By Topic

Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology, Part A, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date March 1998

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 24 of 24
  • Foreword Electrical Contacts

    Page(s): 32
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (10 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Green design of telecom products: the ADSL high speed modem as a case study

    Page(s): 154 - 167
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (620 KB)  

    This paper discusses the principles of life cycle assessment (LCP) and design for environment (DFE) and their application in the design and development of the asymmetric digital subscriber loop (ADSL) high speed modem, This application was used as a case study to evaluate the feasibility of incorporating “green” issues into the design cycle, Section II focuses on the green design methodology. It describes some fundamentals and the state-of-the-art of LCA/DFE. It also raises some critical issues that show up in the definition of LCA/DFE methodology. Section III describes the actual case study. It shows how the green design methodology, described in Section Il, is adopted to the project under study. More specifically, it is described how the LCA is introduced into the physical design stage of the product, which assumptions are taken into account for the LCA analysis, and how the analysis affects the usual product design flow. It discusses how the study started by performing an LCA of the ADSL high speed modem R1 (Release 1), with a large emphasis on the analysis of manufacturing processes. Secondly, these LCA results were used as input for the DFE methodology, in order to design a perceived greener product, the ADSI high speed modem R2 (Release 2). The “greenness” of this new product is validated by comparing the two environmental profiles. This case study resulted in a coherent and extensive environmental assessment of some fundamental design options (and the associated manufacturing processes) involved in complex electronic devices. By implementing the results of this LCA into a specific DFE methodology, green design issues have been introduced in the design cycle as just another design constraint to be dealt with View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Modeling of energy transport in arcing electrical contacts to determine mass loss

    Page(s): 54 - 60
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (200 KB)  

    This paper presents a model which calculates the amount of erosion of an electrical contact undergoing arcing for a range of contact opening conditions. The model assumes all vaporized material is lost from the contact and that the material lost is related to the energy received by the contact. It is proposed that two processes occur which transport energy to the contact surface from the arc discharge. These have been called the radial transport process and the channeled transport process. Calculations at different ratios of the transport processes are compared to experimental data at 9 A, 64 V DC, The modeling procedure consists of several stages: 1) the arc discharge is divided into three regions which generates energy for dissipation; 2) the energy from each region is dissipated through the arc and delivered to the contact surface by radial/channeling transport processes; 3) heat flow through the contact from the surface is calculated using an explicit numerical finite difference scheme dependant upon energy input, contact dimensions, and material properties. This is then used to determine the temperature gradient of the surface and any phase changes; 4) knowing the condition of the contact surface, and contact separation, the mass loss is calculated assuming all evaporated material is removed from the surface View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Thermomechanical models for leadless solder interconnections in flip chip assemblies

    Page(s): 177 - 185
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (300 KB)  

    Analytical thermomechanical models have been developed in order to calculate the thermally induced stresses in leadless solder interconnection systems. Two different analytical models are highlighted: the peripheral and area array thermomechanical model which describe the thermally induced stresses for two components connected to each other with a peripheral, respectively, area array of joints. The analytical models are based on structural mechanics and have the ability to characterize the nature and estimate the magnitude of the joint stresses. Using these models, structural design optimization of interconnection systems can be performed very quickly in order to reduce time consuming experiments and finite element simulations. It is found that the largest stresses in the solder joints of flip chip assemblies are at the top and bottom surface of the connection and that they are especially caused by bending moments subjected to the joints. Comparisons with finite element simulations have proved a good accuracy of the thermomechanical models View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Efficient design using fuzzy logic based regression models

    Page(s): 132 - 141
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (220 KB)  

    With ever decreasing design cycles, it is important for designers to have techniques they can use to quickly and efficiently model new designs. From these models, package performance can be estimated and electrical, thermal, and mechanical considerations can be balanced. In this paper, we present a method of quickly investigating new design concepts based on knowledge of previously studied designs and knowledge of the differences between the new and old designs. This approach is useful when the difference between designs is simple and can be accurately modeled with fewer data. The use of less data equates to a savings of time and money. In the case studies presented, we establish two “base” models using two data sets of 40 points each, then we establish two additional models of similar processes using only five and seven points each. Here, the initial (base) designs and the design differences are modeled with fuzzy logic based regression models. Such fuzzy logic based regression models can be based on numerically or empirically obtained data and/or qualitative knowledge of the system to be modeled. Once established, these models have the advantage of offering very fast response times uncharacteristic of experimentation, prototyping, and numerical methods such as finite element, finite difference, or boundary element modeling View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Materials characterization, conduction development, and curing effects on reliability of isotropically conductive adhesives

