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Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Oct 1989

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 33
  • New fault location system for power transmission lines using composite fiber-optic overhead ground wire (OPGW)

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2005 - 2011
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (856 KB)  

    A fault location (FL) method using composite fiber-optic overhead ground wires (OPGWs) was developed to find out where electrical faults occur on overhead power transmission lines. This method locates the fault section by detecting the current induced in the ground wire, i.e. the OPGW in this system. Since detected fault information is essentially uncertain, the fault information is treated in the proposed FL method as a current distribution pattern throughout the power line, and fuzzy theory is applied to realize the manner of fault location used by electrical power engineers. It was confirmed by computer simulations that the fault section can be accurately located using this method under various conditions. This FL system was applied to several commercial power transmission lines and successfully located the sections where electrical faults occurred View full abstract»

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  • Development and applications of lightning arresters for transmission lines

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2121 - 2129
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1412 KB)  

    A lightning arrester with a series gap for transmission lines has been developed to prevent faults due to lightning. It has shown excellent performance since 1986 on 77 kV service lines in heavy lightning regions. A 275 kV lightning arrester has also been developed, and a field test was started on a service line in 1988. The authors describe the requirements for lightning arresters for transmission lines, design concepts, specifications, and operational records on the 77 kV lines for three years. The gapped-type lightning arrester is considered the most practical given the existing technology. To obtain light and small lightning arresters, an ethylene-propylene rubber shed was adopted for external insulation and a special pressure relief mechanism was introduced in place of the pressure relief guide of the station arresters. The follow current can be cut off within a period of 0.25 to 0.5 cycles even under contaminated and wet conditions View full abstract»

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  • Amplitude comparator based algorithm for directional comparison protection of transmission lines

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2032 - 2041
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (992 KB)  

    A high-speed directional comparison relay based on an evaluation of the locally measured deviations of the voltage and the phase-shifted current from their prefault values is described. The operation of the relay depends on the power frequency components of the voltage and phase-shifted current deviation signals. The direction to a fault is determined by an amplitude comparator technique which compares a discriminant value with a positive or negative threshold. Simulation studies on a three-phase power system model show that the direction to a fault is determined within the first few milliseconds following the inception of a fault. Studies over a wide range of faults and source impedance angles show that the proposed amplitude comparator technique performs better than an analogous phase comparator technique View full abstract»

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  • Lightning faults on distribution lines

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2179 - 2186
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (776 KB)  

    The authors have developed low-cost instrumentation to differentiate between outages caused by lightning and those caused by other phenomena. The theories used to develop this coincident lightning events detector (CLED), the experimental design used for testing the CLED, and the test results are discussed. The following conclusions are drawn from lightning fault data collected in the Florida test area: shielding from other nearby structures is a major consideration when assessing the lightning fault rate on distribution lines and, for typical distribution lines in the USA. A range of values from 0.6 to 0.8 for the shielding factor would be appropriate View full abstract»

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  • Countermeasure against explosion of gas insulated porcelain bushing

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2042 - 2052
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1588 KB)  

    In order to investigate countermeasures against the explosion of gas-insulated porcelain bushings, full-scale explosion tests using actual porcelain bushing shells were conducted. Suitable countermeasures are gas volume reduction, gas pressure reduction, and elastic lining methods. The effectiveness of each was demonstrated by the full-scale explosion tests. An equation on the scattering distance of fragments of the porcelain shell was derived from the test results. A prototype explosion-proof gas-insulated porcelain bushing was developed, and its mechanical and electrical performance were confirmed View full abstract»

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  • Survey of harmonic levels on the American Electric Power distribution system

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2204 - 2213
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (936 KB)  

