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Consumer Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date May 1998

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 33
  • Digital TV video format conversion by extendible inverse DCT and its recursive algorithm for VLSI implementation

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 240 - 245
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (860 KB)  

    Video format conversion among digital TV systems using a new extendible inverse DCT is developed. Based on the conventional inverse DCT, an extendible inverse DCT equation is given to provide the rational ratio of interpolation. The proposed extendible inverse DCT is backward compatible to the conventional IDCT which is widely used in digital video compression standards such as MPEG. Experimental results demonstrate the preservation of the edge sharpness and continuity at image interpolation. A recursive algorithm with an arbitrary length for the extendible inverse DCT is also proposed. The algorithm is particularly suitable for VLSI implementation using array processing View full abstract»

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  • A SI/PSI, RSMS data stream and PCR/PTS processing algorithm for Koreasat digital DBS system

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 398 - 404
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (604 KB)  

    The Koreasat DBS (digital broadcasting satellite) receiver (Kim et al. 1997) consists of a 45 cm antenna, LNB (low noise block), STB (set-top-box), smart card and remote-controller. In order to work with the DBS encoder, the STB should be designed and implemented to process an SI/PSI (service information/program specific information) and RSMS (resource and subscriber management system) (Kim et al. 1996) data stream. The SI/PSI and RSMS data stream comes from the transport stream packet via an RSMS. The SI/PSI and RSMS data stream is very important because it relates with channel information and conditional access. The definition of the SI/PSI and RSMS data stream for the Koreasat DBS system was based on the DVB (digital video broadcasting) standard and MPEG standard. This paper introduces an algorithm for SI/PSI and RSMS data stream processing as well as PCR/PTS (program clock reference/presentation time stamp) processing algorithm which is related with audio and video synchronization View full abstract»

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  • Voltage doubler protection circuit results in large cost savings

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 256 - 260
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (328 KB)  

    Medium to high end colour TVs that are designed for an international market must operate over a wide mains voltage range, which typically ranges from 90 V AC to 276 V AC. To achieve operation over this wide mains voltage range, at the power levels that these sets require, a voltage doubler circuit is required at the front end. The doubler circuit consists of two electrolytic capacitors, which are rated at 400 V in order to comply with IEC65 requirements. This paper proposes an “electrolytic capacitor protection circuit”, which enables the voltage rating of the electrolytics to be reduced to 250 V. This patented circuit results in cost savings of more than 50% in the price of the electrolytic filter capacitors. This represents substantial savings, especially for mass produced items like TV sets. Therefore, what may at first appear to be an unnecessary circuit, may from a financial point of view be very desirable View full abstract»

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  • A new digital signal processor for progressive scan CCD

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 289 - 296
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (632 KB)  

    A digital signal processor, which is dedicated to the PS-CCD (progressive scan type CCD), is developed. The DSCP1 (Digital Still Camera Processor 1) adopts a new pixel interpolation algorithm which takes an average of two mean pixel values from the 4 neighboring pixels and an individual color matrix before gamma control in order to provide the higher image quality. The DSCP1 also provides a scan conversion from the progressive scan to the interlace scan type image without requiring a specific video memory to achieve a moving picture function View full abstract»

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  • A clock recovery technique based on spectral restoration

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 439 - 441
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (284 KB)  

    A clock recovery technique suitable for several families of modulation-demodulation methods is presented. The modulation method should exhibit a timing relationship among the carrier frequency and the symbol rate. Two major examples are phase shift keying (m-PSK) and quadrature amplitude modulation (m-QAM) families. The key feature of the proposed technique when applied to the above modulation formats is the relative ease of synchronization and/or timing recovery. The method is applicable to non return to zero (NRZ) data formats, as well. It is based on the modification of conventional, off-the-self, phase locked loop (PLL) devices View full abstract»

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  • Design of the dichroic filters for LCD projection systems

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 297 - 302
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (436 KB)  

    A new design method for dichroic filters is proposed for color separation/composition in 3-LCD projection systems. In this method, the design parameters were optimized by maximizing the volume of the reproducible color gamut in a CIELUV uniform color space for 2 typical viewing conditions View full abstract»

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  • Optical fiber digital transmission of multiplexed video and audio signals suitable for multimedia applications

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 273 - 279
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (732 KB)  

