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Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Nov. 1997

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • Comments on "Teletraffic model and performance analysis for cellular mobile radio telephone systems with prioritized and nonprioritized handoff procedures"

    Page(s): 1057 - 1058
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    Hong and Rappaport (see Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng., vol.136, pt.I, no.5, p.339-46, 1989) considered a handoff scheme for cellular systems, where priority is given to handoff calls in channel assignment and a queue of handoff calls is allowed. This paper points out and corrects their critical error in getting some performance measures for the scheme. We also discuss the effects of our correction on the related results in their paper and in the paper of Pavlidou (see IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.42, no.2/3/4, p.848-53, 1994). View full abstract»

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  • 1997 Index IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology Vol. 46

    Page(s): 1 - 18
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Erasure insertion in frequency-hop communications with fading and partial-band interference

    Page(s): 949 - 956
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    The use of block coding and errors-and-erasures decoding can enhance performance substantially in frequency-hop communication systems, provided that a good scheme is employed to determine which symbols to erase. In this paper, methods for determining erasures derived from Bayesian decision theory are applied to the mitigation of fading and partial-band interference. The performance of receivers using the Bayesian technique is compared with that of receivers that make erasure decisions using Viterbi's (1982) ratio-threshold test. The performance of hard-decision demodulation and the theoretical performance of receivers with access to perfect side information are also compared. It is found that the Bayesian receiver provides the best performance, and that error probabilities for the Bayesian receiver are lower than those for hard-decision demodulation by as much as six orders of magnitude View full abstract»

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  • A novel propagation modeling for microcellular communications in urban environments

    Page(s): 1021 - 1026
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    A novel method for microcellular communications to predict propagation characteristics is presented in this paper. It takes into account multiple reflections among walls, ground, vehicles, as well as the transmission/reflection due to groups of trees. Although these are three-dimensional (3-D) problems, we can combine two-dimensional (2-D) ray tracing and simple 3-D geometric considerations to solve them in a very efficient way. We have investigated the propagation loss versus size, number, and locations of vehicles and groups of trees on a safe island. Our results show that the radio wave propagation exhibits severe fast fading, attenuation, and blockage due to reflection, transmission, and shadowing, respectively View full abstract»

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  • Optimum arrival-time distribution for delay capture in spread-spectrum packet radio networks

    Page(s): 981 - 991
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    The optimum arrival-time distribution that maximizes the delay-capture probability in spread-spectrum packet radio networks is derived. It is shown that when the optimum arrival-time distribution is employed, the capture probability converges to a finite value as the number of contending packets increases. Normalized throughput and average number of packet retransmissions are computed for slotted ALOHA multipoint-to-point packet radio networks employing direct-sequence spread-spectrum modulation. It is shown that large performance improvement is obtained by optimizing the arrival-time distribution compared to the uniform arrival-time distribution assumed by Davis and Gronemeyer (1980), especially when error-correction coding is employed. Two practical modifications are derived which are shown to provide performance close to the optimum along with an adaptive network load control scheme View full abstract»

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  • Fractionally spaced linear joint detection for multitone CDMA systems

    Page(s): 941 - 948
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    We consider a fractionally spaced linear joint detector (FS-LIJD) for multitone code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems. We first derive the structure of the receiver for a minimum mean-squared error (MMSE) criterion. Then, we exactly evaluate the bit-error rate (BER) achieved by this detector for binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation in steady-state conditions. We consider an asynchronous scenario, where the signal of each user propagates over a two-path channel. The resistance of the detector against timing errors is studied, and the resistance against a near-far scenario is also demonstrated View full abstract»

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  • Outage probability analysis for short-range communication systems at 60 GHz in ATT urban environments

    Page(s): 1027 - 1039
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    In the context of a short-range communication system for advanced transport telematics (ATT) applications, this paper presents an analytical method to derive outage probability in the presence of Rice fading, noise, interference, and antenna diversity with selection combining; the approach is exploited to evaluate the performance of beacon-to-vehicle communications in urban environments. ATT applications are becoming more and more relevant for the purpose of designing a road traffic management system, either in urban or highway environments. The interest of researchers in this field mainly indicated two different frequency ranges for system operability, i.e., the 5.8and 60-64-GHz bands. The advantage of using millimeter waves is discussed with reference to efficient spatial filtering effects, having chosen a suitable model for channel characterization at 60 GHz. The validity of the analytical method is checked by means of Monte Carlo simulation. The role of oxygen and rain absorption on system performance is also investigated. By considering a monodimensional topology and a Manhattan scenario, system availability is evaluated in a multiuser context by taking the role of interfering signals on downlink performance into account. As an example of application, a time-division multiple-access (TDMA) scheme is assumed for channel access. The methodology exploited allows the definition of suitable design criteria; numerical results give the optimum value of distance between beacons as a function of system parameters and link budget View full abstract»

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  • Hidden Markov models for burst error characterization in indoor radio channels