    The authors results of a research project involving the investigation of power-system harmonic levels on selected distribution circuits of differing load composition on the American Electric Power system (AEP). Over a four-year period, beginning in 1984, the harmonic levels on seven selected distribution circuits were recorded and analyzed providing valuable information on the characteristics of specific loads as well as typical harmonic levels on the three classes of distribution circuits: residential, commercial, and industrial. Analysis of the data obtained through these field measurements indicates typical harmonic distortion levels present during operation of the distribution system. Based on monitored information from the selected circuits, the voltage distortion on the AEP 12.47/7.2 kV distribution system is near 1% at minimum and can be expected to exceed 5% in a small percentage of measurements. In the voltage distortion measurements which exceeded 5% voltage distortion, the fifth harmonic is the major component View full abstract»

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  • Advanced observations of lightning induced voltage on power distribution lines. II

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2196 - 2203
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (968 KB)  

    The authors discuss observations of induced voltages on the experimental overhead distribution line at a power plant facing the Japan Sea from October 1984 through March 1988. Waveforms of induced voltage from lightning strokes to a high stack of the power plant were measured simultaneously with the current waveforms of the lightning stroke to the stack. The polarity of lightning-induced voltage is opposite to that of lightning stroke current, regardless of the season. Except for unusual conditions, lightning induced voltages have a unipolar waveform. The lightning-induced voltage on the closest point of a distribution line to the lightning striking point is the maximum. The induced voltage waveforms generated on a distribution line were calculated by means of improved numerical analysis which took the height of the stack into consideration. The calculated results agree better with the measured waveforms than made those made by means of an earlier analysis method. It is clarified that bipolar induced voltages are not produced by usual lightning stroke currents View full abstract»

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  • The 4×6 network: a new power switching scheme

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2060 - 2066
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (576 KB)  

    The authors describe a novel power-delivery switching concept, where the basic network has four nodes and six branches (a 4×6 switching network). For larger substations, it has substantial advantages over the traditional double breaker, breaker and one-half, and breaker and one-third: up to 40% fewer breakers, higher reliability, and reduced station area in some cases. For some applications it can provide lower short-circuit levels and bus ampacity ratings through the judicious use of normally open-circuit breakers. The concept is applicable to all types of conventional switchgear, including SF6 . The 4×6 network is shown to be ideal when a particular user's conditions, e.g. ambient temperature and load-duration curve are such that it is appropriate to apply a 133% peak overload rating to the main supply transformers View full abstract»

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  • Real-time digital simulator of the electromagnetic transients of transmission lines with frequency dependence

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2249 - 2255
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (648 KB)  

    A reliable and accurate real-time digital model for the time-domain computation of the electromagnetic transients of a power transmission line taking the frequency dependence into account has been developed and tested. The model provides a more accurate transmission line model which may replace the traditional pi-section networks in TNA-type physical components/hybrid simulators. The simulator is based on Marti's time-domain formulation, which is adopted in the EMPT program. Improvements are made to speed up the calculation to realize real-time digital simulation. It obtains the electromagnetic transient performance of an unbalanced three-phase line in real time. Sample results of a single line to ground short circuit on an open-ended three-phase transmission line are presented. The real-time digital simulator results are verified for accuracy by simulating the same system, offline, on the EMTP program View full abstract»

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  • Experimental study of response of power distribution lines to direct lightning hits

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2242 - 2248
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (784 KB)  

    In order to clarify the response of overhead distribution lines to direct lightning hits, experimental facilities were installed at the UHV Shiobara Testing Laboratory of CRIEPI. A lightning impulse current with a crest value of 18 kA and a waveform of (2/11) μs was generated through the impulse current generator with a high internal resistance of 400 Ω. This impulse current is not easily affected by the conditions of a distribution line side. Protective effects of surge arresters and an overhead ground wire against direct strokes to the pole of a distribution line were clarified experimentally. Experimental results showed a better protective effect than earlier calculated results. Overvoltages between a line conductor and the earth are inclined to have a short wavetail. The 50% flashover voltage of an insulator against overvoltages with a short wavetail is higher than that against overvoltages with a standard wavetail View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of waveshape quality of artificial lines used for short-line fault breaking tests on HV circuit breakers

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2109 - 2113
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (460 KB)  