    This paper describes a new digital NTSC TV and audio signal transmission system in which circuit configurations are simplified and made more inexpensive than MPEG 2 on the basis of the subjective evaluation of the picture quality. An NTSC TV signal and an audio signal can easily be transmitted to the receiver at the same time, since the transmission rate is kept unchanged due to the insertion of the digital audio signal into the horizontal sync pulse of the digital NTSC TV signal. The proposed system has three features. Firstly, the system could give a satisfactory picture quality for consumer-use visual appliances even though the quality of the reproduced pictures is lower than that of the normal digital NTSC TV picture codes obtained at a sampling frequency of 4.00×fsc with a quantisation level of 8 bits. Secondly, the system can satisfactorily transmit NTSC TV picture codes at a low transmission rate of 50 Mbps even if such an advanced compression technique as MPEG 2 has not been used. Thirdly, the system is used for transmission of the digital audio signals which are inserted into the horizontal sync pulse of the digital NTSC TV signal. A combination of edge-emitting LEDs (ELEDs) and single-mode (SM) optical fibers enables the system to easily transmit a digital NTSC TV picture signal together with digital audio signals over a distance of 10 km through the SM optical fibers View full abstract»

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  • PIM-ASCII100 digital data encoding scheme for short distance wireless infrared transmission

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 261 - 267
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (660 KB)  

    This paper proposes the PIM-ASCII100 (pulse interval modulation ASCII 100) digital data encoding scheme for short distance infrared (IR) wireless communication between two nodes. This PIM-ASCII100 digital data encoding scheme is a modified version of the pulse position modulation (PPM) data encoding scheme and is intended for fast, low power and reliable IR wireless transmission with simple, minimum and low-cost hardware implementation View full abstract»

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  • Video mirroring and iconic gestures: enhancing basic videophones to provide visual coaching and visual control

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 388 - 397
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1004 KB)  

    In this paper we present concepts and architectures for mirroring and gesturing into remote sites when video conferencing. Mirroring enables those at one site to visually coach those at a second site by pointing at locally referenceable objects in the scene reflected back to the second site. Thus mirroring provides a way to train people at remote sites in practical tasks such as operating equipment and assembling or fixing things. We also discuss how video mirroring can be extended to enable visual control of remote mechanisms, even when using basic videophones, by using a visual interpreter at the remote site to process transmitted visual cues and derive intended control actions in the remote scene View full abstract»

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  • A real-time implementation of constrained estimate-maximize algorithm for single-microphone speech enhancement

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 370 - 375
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB)  

    A real-time frequency-domain implementation of constrained estimate-maximize (EM) algorithm is presented to work on a single-microphone system. Our experiments based on a moderate speech database indicate that the performance of the proposed implementation is comparable with an off-line approach subject to a matching constraint. A DSP chip operated above 33 MHz is competent to carry out 6 iterations of the proposed algorithm with a delay time of 16 ms View full abstract»

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  • A 1000-scanning-line display system with high expandability

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 303 - 311
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (884 KB)  

    To realize a single display system for all types of TV image information with different scanning-lines and indicating-channels, a new single-scanning technology with a scan conversion method has been studied by response analysis and by experimental evaluation of the picture quality. This study confirmed that a minimum deterioration of a vertical response and no degradation of the motion of an image can be obtained and that the aliasing and flickering effects caused by the use of a conventional interlaced scanning can be eliminated. These advantages are due to a newly developed scan conversion method which employs a double field-rate and wobbling interlaced scanning within four fields. New multimedia such as the ATV, HDTV, digital TV, and 3D-TV can be displayed in the single display system. Furthermore, in the new platform using this technology, it is easy to interface with the HD and 3D package media and image-sensing media View full abstract»

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  • Audio (data) on image DCT-based JPEG codec

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 326 - 332
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (752 KB)  

    This article examines an original process to code signals from two different sources (data e.g. audio- and video) mixed together, and coded within a single coding process (DCT-based JPEG codec), in order to generate a single data stream at its output, instead of two as in the usual multimedia applications View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of shadow mask thermal deformation and prediction of beam landing shifts for color CRT

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 442 - 450
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (748 KB)  