    Page(s): 23 - 31
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (248 KB)  

    Three commercially available, silver filled, snap cure isotropically electrically conductive adhesives for surface mount applications were selected for study. Fundamental material characterizations were conducted on these materials, including thermal analysis [differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermo-gravitational analysis (TGA), and thermo-mechanical analysis (TMA)] rheological, and dynamic mechanical analyses. Microstructural investigations [scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transverse electromagnetic (TEM), Auger] were performed to identify the silver flake size, distribution, and contact morphology. These analyses were related to the cure process and electrical conduction mechanisms of isotropically conductive adhesives (ICA's). The resistivity of these materials was monitored during cure and related to the cure kinetics of the epoxy matrix. The resistivity decreased dramatically (>kΩ cm to mΩ cm) around a specific temperature with ramp cure and over a narrow time range (<10 s) with isothermal cure. Successive heating (25-150°C) and cooling cycles yielded different degrees of consecutive resistivity decreases for these materials which were cured according to the manufacturer's recommended schedules. Microstructure development during cure was studied with a hot stage in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) to relate morphological changes with the observed changes in resistance. No significant structural changes and silver flake movements were noticed during cure. The conduction development was accompanied by breakage and decomposition of the tarnish, organic thin layers which cover the silver flake surface, and by the enlargement of the contact area between silver flakes by thermal stress and shrinkage during the epoxy cure. The temperature coefficients of resistance (TCR) were measured for these materials; the TCR is closely related to a conduction mechanism dominated by constraint resistance between the flakes or by the silver flake metallic conduction. The resistivity and interfacial resistance of these materials with bare copper and gold plated pads (with five selected cure schedules) were measured through 85°C/85% RH exposure up to 900 h. The bulk resistivity decreased in the first 100 h of exposure and did not change with humidity; however, the interfacial resistance increased with the copper pads for some materials. This is caused by the oxidation of the copper pads due to moisture attack View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Study of the local electrical properties of metal surfaces using an AFM with a conducting probe

    Page(s): 76 - 81
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (184 KB)  

    The performances of coating materials for electrical contact elements are more and more often investigated through various means. We report here a new method we have developed for a few years in our lab, which consists in performing localized resistance measurements over a surface by means of an atomic force microscope (AFM) with a conducting probe. This technique enables us to simultaneously obtain a cartography of the surface roughness and of the local conductance within a given microscopic area of a sample with nanometer scale resolution. Although the elaboration of suitable probes remains an open problem, some convincing images of metal surfaces have already been obtained, revealing occasionally surprising features. It can be observed for instance that the local resistance values can vary by several orders of magnitude between two adjacent grains. Calculations performed from the measurements allow one to clarify the mechanical nature of the tip/surface nanocontact and hence to determine the most probable transport process according to the range of resistance considered View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Modular adapters for fiber optics

    Page(s): 186 - 191
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (140 KB)  

    A modular adapter system has been developed for coupling ST, SC, and FC fiber-optic connectors. An adapter in this system comprises two parts: one is permanently mounted in a panel; and a second part, containing the alignment sleeve, is easily attached to the first. Families of attenuators are included in the system. Design and performance are discussed View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Arc root mobility during contact opening at high current

    Page(s): 61 - 67
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (180 KB)  

    This paper presents a test system, designed for the investigation of short circuit arcs related to miniature circuit breakers operating in a 240 V, AC supply. An optical fiber imaging system is used to identify arc root motion, with short circuit current up to 6 kA. Two methods are used to measure contact motion, a noncontact linear position sensor, and the optical fiber array. The optical fiber array uses software image processing to identify the position of the arc roots in the arc chamber. The identification of the arc roots allows for a study of the arc immobility at the initial stages of the event. Results are presented on variation of peak current level and arc runner materials on arc root motion for one geometry. The cathode root motion is shown to dominate the event View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Measuring equipment and measurements of adhesive force between gold electrical contacts

    Page(s): 46 - 53
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (188 KB)  

