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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date June 1998

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 26
  • Guest Editor's overview

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 725 - 726
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Stability of grid amplifiers

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 769 - 774
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
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    We present a stability model for quasi-optical grid amplifiers. This model is useful for predicting and suppressing the common-mode oscillations that often occur in amplifier grids. Three stabilization techniques will be discussed. The first technique uses a capacitor to stabilize the grid. The second approach employs resistance to suppress the oscillations. The final technique stabilizes the grid by reducing the on-chip common-mode resistance, allowing greatly increased amplifier efficiencies. Experimental evidence will be presented to confirm the validity of our stability model. View full abstract»

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  • 1997 Topical Symposium on Millimeter Waves (TSMMW'97)

    Publication Year: 1998
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    The following topics were covered: millimetre-wave research activities in Japan; millimetre-wave CAD; GaN microwave electronics; Si micromachined CPWs; grid amplifier stability; TM surface-wave power combining; spatial power combining; single-layer waveguides for high-efficiency MM-wave arrays; slot array antennas; high-speed ASK modulator based on NRD guide technology; MM-wave band amplifier and mixer MMICs; illuminated FET model; and high-gain monolithic balanced gate mixer View full abstract»

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  • Millimeter-wave research activities in Japan

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 727 - 733
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    Millimeter-wave research activities in Japan are reviewed from various points of view. It is shown that a quarter of the papers presented at microwave sessions in the two major annual conferences of the Institute of Electronics. Information and Communications Engineers (IEICE), Japan, are millimeter-wave research papers. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) devices such as high-power amplifiers (HPAs), low-noise amplifiers (LNAs), and mixers developed by several companies are compared in terms of state-of-the-art performances. Unique cost-reduction techniques are also discussed. Two types of car collision-avoidance radar systems have been constructed using nonradiative dielectric waveguide (NRD-guide) technology peculiar to Japan. Topics presented at Microwave Photonics '96, Japan, are reviewed, with emphasis on the Japanese contributions to this field View full abstract»

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  • Power dependence of HTS disk-resonator quality factor

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 851 - 856
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (176 KB)  

    The simple closed-form model of nonlinear response of a high-temperature superconducting disk resonator on microwave power is proposed. The model is based on superconducting film nonlinearity and describes the dependence of unloaded quality factor on the incident power. The specified normalizing power is used as the only fitting parameter. Good quantitative agreement of modeled and measured data has been obtained. The results observed exhibit the kinetic nature of the nonlinearity of the disk resonator on an LaAlO3 substrate at T=60 K and more complicated, presumably thermal, heating nature of the nonlinearity at lower temperature View full abstract»

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  • Commercial satellite applications for heterojunction microelectronics technology

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 734 - 738
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
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    Future commercial satellite-based communication systems will be supporting a variety of high data-rate consumer and business applications, including universal telephony access, computer networking, teleimaging, telecommuting, videoconferencing, and high-speed Internet. In response to the anticipated system-performance requirements, heterojunction technology for ultra-low noise amplifiers (LNAs), high-efficiency power amplifiers, and high-speed analog/digital circuits capable of operating at multigigabit per second rates are being developed. An overview of the status and issues related to this development effort is presented View full abstract»

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  • Two-terminal millimeter-wave sources

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 739 - 746
    Cited by:  Papers (38)
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    Basic principles of operation, fundamental power-generation capabilities, and fabrication technologies are reviewed for three groups of two-terminal devices, i.e., resonant-tunneling diodes (RTDs), transferred-electron devices (TEDs), and transit-time diodes. The paper focuses on devices for frequencies above 30 GHz, and an overview of recent research in this area and of various state-of-the-art laboratory results is given. As an outlook, the potential of some new material systems for high-power devices is discussed View full abstract»

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  • TM surface-wave power combining by a planar active-lens amplifier

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 775 - 783
    Cited by:  Papers (16)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB)  

    Power combining of TM surface waves by a planar active-lens amplifier is the subject of this paper. An amplifier gain of 11 dB at 8.25 GHz with a 3-dB bandwidth of 0.65 GHz has been demonstrated. Gain is measured from input to output connector to facilitate comparisons with more conventional amplifiers. Measurements of output power versus input power are also presented. The amplifier behaved in a linear manner and no problems with spurious oscillations were encountered. Construction of the amplifier is compatible with planar fabrication technologies. A key component of the combiner is a microstrip-fed Yagi-Uda slot-array antenna for TM surface-wave excitation of a thick dielectric slab. Design and optimization guidelines for the antenna are presented as well as detailed spectral-domain and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) analysis results. Measured and simulation results show an input return loss and front-to-back ratio better than 10 dB over a 5% bandwidth. Calculated and measured results for the fields radiated by the antenna confirm forward radiation of the dominant TM mode in the thick dielectric slab. Integration of the computed radiated fields shows the antenna has a surface-wave launching efficiency of 85% View full abstract»