    In the cathode ray tube (CRT), beam landing shifts on the phosphor screen mainly result from the thermal deformation of the mask frame assembly and deteriorate the color purity. The thermal deformation of the mask frame assembly is analyzed by using the finite element method (FEM) and the beam landing shifts are predicted. For a realistic analysis, the apparent thermal conductivity and the apparent elastic modulus are calculated and the shadow mask is modeled as a shell without apertures. All the parts inside the CRT are modeled and the each radiative effect is considered. Then finite element analysis is performed for transient thermo-elastic deformation of the mask frame assembly and the beam landing shifts are calculated. Experiments are performed for a 17" CRT to validate the FEM analysis. The temperatures of all parts inside the CRT and the beam landing shift on the panel are measured and the results are discussed in comparison with the results of the FEM analysis. From the study, we show that this analysis method can be applicable for designing a mask frame assembly of a CRT that results in a landing shift of the order of a few micro-meters View full abstract»

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  • An efficient coding method for the local motion vector by using global motion

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 312 - 316
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (420 KB)  

    A new fast local motion estimation (ME) method is proposed for the two-stage estimation algorithm of global and local motions. The local motion part is extracted from the block motion used in the global ME and it is used as an initial motion vector in the local ME, resulting in a remarkable reduction of the search range for the local ME View full abstract»

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  • Sub-picture decoder architecture for DVD

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 246 - 250
    Cited by:  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB)  

    In the digital multimedia, the audio and video decoders usually use a global bus and a traffic controller to transfer data in order to reduce the hardware complexity. We developed an instantaneous sub-picture decoder architecture for the DVD system to reduce the data transfer traffic on the global bus. When two different FIFOs and a simple state machine controller is used in the sub-picture decoder, the registers in which the contents of commands are stored can be significantly reduced. For continuous display, an easy synchronization is used in the instantaneous sub-picture decoder by comparison with the sub-picture and the video presentation time (PTM) View full abstract»

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  • A novel hierarchical-search block matching algorithm and VLSI architecture considering the spatial complexity of the macroblock

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 337 - 342
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (664 KB)  

    We propose a novel hierarchical-search block matching algorithm for motion estimation, which adaptively selects an initial search level based on the spatial complexity of a matching block. It relies on a simple computation of the pixel intensity variation in the current macroblock. We demonstrate its effectiveness in two aspects: the performance and the computational cost. A hardware architecture and a VLSI realization of this algorithm with half-pel motion estimation and motion compensation are also presented. The proposed algorithm greatly reduces the computations required in the existing hierarchical-search block matching algorithms while achieves virtually identical performance to them View full abstract»

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  • DVD players using a Viterbi decoding circuit

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 268 - 272
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (616 KB)  

    We have developed a Viterbi decoding circuit which is suitable for DVD players. We designed it to be compact and efficient by utilizing the rule of the DVD recording code. By experiment, we confirmed that the Viterbi decoder reproduced digital data more precisely than a conventional bit-by-bit decoder did. Thereby it improves the reliability of the DVD players. It was integrated into a data processing LSI which restores digital data streams recorded on the DVD. By employing this LSI, we have developed DVD video players, DVD-ROM drives, DVD-recordable drives, and DVD car navigation systems. We applied the Viterbi decoding to home-use optical disc players for the first time View full abstract»

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  • Continuous-time analysis of lap derivative protocols under Markovian block-error pattern

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 424 - 434
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1036 KB)  

    In this paper, we investigate how well the channel memory (statistical dependence in the occurrence of transmission errors) can be used in the evaluation of widely used error control schemes. For this we assume a special case named as the simplest Markovian block-error pattern with two states, in which each block is classified into two classes of whether the block transmission is in error or not. We apply the derived pattern to the performance evaluation of the practical link-level procedures, LAPB/D/M with multi-reject options, and investigate both throughput and user-perceived response time behaviors to determine how much the performance of error recovery action is improved under burst error conditions. Through numerical examples, we show that the simplest Markovian block-error pattern tends to be superior in throughput and delay characteristics to the random error case. Also, instead of mean alone, we propose a new measure of the response time specified as mean plus two standard deviations so as to consider user-perceived worst cases, and show that it results in much greater sensitivity to parameter variations than does mean alone View full abstract»

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  • Image query by impression words-the IQI system

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 347 - 352
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (680 KB)  

    A new image query system by impression words named the IQI system has been proposed. The proposed IQI system has been implemented on a Sun SS-5 workstation. Since human sensitivity and various images are flexibly connected using a neural network in the IQI system, it can automatically estimate impression words from various kinds of images. As a result, the IQI system can reflect a human's kansei (impression and sensitivity) effectively and treat a wider variety of images. We show some experimental results. The IQI system can estimate correct impression words and successfully retrieve correct images View full abstract»