    This paper describes the apparatus to measure adhesive force between electrical contacts with micro-sliding and the measurements of adhesive force between gold electrical contacts by this measuring equipment. The electrical contact that is concerned in this paper is mounted on a cantilever supporting arm in a small electromagnetic relay. A straight back-and-forth sliding motion occurs on closed contacts when a relay suffers from an externally applied shock, or on contact follow of closing contact operation. Therefore, this apparatus is designed to give a straight back-and-forth sliding motion to closed electrical contacts. We investigated the measuring accuracy of this apparatus and measured the adhesive force between gold electrical contacts. The following results have been confirmed: 1) The error in determination of contact force from 19.6×10-3-1.47 N is less than 1%, 2) The error in measurement of adhesive force from 9.8×10-3-1.47 N is less than 1%, 3) At gold contacts under conditions of contact force (0.1-0.5 N), and the number 1-20 cycles and the amplitude (50 and 100 μm) of straight back-and-forth sliding motion, the adhesive force measured by this apparatus has been illustrated to be influenced by the contact force, and the number and the amplitude of sliding motion View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A new leadframe design solution for improved popcorn cracking performance

    Page(s): 3 - 12
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (772 KB)  

    A new leadframe design solution is proposed as one of the synergistic factors toward improving popcorn-cracking performance of plastic packages. The impact of the leadframe design on package stresses and thermal resistance was analyzed by finite element modeling (FEM) and further verified experimentally. An atomic force microscope (AFM) and the contact angle method were used to characterize surfaces before and after plasma cleaning. The new leadframe design was effective in reducing popcorn cracking sensitivity, package stresses, warpage and delamination. By incorporating the leadframe solution in a level 5 classified Cu-alloy leadframe 144L quad flat package (QFP), it was able to achieve a level 3 classification without plasma cleaning and changing of packaging materials. An AFM technique was used in a novel attempt to characterize surface cleanliness and to correlate with contact angle measurements View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The evaluation of fast-flow, fast-cure underfills for flip chip on organic substrate

    Page(s): 13 - 17
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (100 KB)  

    Seven underfill formulations have been evaluated for fast-cure, fast-flow, and low-clearance flow applications in flip chip assemblies. The effect of different underfill ingredients on processing and reliability is discussed. It will be shown that at least one formulation has superior flow rate under a 30-μm die than any currently available commercial underfill View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Multiobjective optimal placement of convectively cooled electronic components on printed wiring boards

    Page(s): 142 - 153
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (260 KB)  

    This paper presents a solution methodology for multiobjective optimization problems in the context of models for the placement of components on printed wiring boards (PWB's). The methodology combines the use of a flow and heat transfer solver, a genetic algorithm for the adaptive search of optimal or near-optimal solutions, and a multiobjective optimization strategy [Pareto optimization or multiattribute utility analysis (MUA)]. Using as the optimization criterion, the minimization of an estimate of the failure rate of the system of components due to thermal overheating (via an Arrhenius relation), the effectiveness of the present solution methodology is demonstrated by reference to a case with known optimal solutions. The results obtained using the same solution methodology for a multiobjective optimization problem (a variation of the case study) involving the minimization of the aforementioned total failure rate of the system as well as the minimization of the total wiring length (given some interconnectivity requirements) are presented and discussed for both Pareto optimization and MUA View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Simulation of the gasdynamic and electromagnetic processes in low voltage switching arcs

    Page(s): 96 - 103
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB)  

    The switching arc in a low voltage circuit breaker is a very complex phenomenon, which is determined by the interaction between heat conduction, gas flow, current flow, and magnetic forces. A realistic simulation of the switching arc must consider all these effects. In this paper, a three-dimensional (3-D) simulation model is described, which is based on the differential equations for the mass, momentum, and heat balance. Furthermore, it contains a potential differential equation for the calculation of the current flow and the resulting magnetic field. This set of equations is solved by the finite volume method. First results are presented, which show the shape of the arc and the gas flow while the arc is moving between rail electrodes in a simple arc chamber View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The spatial distributions of spectral intensity and temperature in the cross section of an arc column between separating Pd contacts

    Page(s): 68 - 75
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB)  

