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Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Dec. 1997

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Displaying Results 1 - 17 of 17
  • Comments on "Accurate measurement of power, energy, and true RMS voltage using synchronous counting"

    Page(s): 1300 - 1301
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (55 KB)  

    The authors comment on the principle of operation, on error calculation and on results presented by J.K. Kolanko in ibid., vol.42, p.752-4, (June 1993). They conclude that the paper has many errors and many details have been omitted which make it extremely difficult to understand. However, the paper documents a design which has probably been implemented successfully and is probably a useful device for its intended purposes. View full abstract»

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  • 1997 Index IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation And Measurement Vol. 46

    Page(s): 1 - 37
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Position estimation of mobile robots based on coded infrared signal transmission

    Page(s): 1280 - 1283
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    A system based on coded infrared signal transmission for the estimation of position of mobile robots in a structured environment is reported. Particular emphasis is placed on the polar coordinate arrangement in which signals are sent from the transmitters situated at the corners of the boundaries of operation. A multisensor system, strategically situated onboard the robot, has been found to improve the accuracy of the position estimation substantially. The information detected by the sensors is suitably processed to calculate the central position of the robot geometrically. The algorithms for the position calculations and the operational strategy are presented. This system forms the basis for the coordination and cooperation philosophy of multiple mobile robots sharing the same environment and performing cooperative or competitive tasks View full abstract»

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  • Accurate distance measurement by an autonomous ultrasonic system combining time-of-flight and phase-shift methods

    Page(s): 1236 - 1240
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (108 KB)  

    This paper presents an efficient algorithm for distance measurement, combining both the pulse time-of-flight method and the CW phase-shift method, It copes with a low-rate sampling technique allowed by the limited bandwidth of two ultrasonic transducers working in air at 30 kHz and with modest software resources of autonomous devices. The measuring system was implemented and tested on a compact Motorola MC68HC16-based platform, with a minimum of attached hardware. Experimental results show an accuracy better than 1 mm for a poor reflecting target at a distance of about 1 m View full abstract»

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  • K- and Ka-band waveguide microcalorimeters for microwave power standards

    Page(s): 1247 - 1250
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    Three sets of waveguide microcalorimeters of K- and Ka-band are described. Included are construction details of the microcalorimeters, operation procedure, and uncertainty analysis. The results of measurements and intercomparisons are presented. The uncertainty analysis shows a total uncertainty including systematic uncertainty and random uncertainty of 0.53-0.68% View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinearity of a data-acquisition system with interleaving/multiplexing

    Page(s): 1274 - 1279
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (176 KB)  

    The study of differential nonlinearities (DNL) and integral nonlinearities (INL) of a high-speed data acquisition system using interleaving/multiplexing yields a theoretical expression for both errors, showing that they are smaller than the DNL and INL errors for each analog-to-digital converter (ADC) channel. Both experimental and computer-simulated data reveal very good agreement with the theoretical results. It is also shown that for this type of interleaved acquisition system, that has a time-dependent transfer characteristic, the effective number of bits cannot be evaluated via histogram testing View full abstract»

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  • 3-D measurements using a video camera and a range finder

    Page(s): 1229 - 1235
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    The geometric modeling of the environment can be carried out by incorporating a video camera range finder. When the quality of images is poor, the range finder, which is mounted on a site and azimuth rotation turret, brings an indispensable complement by measures of depth. The purpose of this paper is to build a geometric database of a three-dimensional (3-D) world in telerobotic applications. The calibration of the sensor system is presented by focusing on models of the range finder and methods we studied to determine them. The experimental results allow the evaluation of models and methods in terms of accuracy and stability. We show how the problem of setting up the 3-D geometric database can be solved by cooperation between human operator and sensors. Two cases are treated for database updating: determining the right position of known objects and inserting an embodying volume to model unknown objects, The experimental results concerning object modeling of cylindrical and polyhedral pattern and are given in terms of volume dimensions and position errors View full abstract»

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  • Crosstalk analysis of 1 m to 10 m laser phase-shift range finder

    Page(s): 1224 - 1228
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    A heterodyne phase-shift laser range finder has been developed for the measurement of distances of 1 m to 10 m. An analysis of the crosstalk between the current source and the photoelectric receiver of this device permits prediction of the accuracy of the setup. For example, when the amplitude of the crosstalk is proportional to the modulation frequency and for a given photoelectric signal-to-induction ratio of 30 at 10 m, the maximum corresponding error is about 5 cm. To determine the magnitude of the crosstalk, we propose a model taking into account that the amplitude and the phase-shift of the induced signal depend on whether the coupling is inductive or capacitive. Crosstalk modeling shows that very slight inductive or capacitive coupling is sufficient to affect distance measurement View full abstract»

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  • A simple built-in current sensor for current monitoring in mixed-signal circuits

    Page(s): 1301 - 1304
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    Quiescent current monitoring is an interesting and efficient technique for mixed-signal testing where fault detection of analog parts requires the precise measure of the Iddq. This paper presents a very simple current sensor for on-chip current monitoring giving a precise analog output proportional to the quiescent current. Simulations show feasibility of the sensor to operate at high frequencies. This circuit may also operate at low supply voltage (±1.5 V), and due to its simplicity, the silicon area overhead is very small View full abstract»

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  • Modular artificial neural network for prediction of petrophysical properties from well log data

    Page(s): 1295 - 1299
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (132 KB)  