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  • A novel multistandard TV/FM front-end for multimedia applications

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 280 - 288
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (764 KB)  

    This paper describes a new multi-standard front-end for high performance TV and FM radio signal processing in multimedia applications. The video signal (TV) and sound signal (TV and radio) demodulation are combined using PLL techniques. Results demonstrate that the merging of analogue FM radio and television reception into one module leads to applications taking up less space and costing less View full abstract»

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  • A refined fast 2-D discrete cosine transform algorithm with regular butterfly structure

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 376 - 383
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB)  

    A fast computation algorithm for the two-dimensional discrete cosine transform (2-D DCT) is derived based on index permutation. As a result, only the computation of N N-point 1-D DCTs and some post-additions are required for the computation of an (N×N)-point 2-D DCT. Furthermore, as compared with the method of Cho and Lee (1992), the derivation of the refined algorithm is more succinct, and the associated post-addition stage possesses a more regular butterfly structure. The regular structure of the proposed algorithm makes it more suitable for VLSI and parallel implementations View full abstract»

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  • Fast time-frequency transform algorithms and their applications to real-time software implementation of AC-3 audio codec

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 413 - 423
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (956 KB)  

    AC-3 audio coding technology is a kind of perceptual audio coder (PAC) developed by the Dolby Company. Up to 5 full-bandwidth channels and one subwoofer channel (cutoff at 120 Hz) are available in AC-3 to provide multi-channel, low bit rate, and high perceptual quality of audio. This explains why AC-3 has become the audio standard of many international standards. In this paper, we focus on the real-time software implementation issues of AC-3. Two fast algorithms of the time-frequency transform, one for memory economization and the other is for time domain subsampling, are presented. Meanwhile, we state the current performance status of our AC-3 decoder View full abstract»

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  • A 1 GHz image-rejection down-converter in 0.8 μm CMOS technology

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 235 - 239
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB)  

    A 1 GHz image-rejection down-converter implemented in a 0.8 μm CMOS process is presented. The down-converter consists of a quadrature generator and mixers. The proposed architecture has an image-rejection characteristic that are insensitive to the phase error of the higher frequency first local oscillator (LO). The down-converter has an image-rejection characteristic of 29.3 dB under 2° phase error of the lower frequency second LO. The down-converter dissipates 108 mW at a 3.3 V supply View full abstract»

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  • An efficient controller scheme for MPEG-2 video decoder

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 451 - 458
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (620 KB)  

    A video decoder with an efficient block-level-pipeline controller scheme for MPEG-2 MP@ML is presented. The architecture in most of the reported literature for MPEG-2 MP@ML video uses a 64-bit bus and a complex bus arbitration scheme to communicate with the external DRAM, the display, and the incoming FIFO. Our design imposes a certain order in the DRAM access by various processing units instead of allowing any processing unit within the decoder to request bus access arbitrarily. This efficient DRAM accessing order allows us to reduce bus width from 64 bits to 32 bits, without significantly increasing the embedded buffer sizes, and still meet the requirements for MPEG-2 MP@ML real-time decoding. The bus arbitration algorithm is also simple, allowing for a less complex controller design View full abstract»

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  • Design and implementation of HDTV source decoder

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 384 - 387
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (272 KB)  

    We describe a HDTV source decoder that is part of the Chinese national HDTV functional prototype project. The decoder can decode in real-time the MPEG-2 transport stream at a bit rate of up to 60 Mbps. The system cross-divides the HDTV images to 4 SDTV images and use four MPEG-2 MP@ML video decoders which work in parallel. This new approach leads to a good system performance, less design time, lower total cost and compatibility to SDTV. The decoder has been tested in Beijing and Shanghai and the image quality is very good View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The main focus for the IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics is the engineering and research aspects of the theory, design, construction, manufacture or end use of mass market electronics, systems, software and services for consumers.

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
R. Simon Sherratt, IEEE Fellow
Professor of Consumer Electronics
School of Systems Engineering
The University of Reading
Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AY  U.K.
r.s.sherratt@reading.ac.uk; sherratt@ieee.org
Phone:+44 (0) 118 3788588