    The authors have measured the distributions of spectral intensities of PdI-447 nm and PdI-540 nm and the distribution of the temperature in the cross section of a Pd arc column near the cathode contact between separating Pd contacts in circuits of DC 50 V/3.3-5.0 A, As a result, the distributions of spectral intensities in the cross section of an arc column were not symmetrical from ignition to extinguishing of a breaking arc, and the cross-sectional area of an arc column became large past the middle of a breaking arc. The total amounts of measured spectral intensities decreased slightly in case of long arc or remained constant in the case of short arc past the middle of a breaking arc. The peak value of the distributions of spectral intensities in the cross section of an arc column was strong at the beginning of the breaking arc and became weaker with development of the breaking arc. These intensities were greater in the case of a long arc than in the case of a short arc. The radial distributions of temperature in the cross section of the arc column were constant. The temperature in the position of the peak value of spectral intensity in the cross section of the arc column rose at the beginning of a breaking arc and remained constant at about 6000 K. Judging from the time dependence of spectral intensities and arc temperatures near the cathode contact, the arc duration was long when metal-vapor quantity was large and metal-vapor density was high between contacts at the beginning of a breaking arc View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Analytical modeling of spreading resistance in flux tubes, half spaces, and compound disks

    Page(s): 168 - 176
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB)  

    A review of previously published models and solutions pertinent to the issue of modeling thermal resistances of diamond on copper heat sink systems is presented. The many particular solutions are shown to be special cases of the comprehensive model developed for a circular heat source in perfect thermal contact with the top surface of a compound disk which consists of two isotropic layers in perfect thermal contact. The bottom surface of the compound disk is subjected to a convective or contact cooling condition. Whenever possible simple models and correlation equations are presented for ease of computation. Bounds are presented for estimating the overall thermal resistance of several important cases View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The development of component-level thermal compact models of a C4/CBGA interconnect technology: the Motorola PowerPC 603 and PowerPC 604 RISC microprocessors

    Page(s): 104 - 112
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (280 KB)  

    Thermal resistance networks or “compact” models of the PowerPC 603 and PowerPC 604 microprocessors in controlled-collapsed-chip-connection/ceramic-ball-grid-array (C4/CBGA) single-chip package are derived from “detailed” three-dimensional (3-D) conduction models of the parts by both analytical and data fitting techniques. The behavioral correctness of these models is assessed by comparing the die-junction temperatures predicted for the compact model with the detailed model results for a range of boundary conditions applied at the surfaces of the package. The performance of these models is then verified by comparing the detailed and compact models in an application-specific environment (a wind tunnel) using a computational-fluid dynamics program. The interaction between the package and its environment is also discussed. The work reported here forms part of a long term European research program to create and validate generic thermal models of a range of electronic parts View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Arc motion and pressure formation in low voltage switchgear

    Page(s): 33 - 39
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB)  

    To understand the complex nature of arc motion in current limiting low-voltage switchgear detailed information about the interaction between pressure distribution, arc movement and plasma flow are necessary. One of the major factors concerning these interactions is the geometry of the arc chamber. Systematic experimental investigations have been carried out to study the influence of the gap between the arc runners and the insulating side walls of the arc chamber in combination with different outlets at the top of the chamber. A high time resolution optoelectronic measuring device for the observation of arc motion, and pressure transducers at different positions of the chamber give a good impression of each stage of arc movement and the corresponding pressure development. Significant differences depending on the geometry of arc chambers can be shown. The findings are explained quantitatively and qualitatively View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Effects of pre-existing interfacial defects on the stress profile in aluminum interconnection lines

    Page(s): 127 - 131
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB)  

    The profile of thermal stresses in aluminum interconnection lines, with the presence of local debonded areas between the line and the surrounding dielectric, is studied numerically. Local interfacial debonding is presumably due to contamination during the line patterning process. Various geometrical features of the interconnect and the debond segment are assumed, and the resulting stress fields are examined through two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) finite element analyses. It is found that interfacial debonding results in a local reduction of stress in aluminum, with the effect becoming larger as the line aspect ratio increases. The location of debond also influences the line stress. Implications of the findings to the interconnect reliability, particularly stress-induced voiding in aluminum lines, are discussed View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Arc mobility on bouncing contacts

    Page(s): 40 - 45
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (116 KB)  