    An application of Kohonen's self-organizing map (SOM), learning-vector quantization (LVQ) algorithms, and commonly used backpropagation neural network (BPNN) to predict petrophysical properties obtained from well-log data are presented. A modular, artificial neural network (ANN) comprising a complex network made up from a number of subnetworks is introduced. In this approach, the SOM algorithm is applied first to classify the well-log data into a predefined number of classes, This gives an indication of the lithology in the well. The classes obtained from SOM are then appended back to the training input logs for the training of supervised LVQ. After training, LVQ can be used to classify any unknown input logs. A set of BPNN that corresponds to different classes is then trained. Once the network is trained, it is then used as the classification and prediction model for subsequent input data. Results obtained from example studies using the proposed method have shown to be fast and accurate as compared to a single BPNN network View full abstract»

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  • Experimental comparison of load-pull measurement systems for nonlinear power transistor characterization

    Page(s): 1251 - 1255
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    Load-pull measurements are essential to accurately characterize power devices. This paper presents a comparison of measurement systems based on a load-pull configuration. The experimental results performed on a power MESFET transistor (1 W) are compared in terms of output power level and power added efficiency under variable operating conditions, i.e., load impedances and input power levels View full abstract»

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  • The possibility of employing a calculable four-electrode conductance cell to substitute for the secondary standards of electrolytic conductivity

    Page(s): 1268 - 1273
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    It appears that a four-electrode conductance cell designed and used according to the van der Pauw method can be applied for the absolute determination of the electrolytic conductivity of solutions with an accuracy comparable with that of the secondary standards for this quantity. Therefore there may be a possibility of avoiding the use of those standards in some cases. The results of the experimental investigation of a prototype model of the cell of this type, carried out by the authors, are consistent with the theoretical considerations and computer modeling. An absolute determination of electrolytic conductivity has been made for 0.01 and 0.1 M KCl solutions, with an overall uncertainty lower than 0.4% View full abstract»

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  • Power meter for highly distorted three-phase systems

    Page(s): 1262 - 1267
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    This paper describes a low-cost, three-phase power meter, which is based on a fast, specially designed acquisition board coupled to a PC via the PC parallel/printer port or by means of an AT card. The power associated with the fundamental and first harmonics is computed by software that operates in the time domain and employs a sample-weighting procedure that makes the uncertainty related to the asynchronous sampling negligible. The low-cost acquisition board features two 8-bit 1 MHz converters and a local RAM, which decouples the PC clock from the measurement requirements, Hall effect transducers are used for the current channels and fast differential amplifiers for the voltage channels. The fast sampling frequency allows simple antialiasing filters to be employed. Digital filtering is used to reduce the sample number while increasing the resolution. The power uncertainty provided by this arrangement is less then 0.1% with 2.5 measurements per second when a low-cost 486DX33-based PC is used View full abstract»

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  • Clock stability characterization and measurement in telecommunications

    Page(s): 1284 - 1294
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    Clock stability characterization and measurement for telecommunications pose peculiar issues and requirements. This paper aims to provide an overview on this subject. After briefly recalling the background work, the key features and issues of clock stability characterization and measurement in telecommunications are described. The timing signal reference model and the stability quantities adopted in the new international standards are introduced and the impact of the measurement configuration and of the time error sampling period on their behavior are elucidated. The measurement of clock stability in telecommunications is then addressed, and a standard practical measurement procedure is outlined. Several measurement results are provided to support the concepts expounded with experimental evidence. The results shown have been chosen among those obtained throughout the last three years by testing clerks of digital switching exchanges, clocks for synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) equipment, and state-of-the-art stand-alone slave clocks for synchronization networks. They thus represent a survey of the actual performance of clocks currently deployed in telecommunications networks View full abstract»

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  • Specification for common IEEE styles

    Page(s): 1217 - 1223
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    Our premise is that a researcher should be able to use his or her time doing research, and not fighting with a text formatter. Modern formatters have macro capability. If the proper macros are written, the text formatting for all IEEE publications may be accomplished automatically. We propose that proponents of various text-processing systems write macro packages for their own systems. The scientific community would benefit greatly. One example is provided for users of the LATEX2ε system. It is available at http://www-isl.stanford.edu/ieee/ or at the ftp site ftp://isl.stanford.edu/pub/ieee/. A similar macro package is being developed for users of Microsoft Word, and can be found at the world-wide-web addresses given in the Conclusion View full abstract»

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  • Ultralow-noise programmable voltage source

    Page(s): 1256 - 1261
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    To avoid introducing additional noise sources while making low-frequency noise measurements, batteries are normally used instead of electronic power supplies. This paper presents an alternative solution by describing the design, construction, and testing of an ultralow-noise voltage source. Such a power supply can be computer controlled and has a typical noise level two orders of magnitude below that of similar commercial instruments. Some typical values of the spectral density of the voltage fluctuations at its output are: (10-12, 10-15, 10-16) V2/Hz at (0.01, 0.1, and 1) Hz, respectively. These noise performances are almost independent of the supplied current, with a degradation of less than 3 dB up to 400 mA. A special algorithm for digital-to-analog conversion, using passive devices with 1% tolerance, ensures a resolution of 2.5 mV and an accuracy better than ±1.5 mV over the entire output range from 0 to 8 V View full abstract»

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  • Numerical method for transit time measurement in ultrasonic sensor applications

    Page(s): 1241 - 1246
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    In this paper, the implementation of a novel algorithm for the measurement of the transit time is reported. It has been applied to implement a smart, ultrasonic sensor for the fluid level measurement on a tank by processing the detected signal. A prototype of an on-line operating device, assembled to demonstrate the performance of the algorithm, is also described. Simulation tests have been carried out to investigate the algorithm performance, and we report on the results obtained. In addition, the results obtained during the field testing and application of the developed sensor are reported View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Alessandro Ferrero
Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32
Politecnico di Milano
Milano 20133 Italy
alessandro.ferrero@polimi.it
Phone: 39-02-2399-3751
Fax: 39-02-2399-3703