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  • Si-micromachined coplanar waveguides for use in high-frequency circuits

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 762 - 768
    Cited by:  Papers (76)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (180 KB)  

    This paper describes the development and characterization of a new class of Si-micromachined lines and circuit components for operation between 2-110 GHz. In these lines, which are a finite-ground coplanar-waveguide (FGC) type, Si micromachining is used to remove the dielectric material from the aperture regions in an effort to reduce dispersion and minimize propagation loss. Measured results have shown a considerable loss reduction to levels that compare favorably with those of membrane lines and rectangular waveguides. Micromachined FGC lines have been used to develop V- and W-band bandpass filters. The W-band micromachined FGC filter has shown a 0.8-dB improvement in insertion loss at 94 GHz over a conventional FGC line. This approach offers an excellent alternative to the membrane technology, exhibiting very low loss, no dispersion, and mode-free operation without using membranes to support the interconnect structure View full abstract»

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  • Millimeter-wave-band amplifier and mixer MMICs using a broad-band 45° power divider/combiner

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 811 - 819
    Cited by:  Papers (11)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (248 KB)  

    This paper demonstrates millimeter-wave-band amplifier and mixer monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC's) using a broad-band 45° power divider/combiner. At first, we propose a broad-band 45° power divider/combiner, which combines a Wilkinson divider/combiner, 45° delay line, and 90° short stub. A coupling loss of 4.0±0.2 dB and a return loss and an isolation of more than 19 dB with 45±1° phase difference was obtained from 17 to 22 GHz for the fabricated K-band MMIC 45° power divider/combiner. Next, a parallel amplifier using the broad-band 45° power divider/combiner, which can be used in a power-combining circuit configuration requiring no isolator, is shown. Comparing the transmitter intermodulation generated in the parallel amplifier using the broad-band 45° power divider/combiner and that generated in the one using the conventional type, the broad-band suppression effect was confirmed. Finally, an application of the broad-band 45° power divider/combiner to a single-sideband (SSB) subharmonically pumped (SHP) mixer requiring no IF switch is shown. In an RF frequency range from 22.89 to 26.39 GHz, the fabricated K-band MMIC mixer achieved (for up-conversion) the good results of more than -13-dB conversion gain and more than 24-dB image-rejection ratio. These contribute significantly to the miniaturization of millimeter-wave communication equipment View full abstract»

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  • A novel FET model including an illumination intensity parameter for simulation of optically controlled millimeter-wave oscillators

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 820 - 828
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (316 KB)  

    This paper demonstrates an illuminated FET model including an illumination-intensity parameter for simulation of optical characteristics of microwave and millimeter wave integrated circuits (MMIC's). Modeling for an illuminated GaAs MESFET and an InP high electron-mobility transistor (HEMT), and analysis and experimental results from optically controlled microwave and millimeter-wave hybrid integrated circuit (HIC) and MMIC oscillators are discussed. The proposed illuminated FET model was able to explain the photoresponse of both the GaAs MESFET and the InP HEMT, and the photooperation of their circuits View full abstract»

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  • Spatial power combining for two-dimensional structures

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 784 - 791
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (232 KB)  

    The two-dimensional (2-D) hybrid dielectric slab-beam open and closed waveguide systems are suitable for the design of planar quasi-optical integrated circuits and devices. An open system consisting of an active E-plane amplifier array consisting of Vivaldi-type antennas with MESFET and monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) devices was investigated. The 4×1 MESFET amplifier array generated 11 and 4.5 dB of amplifier and system gain, respectively, at 7.12 GHz, and the cascade MMTC Vivaldi-type antenna produced 24 dB of amplifier gain at 8.4 GHz. Also, experiments on a new 2-D H-plane parallel-plate closed system with a stripline slot antenna is introduced, and the wavebeam-mode theory is presented. The new system minimizes scattering and isolation losses associated with open structures. The amplifier gain of the closed system based on slot antennas is compared to the open system based on Vivaldi antennas View full abstract»