    The arc mobility on eroded Ag/CdO and three different Ag/SnO2 -contacts during bounces simulated in a model switch was investigated with the aid of a two-dimensional (2-D) optical arrangement. The high apparent arc mobility observed on two of the Ag/SnO2-materials investigated was caused by arc commutation inside the contact gap. Ag/CdO and another Ag/SnO2-material showed both arc creeping and arc commutation-but only very close to the site of arc ignition. No continuous fast arc motion occurred in short bounce gaps (0.18 mm, corresponding to bounce values in modern contactors) whether or not a magnetic blast field has been applied, There was no correlation between the amount of contact erosion at make and the apparent arc mobility observed on certain materials View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Development of high conductivity lead (Pb)-free conducting adhesives

    Page(s): 18 - 22
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (132 KB)  

    Electrically conducting adhesive technology is one of the alternatives being actively investigated for the possibility of replacing the solder interconnection technology used for microelectronics applications. An isotropically conducting adhesive consists of metallic filler particles dispersed in the matrix of a polymer resin. Silver-filled epoxy resin is commonly used for thermal conduction in die attach applications. Silver particles can provide electrical and/or thermal conduction, while epoxy provides adhesive bonding of the components to a substrate. This material has several limitations when it is considered as a replacement for solder interconnections, such as low electrical conductivity, low joint strength, increase in contact resistance upon thermal cycling, lack of reworkability, and silver migration. In order to overcome these limitations, a new formulation is proposed based on alternative Pb-free conducting filler powder and tailored polymer resins. The conducting filler particles are coated with low melting point, nontoxic metals which can be fused to achieve metallurgical bonding between adjacent particles as well as to a substrate. This new conductive adhesive material has shown improved electrical and mechanical properties over the existing silver-filled epoxy materials View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • On the positive temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity of a diamond-based heat sink paste

    Page(s): 124 - 126
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (64 KB)  

    The strongly positive temperature dependence of literature thermal conductivity data for n-decane/diamond pastes is suggested to be largely due to the corresponding strongly positive temperature dependence of the finite interfacial thermal conductance resulting from phonon scattering at the n-decane/diamond interface. It is suggested that increases in the diamond particle size will create corresponding increases in the thermal conductivity, coupled with a decrease in the positive temperature dependence View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Arc lengthening between divergent runners: influence of arc current, geometry, and materials of runners and walls

    Page(s): 82 - 95
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (448 KB)  

    Arc motion along arc runners enclosing different opening angles from 60-150°, symmetrically arranged, was investigated in a model switch at currents from 1-5 kA. Wall distance, wall, and runner materials were varied. The measured criteria were the lengthening time and the frequency of back-strikes. Narrow slots between lateral insulating walls caused fast arc motion and lengthening at 1 kA arc currents independent of the wall material (gassing or not). Increasing slot width delayed the arc and favored back-strikes. Immobile arc bands appeared frequently and depended on the runner material when the walls were completely removed. Increasing current from 1-3 kA decreased the lengthening time due to the increase of the magnetic self-blast field. Further increase of the current up to 5 kA did not further accelerate the arc. Back-strikes and immobile arc bands were favored on iron runners (nickel plated or not), Variation of the opening angle did not yield any significant influence on the lengthening time under advantageous running conditions (narrow slot width, copper runners). Unfavorable conditions (5 kA, 150°) caused frequently immobile arc bands in the lengthening area even on copper runners View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Transient thermal management of portable electronics using heat storage and dynamic power dissipation control

    Page(s): 113 - 123
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (256 KB)  

    Under static power dissipation and steady-state thermal management designs high performance chip sets with high power dissipation are difficult to incorporate into portable electronics with low heat removal rate. We propose a transient thermal management strategy that enables chip sets with high peak power dissipation to be used in electronic systems with low heat removal rate. Packaging design, thermal management and system design are closely integrated to utilize heat storage and dynamic power dissipation control. This facilitates much higher burst mode workload processing performance than is possible with conventional low-power designs based on static thermal management techniques. Portable system heat storage design, dynamic power dissipation control, and system/integrated circuit (IC) design implementation issues are also discussed. A quantitative evaluation of transient thermal operation metrics based on integrated workload, queuing, dynamic power dissipation control, heat transfer, and thermal-mechanical reliability simulation indicates that transient thermal management promises significant performance enhancement for portable electronics while maintaining low total power dissipation, low heat removal rate, and thermal-mechanical reliability View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

Aims & Scope

This Transaction ceased production in 1998. The current publication is titled IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology.

Full Aims & Scope