    The authors present a comparison of the waveshape quality of six different artificial-line circuits used to produce the high rate-of-rise of recovery voltage specified by ANSI and IEC standards. For a purely capacitive and inductive pi-section circuit, it is shown that even eight pi sections do not meet the requirements. With the addition of a resistance in the first branch, this circuit design produces adequate solutions but requires a large number of components. The analysis reveals that the KEMA circuit easily meets the requirements for the rated peak factor of 1.6 but for the 1.8 peak factor a compensation would be required for the initial part of the wave. The simplest circuit comprising only three (RLC) components meets the specifications with a high voltage-peak overstress factor of 1.3 View full abstract»

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  • Study of HVDC controls through efficient dynamic digital simulation of converters

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2171 - 2178
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (760 KB)  

    The authors describe a converter model for 6/12 pulse operation and present its application to the study of the performance of converter controls. The simulation is simplified by considering a time-varying equivalent circuit on the DC side, which is derived on the basis of graph theory. Elimination of the need to store connection matrices and a fast and efficient way of generating the converter equations are further innovations introduced here. For the simulation of the HVDC (high-voltage direct-current) system the approach used is to model each component separately and in a modular fashion. These models are interconnected using appropriate interface variables. The control of converters based on digital techniques is considered along with voltage-dependent current order limit (VDCOL). Results for a two-terminal HVDC system under normal operation and abnormal conditions are presented to illustrate the capability of the simulation method View full abstract»

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  • Power modulation of Sidney HVDC scheme. II. Computer simulation

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2153 - 2161
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (812 KB)  

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.7, no.4, p.2145 (1989). The back-to-back Sidney (Nebraska) Converter Station (SCS) provides an asynchronous 200 MW tie between the east and west AC power systems of the United States. The addition of the SCS to the network required a remedial action scheme (RAS) integrated in the HVDC (high-voltage direct-current) control in order to meet AC systems reliability criteria. One of the basic components of the RAS is the frequency-dependent power modulation combined with an effective voltage control in the western network. Computer simulations were performed to check design and to provide initial settings for the RAS. As one part of the commissioning of the SCS, field tests of the RAS were conducted. The digital calculations were found to agree very well with the field test results. The simulation study covered two extensive AC networks with generators, their excitation control and speed-governing system representation, an HVDC with its standard controls, and the additional RAS for modulation and ramping of the power transferred View full abstract»

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  • Advances in the determination of control parameters for static compensators

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2012 - 2017
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (524 KB)  

    The authors discuss the advantages of synchronizing modern programmable controllers to the phase-locked loop (PLL) synchronization circuit for power electronic control applications. Accurate phasor values of system quantities are required for fast feedforward or feedback control of the firing angle of static compensators. The combination of a high-speed programmable controller and an accurate high-frequency PLL provides the ability to determine specific phasor quantities of any harmonic in the presence of system unbalances and frequency excursions. The PLL can also provide hardware interrupts to start specific programs at definite times in the power frequency cycle. The measurement and control technique has been applied to static compensators for load balancing, voltage balancing and regulation, and the damping of harmonic resonances. The results of these analog and digital simulation studies are presented View full abstract»

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  • An expert microprocessor controlled voltage regulator for energy conservation and demand reduction in distribution feeders

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2222 - 2228
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (776 KB)  

    A microprocessor-controlled voltage regulation system capable of controlling the voltage level on distribution feeders to reduce energy consumption and power demand was successfully built and tested in a laboratory environment. The compensator consists of a thyristor-controlled reactor (TCR) biased by a fixed capacitor. The reactive power injected into the feeder by the compensator is continuously controlled by adjusting the firing angle of the thyristors in the TCR, which results in continuous control of the feeder voltage level. The ability of the controller to distinguish between various types of loads and regulate the load voltage to a particular value for a specific load type was also successfully demonstrated. Harmonic suppression of the third and fifth-order harmonic currents produced by the TCR is also carried out using separate shunt filters. The filters also serve to provide the capacitive biasing of the compensator View full abstract»

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  • Feasibility study of AC- and DC-side active filters for HVDC converter terminals