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  • Novel single-layer waveguides for high-efficiency millimeter-wave arrays

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 792 - 799
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (248 KB)  

    This paper presents novel single-layer waveguides for challenging design of high-gain, high-efficiency, and mass-producible planar slotted arrays for the millimeter wave region. The key features of three types of waveguides, as well as state-of-the-art performance of the arrays using these, are surveyed. A model antenna realizes 35-dBi gain and 64% efficiency at 60.2 GHz View full abstract»

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  • High-speed ASK transceiver based on the NRD-guide technology at 60-GHz band

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 806 - 810
    Cited by:  Papers (32)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (112 KB)  

    A new type of high-speed amplitude shift-keying (ASK) transceiver has been developed in an integrated manner at 60 GHz by using the nonradiative dielectric waveguide (NRD-guide) technology. An emphasis is placed on the high-speed performance of the newly developed ASK modulator. The modulator uses a Schottky barrier diode (SBD), which has higher switching speed than a p-i-n diode. In addition, the operation principle of it is different from that of the conventional p-i-n diode modulator. A pair of NRD-guide transceivers have been fabricated and 400-Mb/s data-transmission test has been carried out successfully by using them View full abstract»

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  • An eight-device extended-resonance power-combining amplifier

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 844 - 850
    Cited by:  Papers (17)  |  Patents (1)
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    An extended resonance technique for designing power amplifiers is investigated. This technique provides a planar power-combining structure whose primary distinction from conventional structures is that it does not require quarter-wave or multiple quarter-wave spacing between devices. A theoretical analysis of extended-resonance combiners is presented, followed by experimental data from an eight-device power amplifier. This approach is adaptable to monolithic circuit-fabrication techniques and should be useful for millimeter-wave applications View full abstract»

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  • High-efficiency harmonic-control amplifier

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 857 - 862
    Cited by:  Papers (22)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (168 KB)  

    A half-sinusoidally driven class-A harmonic-control amplifier (hHCA) combines the advantage of high gain of class A with the advantage of high drain efficiency of class F. Consequently, power-added efficiency is increased as compared with state-of-the-art high-efficiency amplification techniques. As this innovative amplifier concept consists of a pulse-forming class-B amplifier stage followed by a class-A power-amplifier stage, intermodulation distortion is low even in saturation. The realization of such a two-stage hHCA offers 71% overall efficiency, 27.9 dBm output power, and 22.4 dB gain at 1.62 GHz. Two-tone measurements at 1 dB gain compression, where the amplifier's single-carrier (SC) overall efficiency is still 64%, has demonstrated thirdand fifth-order intermodulation distortion of -29 and -21 dBc, respectively View full abstract»

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  • A high-gain 50-GHz-band monolithic balanced gate mixer with an external IF balun

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 829 - 833
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (124 KB)  

    This paper presents a 90-GHz-band high-gain monolithic balanced gate mixer. IF impedance of the balanced gate mixer is approximated from a small-signal equivalent circuit, and conversion gain of the mixer is improved by using an external IF balun with high impedance-transforming ratio. The maximum conversion gain of 8.2 dB is achieved at LO power of 0 dBm. Effectiveness of the described mixer is confirmed experimentally View full abstract»

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  • A switchable multi-sector antenna for indoor wireless LAN systems in the 60-GHz band

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 841 - 843
    Cited by:  Papers (16)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (64 KB)  

    A switchable multi-sector antenna for indoor wireless local-area network (LAN) systems in the 60-GHz band has been proposed. The antenna has a pyramidal configuration. Each isosceles-triangular surface of the pyramid has been inclined 30° from the vertical axis in order to cover an appropriate elevation angle range. This antenna excites a right-handed circularly polarized wave to suppress unwanted multipath delayed waves. The low-loss curved microstrip-line feeding has been introduced at the junction between antenna feed lines and monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifiers at the bottoms of the pyramid. Using this antenna, a terminal receiver for indoor wireless LAN systems in the 60-GHz band has been developed View full abstract»

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  • Emerging trends in millimeter-wave CAD

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 747 - 755
    Cited by:  Papers (35)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (164 KB)  

    This paper discusses three emerging trends in the area of millimeter-wave (mm-wave) electromagnetic (EM) simulation and computer-aided design (CAD). Diakoptics techniques for frequency- and time-domain EM-simulation methods are needed for mm-wave circuit design. Development of artificial neural network (ANN) models is likely to result in an efficient use of EM simulators. Possible applications of knowledge-based tools are suggested for initial stages of the design process View full abstract»