    Page(s): 1006 - 1020
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    Many digital communication channels exhibit statistical dependencies among errors. The design of error control schemes for such channels and their performance evaluation is simplified if appropriate generative models of the overall communication link are available. This paper presents a new class of generative models based on the interconnection of hidden Markov submodels parameterized by the Baum-Welch algorithm. The method has some resemblance to the well-studied problem of speech recognition of isolated words; however, in our approach, instead of dealing with words, one deals with error bursts, and the final goal is to generate bursts rather than to recognize words. The proposed model is particularly suitable for simulating error profiles with long bursts, as is often the case in indoor radio channels, where the error-free gaps inside a burst are heavily nonrenewal. The merits of the method are corroborated by applying the technique to two particular examples of indoor code-division multiple-access (CDMA) radio links View full abstract»

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  • Multihop R-ALOHA for intervehicle communications at millimeter waves

    Page(s): 992 - 1005
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    With reference to road transport information (RTI) applications, such as cooperative driving, short-range intervehicle communications in a highway environment are investigated in this paper. The research in this field indicates the suitability of the 60-64-GHz band. Due to the distributed nature of the intervehicle communication system, an R-ALOHA protocol is considered; multihop (MH) and single-hop (SH) strategies are compared. Network performance is assessed by considering the joint impact of random access, interference, thermal noise, propagation, and packet capture effect. Several figures of merit are analyzed and discussed: packet success probability (PSP), system stabilization time (SST), first success time (FST), and deadline failure probability (DFP). Network performance is evaluated either by an analytical approach or by a software tool able to simulate a one-lane highway scenario. Both steady-state and transition situations are considered. System performance in terms of PSP (in the presence of two-way Rice fading, noise, and interference with antenna diversity and selection combining) is analytically evaluated to validate the simulation tool and to prove the suitability of an MH network strategy. The simulation approach allows the evaluation of the impact of protocol parameters on network performance, with reference to nonsteady-state situations View full abstract»

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  • A unified approach to the assignment of radio channels on a regular hexagonal grid

    Page(s): 968 - 980
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    In radio systems, quality of service is achieved by assigning channels with reference to a set of protection ratios, which in a simplified setting may be replaced with frequency-distance bounds. This paper considers the assignment problem on a lattice of hexagonal cells, with the allowed assignments generated by regular tilings of a single polyhex. The main aim is to investigate the interplay between the cochannel and adjacent channel separations without restricting the assignments unnecessarily. The outcome is a unified framework in which all previous results appear as particular cases. The possible cochannel lattices are carefully classified, and then an algorithm is developed, which assigns channels on any cochannel lattice so that the adjacent channel separation is maximized. In this way, a library of the best assignments can be compiled. The results are of relevance to a range of applications, including both broadcast and mobile systems View full abstract»

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  • The performance of the PACS radio link and its improvements at vehicular speeds

    Page(s): 827 - 835
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    The personal access communication system (PACS) radio interface is the leading low-tier candidate for standardization in North America. This radio interface was originally conceived to serve pedestrian and fixed-distribution applications; there has been significant recent interest in extending this technology into high-mobility environments. In such environments, rapid channel variations significantly degrade the performance of the preselection diversity scheme proposed for use in PACS handsets. The effects of time-delay spread on the PACS radio link was also included in our investigation. It is found that a received signal strength indicator (RSSI) with a short measurement length can better cope with high fading rates than can a quality measure in a preselection diversity system, although a quality measure has better performance than RSSI at low speeds in the presence of time-delay spread. In the preselection diversity scheme, using short-measurement RSSI provides relatively good performance in both low- and high-mobility environments. However, its performance degrades rapidly for RMS delay spreads larger than about 9% of a symbol time. Postselection diversity using two complete receiver chains is more robust than preselection diversity, both to high fading rates and to delay spread. Postselection diversity is relatively insensitive to changes in the fading rate and can tolerate an RMS delay spread up to 12.5% of a symbol time View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of availability improvement in LMSS by means of satellite diversity based on three-state propagation channel model

    Page(s): 1047 - 1056
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    Aiming at future multimedia land mobile-satellite services (LMSS) consisting of a large number of nongeostationary Earth-orbit satellites, we present an LMSS propagation channel model for assessing the effect of a satellite diversity scheme so that high service availability and high signal quality are assured. We classify general fading environments for LMSS into three states. By taking the occurrence probability of each state into account, a new fading channel model is developed. The validity of the model is identified by comparing its predicted values in terms of the cumulative distribution function (CDF) with measured data available so far. Then, based on this model, we calculate the satellite diversity effect assuming that the area is illuminated simultaneously by at least two satellites moving in low Earth orbits (LEO) over urban and suburban environments. In addition, state transition characteristics based on a Markov model are presented View full abstract»

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  • Bit-error bounds for trellis-coded MPSK in mixed fading channels