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2067 - 2075
    Cited by:  Papers (25)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (812 KB)  

    The authors evaluate the technical and economic feasibility for active filtering of DC-side voltage harmonics and the AC-side current harmonics produced by a HVDC (high voltage direct current) converter. The following designs for the active filter concepts are compared with the existing AC-side and DC-side passive filters used at the Dickinson terminal of the CU HVDC transmission line project: the DC-side active filter consisting of a capacitor coupled current injection source to neutralize the 12th, 24th, and the 36th harmonics actively and the AC-side active filter designed to provide the same fundamental frequency-reactive VARs as the existing passive filters. Controlled currents are injected to filter the 11th and the 13th harmonic current actively. A cost comparison is made between these active filter designs and the cost of the existing passive filter supplied by the United Power Association View full abstract»

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  • Electrical breakdown of SF6 at small values of the product pd

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2095 - 2099
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (996 KB)  

    The breakdown of SF6 when static and impulse voltages are applied at small values (from 10-4 bar-mm to 1 bar-mm) of the product pd was investigated. It was found that the prevailing breakdown mechanism up to 8×10-3 bar-mm was the Townsend mechanism. Between 8×10-3 and 5.5 bar-mm the Townsend and streamers mechanisms combined, whereas from 5.5 bar-mm on the streamers mechanism took over. The Paschen law was found to hold for the points lying to the right of the minimum when static voltage was applied, whereas edge-type breakdown occurred on the points lying to the left of the minimum. When impulse voltage was applied, the Paschen law was valid only for the points to the right of the 1 bar-mm point. The electrode material affected the static and impulse breakdowns through the values of its work function View full abstract»

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  • Optically powered data link for power system applications

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 1997 - 2004
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1008 KB)  

    The practicability of an optically powered data link has been demonstrated. The link has moderate bandwidth (1 kHz), accuracy (1%) and dynamic range (>60 dB) over a useful range of ambient temperatures. The link uses commercially available components, including a photodiode array fabricated using the dielectric isolation process in silicon. An application to the measurement of current in a high voltage line by means of a linear coupler is described, and experimental results are presented. Power transmission efficiency is presently low, at about 0.3% overall (electrical-to-electrical) and 5% optical-to-electrical View full abstract»

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  • Switching impulse strength of air insulation: leader inception criterion

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2187 - 2195
    Cited by:  Papers (31)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (648 KB)  

    The author introduces a general criterion for leader inception of phase-to-ground air insulation under positive critical switching impulses. This criterion established the correspondence between continuous leader initiation in the vicinity of the highly stressed electrode and conditions prevailing later at the instant of the final jump. The criterion is applied to several complex electrode configurations, including rod-rod, conductor-rod, and conductor-structure gaps, where both analytic and digital techniques are used to compute the leader inception voltage, 50% breakdown voltage, and gap factor. The theory has been systematically tested against available experimental results with quite satisfactory agreement View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of the inrush phenomenon: a quasi-stationary approach in the harmonic domain

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2114 - 2120
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (664 KB)  

    A novel approach for the investigation of the inrush phenomenon in single and three-phase transformers is presented. It consists of the calculation of a sequence of quasi-steady-state images using harmonic domain computation. Thus, lengthy-time domain simulations with the related round-off and truncation errors are avoided. The advantage of the method is its robustness compared to a time-domain simulation with sufficiently small time steps to represent the wave shapes of currents and voltages accurately over a relatively long time span. An important result of the analysis is the fact that the attenuation of inrush currents is not affected by the eddy current and hysteresis losses in the iron. Therefore, no discretization of the laminations is needed, which considerably simplifies the computations without any loss of accuracy. The attenuation is solely determined by the resistance of the external circuit and the total inductance of the circuit, including also that of the iron core. It is shown how remanence and off-peak switching combine to establish the initial bias which determines the magnitude of the inrush current View full abstract»

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  • Basic mechanisms of generation and flow of harmonic signals in balanced and unbalanced three-phase power systems

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2162 - 2170
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (604 KB)  