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  • Application of microwaves and millimeter waves for the characterization of teeth for dental diagnosis and treatment

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 834 - 838
    Cited by:  Papers (11)  |  Patents (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (132 KB)  

    This paper presents applications of microwaves and millimeter waves for the characterization of teeth. This is done by measuring the complex permittivity over the frequency range from 0.04 to 40 GHz. These measurements have revealed that dental caries are significantly more lossy to microwaves and millimeter waves than the healthy tooth, and this difference can be used for dental diagnosis. The experimental results have been confirmed by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. In addition, millimeter-wave heating of the lossy dental caries can be used as a sterilization treatment. It is concluded that millimeter waves can be used for dental medical diagnosis as well as dental medical treatment View full abstract»

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  • GaN microwave electronics

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 756 - 761
    Cited by:  Papers (112)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (156 KB)  

    In this paper, recent progress of AlGaN/GaN-based power high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMT's) is reviewed. Remarkable improvement in performances was obtained through adoption of high Al contents in the AlGaN layer. The mobility in these modulation-doped structures is about 1200 cm2.V-1.s-1 at 300 K with sheet densities of over 1×1013 cm-2 . The current density is over 1 A/mm with gate-drain breakdown voltages up to 280 V. Ft values up to 52 GHz have been demonstrated. Continuous wave (CW) power densities greater than 3 W/mm at 18 GHz have been achieved View full abstract»

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  • Slot-array antennas fed by coplanar waveguide for millimeter-wave radiation

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 800 - 805
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (180 KB)  

    Slot-array antennas with parasitic slots, slot-array antennas fed by coplanar waveguide (CPW), and two-dimensional slot-array antennas fed by CPW were fabricated on fused quartz substrates, and the receiving properties of the antennas were investigated at 94 GHz with the goal of increasing the power gain of the slot antennas. It was found that the power gain of the slot antenna could be increased by 11 dB over a single-slot antenna by using a two-dimensional (8×3) slot-array antenna fed by CPW. It was confirmed that the improvement of the power gain was caused by decreasing surface-wave power in the substrate and by sharpening antenna patterns perpendicular to the substrate View full abstract»

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  • An efficient and accurate technique for the incident-wave excitations in the FDTD method

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 869 - 882
    Cited by:  Papers (29)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB)  

    An efficient technique to improve the accuracy of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solutions employing incident-wave excitations is developed. In the separate-field formulation of the FDTD method, any incident wave may be efficiently introduced to the three-dimensional (3-D) computational domain by interpolating from a one-dimensional (1-D) incident-field array (IFA), which is a 1-D FDTD grid simulating the propagation of the incident wave. By considering the FDTD computational domain as a sampled system and the interpolation operation as a decimation process, signal-processing techniques are used to identify and ameliorate the errors due to aliasing. The reduction in the error is demonstrated for various cases. This technique can be used for the excitation of the FDTD grid by any incident wave. A fast technique is used to extract the amplitude and the phase of a sampled sinusoidal signal View full abstract»

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  • Distribution of current induced on metal-strip gratings by plane wave

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 883 - 885
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (92 KB)  

    In this paper, we present a rigorous analysis of current distribution induced on a metal-strip grating by an incident plane wave. The metal strips of the grating are characterized by a complex permittivity, with a large imaginary part to account for their finite conductivity. Such a scattering problem is formulated by the mode-matching method to determine the scattered fields everywhere, so that the volume distribution of current within a metal strip can be explicitly obtained. Numerical results are given to illustrate the effects of the dielectric constant of the surrounding media, as well as the incident angle and polarization on the current distribution induced by an incident plane wave. The air and metal modes form the basis for physical explanations of the numerical results obtained View full abstract»

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  • A fast vector-potential method using tangentially continuous vector finite elements

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 863 - 868
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (220 KB)  

    An efficient finite-element method for driven time-harmonic wave-propagation problems is proposed. The special properties of tangentially continuous vector finite elements (TVFEMs) are utilized to formulate an ungauged vector-potential scheme in terms of the field method plus one very sparse “gradient matrix” with two nonzero integer or pointer entries per row. The suggested formalism is intended for use with iterative solvers. It combines the simplicity and modest memory requirements of the field formulation with the superior numerical convergence of the ungauged vector-potential scheme View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dominique Schreurs
Dominique.Schreurs@ieee.org

Editor-in-Chief
Jenshan Lin
jenshan@ieee.org