787
    Cited by:  Papers (91)  |  Patents (17)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (452 KB)

    This paper presents a review of microfabricated devices for genetic diagnostics. Genetic diagnostics are powerful technology drivers and excellent candidate applications for miniaturization technologies because the demand for inexpensive genetic information is essentially unlimited, and the cost and time for the diagnostic decreases with sample volume. Genetic information is stored in long DNA mol... View full abstract»

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  • Vacuum-sealed silicon micromachined pressure sensors

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):1627 - 1639
    Cited by:  Papers (56)  |  Patents (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (324 KB)

    Considerable progress in silicon pressure sensors has been made in recent years. This paper discusses three types of vacuum-sealed silicon micromachined pressure sensors that represent the present state of the art in this important area. The devices are a capacitive vacuum sensor, a surface-micromachined microdiaphragm pressure sensor, and a resonant pressure sensor. Vacuum sealing for these devic... View full abstract»

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  • Surface micromachining for microelectromechanical systems

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):1552 - 1574
    Cited by:  Papers (291)  |  Patents (55)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (492 KB)

    Surface micromachining is characterized by the fabrication of micromechanical structures from deposited thin films. Originally employed for integrated circuits, films composed of materials such as low-pressure chemical-vapor-deposition polycrystalline silicon, silicon nitride, and silicon dioxides can be sequentially deposited and selectively removed to build or “machine” three-dimensi... View full abstract»

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  • A generic multielement microsystem for portable wireless applications

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):1733 - 1746
    Cited by:  Papers (69)  |  Patents (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (364 KB)

    An open-architecture microsystem that can be populated with a variety of sensors and actuators is described. The microsystem is designed for low-power wireless applications where small size and high sensor accuracy are important. It consists of an in-module microcontroller connected to multiple front-end transducers through an intramodule sensor bus. An external interface allows internally process... View full abstract»

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  • Monolithic two-dimensional arrays of micromachined microstructures for infrared applications

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):1679 - 1686
    Cited by:  Papers (87)  |  Patents (16)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (292 KB)

    Small micromachined structures (typically 10-5 cm2 ) have been fabricated that have very small thermal mass (c, about 10-9 J/K) and that are suspended from the underlying silicon substrate by supports of such delicacy that the structures are extremely well thermally isolated from the substrate (thermal conductance to the substrate g of 10-7 W/K). This th... View full abstract»

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  • Silicon carbide MEMS for harsh environments

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):1594 - 1609
    Cited by:  Papers (225)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (404 KB)

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is a promising material for the development of high-temperature solid-state electronics and transducers, owing to its excellent electrical, mechanical, and chemical properties. This paper is a review of silicon carbide for microelectromechanical systems (SiC MEMS). Current efforts in developing SiC MEMS to extend the silicon-based MEMS technology to applications in harsh envi... View full abstract»

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  • Wafer-to-wafer bonding for microstructure formation

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):1575 - 1585
    Cited by:  Papers (235)  |  Patents (37)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB)

    Wafer-to-wafer bonding processes for microstructure fabrication are categorized and described. These processes have an impact in packaging and structure design. Processes are categorized into direct bonds, anodic bonds, and bonds with intermediate layers. Representative devices using wafer-to-wafer bonding are presented. Processes and methods for characterization of a range of bonding methods are ... View full abstract»

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  • Micromachined devices for wireless communications

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):1756 - 1768
    Cited by:  Papers (271)  |  Patents (39)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (324 KB)

    An overview of recent progress in the research and development of micromachined devices for use in wireless communication subsystems is presented. Among the specific devices described are tunable micromachined capacitors, integrated high-Q inductors, micromachined low-loss microwave and millimeter-wave filters, low-loss micromechanical switches, microscale vibrating mechanical resonators with Q's ... View full abstract»

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  • A MEMS-based projection display

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):1687 - 1704
    Cited by:  Papers (331)  |  Patents (56)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (460 KB)

    A period of rapid growth and change in the display industry has recently given rise to many new display technologies. One such technology, the Digital Micromirror DeviceTM (DMD), developed at Texas Instruments, represents a unique application of microelectromechanical systems to the area of projection displays. In this paper, we describe a representative example of a DMD-based projectio... View full abstract»

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  • Bulk micromachining of silicon

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):1536 - 1551
    Cited by:  Papers (352)  |  Patents (52)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB)

    Bulk silicon etching techniques, used to selectively remove silicon from substrates, have been broadly applied in the fabrication of micromachined sensors, actuators, and structures. Despite the more recent emergence of higher resolution, surface-micromachining approaches, the majority of currently shipping silicon sensors are made using bulk etching. Particularly in light of newly introduced dry ... View full abstract»

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  • Surface-micromachined microoptical elements and systems

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):1705 - 1720
    Cited by:  Papers (72)  |  Patents (147)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (428 KB)

    Optical systems are ubiquitous in the present-day societal fabric, from sophisticated fiber-optic telecommunication infrastructure to visual information display, down to mundane chores such as bar-code reading at the supermarket. Most of these existing systems are built from bulk optical components, as they have been for many years. Just as miniaturization and batch-process production have revolut... View full abstract»

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  • Microactuators and micromachines

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):1721 - 1732
    Cited by:  Papers (69)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (292 KB)

    Research and development in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have made remarkable progress since 1988, when an electrostatic micromotor the size of a human hair was first operated successfully. Since then, many types of microactuators utilizing various driving forces and mechanisms have been developed. Distinctive features of MEMS (miniaturization, multiplicity of components, and the integrat... View full abstract»

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H. Joel Trussell
North Carolina State University