    The basic mechanisms of generation and flow of harmonic signals in electric power networks are discussed. With regard to generation, the unbalanced operating condition of a six-pulse converter is studied. Guidelines which are applicable in the general case are obtained. With regard to flow of harmonic signals, a new relationship between distortion voltamperes and total harmonic distortion is derived. This relationship is very similar to the P/δ and Q/| V| relations which are well known in electric power flow studies View full abstract»

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  • Heuristic search approach to distribution system restoration

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2235 - 2241
    Cited by:  Papers (62)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (680 KB)  

    Service restoration, service reconfiguration, and other related problems are formulated and solved by heuristic search, which is a search strategy (e.g. depth-first search) armed with practical rules (e.g. based on operator experience) to guide the search. The method is based on operator procedures and usually generates the same solutions as operators would do. However, it is also possible to investigate alternatives that normally would not be considered by system operators, which can be very helpful under certain critical operating conditions. Moreover, the proposed framework makes it possible to investigate the effect of practical rules on the optimality of the final solution and so can be a useful tool in designing new algorithms. Test results are presented, and an illustrative example is given. The preliminary results indicate that the proposed technique is very promising View full abstract»

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  • Power modulation of Sidney HVDC scheme. I. RAS control concept, realization and field tests

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2145 - 2152
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (896 KB)  

    The 200 MW back-to-back Sidney (Nebraska) Converter Station (SCS) provides an asynchronous tie between the east and west AC power networks. In order to maintain electromechanical stability of the east network under worst-case line outage conditions, a remedial action scheme (RAS) was integrated in the HVDC (high-voltage direct-current) control. Basic components of the SCS RAS are frequency-dependent power modulation combined with an effective voltage control in the western network. The authors present the conceptual development of the RAS, as well as details on the RAS control hardware and software. Studies and live system tests have demonstrated the ability of the relatively fast HVDC controls to change the power infeed from the DC station quickly. These rapid changes in power transfer properly coordinated with speed deviation of a nearby generation unit, help maintain, and in some cases improve, the electromechanical stability of the AC system View full abstract»

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  • A microcomputer-based intelligent load shedding relay

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2018 - 2024
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (628 KB)  

    The authors describe the design of a microcomputer-based intelligent under/over-frequency relay (the MAC-1) that can adjust the setting points and time delays dynamically. This gives a power system a better opportunity to survive an emergency operating condition. The decision making of this device is not only based on the previous setting but is also dependent on the current system situation. Compared to existing load-shedding relays, this device costs less, is easy to maintain, performs the self-diagnostic, and has high flexibility. Furthermore, this device records system data during normal and emergency conditions View full abstract»

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  • Nonceramic insulators for transmission lines

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 2214 - 2221
    Cited by:  Papers (33)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (992 KB)  

    Progress in the development of nonceramic transmission line insulator technology is reviewed. The results of a survey of utilities in the United States are presented to indicate the range of applications, distribution by voltage class, appraisal of performance, and failure modes. It was found that the tracking, erosion, and mechanical problems of the first generation of nonceramic insulators have been reduced. Typical problems with nonceramic insulators in the past were discoloring, crazing, chalking, corona cutting and deterioration, water penetration and subsequent electrical failure, interface flashover, loosened end-fittings, and mechanical failures. Utilities have in general utilized these insulators in short lines, in trouble spots, and for data gathering. A number of utilities have valuable test facilities to verify both short and long-term insulator behavior. The major problem with nonceramic insulators is deterioration caused by contamination-induced discharges and poor electric-field distribution. Concerns expressed by utility representatives at a recent workshop are described, and future research standardization needs are presented View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Installation and operation of apparatus, equipment, structures, materials and systems for the safe, reliable and economic generation, transmission, distribution, conversion, measurement and control of electric energy.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Wilsun Xu
Ph.D., P.Eng.
Dept. Electrical and Computer Eng.
University of Alberta
(9107 - 116 Street)
Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 Canada
wxu@ualberta.ca
Phone:780-492-5965
Fax:780-492-1811