    Page(s): 900 - 909
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    Bit-error probability (BEP) bounds of trellis-coded MPSK systems over two classes of mixed fading channels are studied. These two classes of channels have been proposed as candidate models for mobile satellite communications. The first class consists of slow and frequency-nonselective fading channels whose output field strengths follow a probability law characterized by a convex combination of Rician and Rayleigh/lognormal distributions. For the other class of fading channels, the received signal amplitude has a convex combination of Rician and Rician/lognormal distributions. We analyze performance bounds for trellis codes that belong to the class of either geometrically uniform codes (GUCs) or quasi-regular codes (QRCs). Receivers with either ideal channel state information (CSI) or no CSI at all are considered. We examine asymptotic behaviors of these codes and identify key design parameters. Numerical results are provided to illustrate and compare the BEP performances of various codes and to validate the usefulness of the asymptotic analysis View full abstract»

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  • Digital frequency synthesizer/modulator for continuous-phase modulations with slow frequency hopping

    Page(s): 933 - 940
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    This paper gives a description of a modulator for burst-by-burst carrier frequency hopping in time-division multiple-access (TDMA) systems. The architecture consists of a digital frequency synthesizer/modulator for continuous-phase modulations (CPMs) and a fast frequency settling RF synthesizer consisting of one phase-locked loop (PLL). The performance of the digital frequency synthesizer/CPM modulator has been analyzed theoretically and simulated by a computer program. The analyses show that the proposed digital frequency synthesizer/CPM modulator achieves 2.5-W lower power consumption and 18-dB lower spurious levels than the fast frequency hopping systems synthesizing digitally a full frequency band. In the computer simulations the effect of the digital frequency synthesizer/CPM modulator parameters on the power spectrum and the phase error is investigated View full abstract»

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  • Third-generation TDRSS-compatible direct-sequence spread-spectrum digital receiver

    Page(s): 891 - 899
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    A digital communication receiver, called a third-generation receiver, has been developed. This receiver takes samples of the direct-sequence spread signal at a nonzero intermediate frequency (IF) instead of the zero IF (baseband), and quantizes the samples by employing a 1-b analog-to-digital (A/D) converter at the receiver front end. These 1-b samples are digitally processed for pseudonoise (PN) code, carrier, bit synchronization, and bit decision with the use of an application-specific integrated circuit. The effects of the IF sampling and 1-b A/D conversion on PN code synchronization are analyzed for a PN spread-spectrum communication system with oversampling rate, e.g., 12 samples per chip. In addition, the bit-error rate (BER) degradation due to the 1-b A/D conversion is studied by assuming perfect PN code, carrier, and bit synchronization. It is observed that the BER degradation due to the 1-b A/D is significant, e.g., 2.4 dB, when decimation is made after IF sampling such that only one sample per chip is used for bit decision. These analyzed BER results agree well with the simulated results. However, if no decimation is made and oversampling is used for bit decision, BER degradation due to 2-b A/D conversion is insignificant, e.g., 0.6 dB View full abstract»

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  • A simplified analytical model for predicting path loss in urban and suburban environments

    Page(s): 1040 - 1046
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    An analytical propagation model has recently been developed to predict radio signal attenuation in urban and suburban environments. This analytical model explicates the path loss as a result of signal reduction due to free space wavefront spreading, multiple diffraction past rows of buildings, and building shadowing. It is applicable for cellular mobile services as well as personal communications services (PCS) in both macro- and microcellular environments. Good accuracy was found for this analytical model by comparing the predictions with numerous measurements made in various propagation environments. However, since the analytical model involves multiple-dimension integration to calculate the signal attenuation due to multiple diffraction past rows of buildings, the model in its original format does not lend itself to easy implementation into a radio system planning tool. A simplified version of the analytical model is developed in this paper, which can be used for three different propagation scenarios with base-station antenna above, below, and near the average rooftop level View full abstract»

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  • Simulation results of the capacity of cellular systems

    Page(s): 805 - 817
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    We study the capacity of cellular systems with interference-adaptation dynamic channel allocation (DCA) through a set of heuristics that evaluate the required number of channels for some mobile traffic pattern. In particular, we evaluate the improvement in the reuse factor given the knowledge of the mobiles' locations. Assuming that the mobiles' locations are sampled from the uniform random distribution or are fixed on a uniform grid, we show the effect of a number of parameters, such as the number of mobiles per cell, the minimum allowable signal-to-interference ratio, and the limited knowledge of mobiles' locations. We also investigate the effect of shadow fading and signal-based power control. Although previous papers have proposed various heuristics with varying performance, we present heuristics that are shown to give the maximum packing results based on our assumptions. In particular, the single-interferer assumption, used throughout our work, is justified and the optimality of the square-root signal-based power control is proven View full abstract»

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  • On diversity reception of narrow-band 16 STAR-QAM in fast Rician fading

    Page(s): 923 - 932
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    An expression for the bit-error rate (BER) of 16 STAR-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) with differential encoding and detection in a Rician fading channel with diversity reception is obtained. Two types of intermediate frequency (IF) filters are considered in the analysis: the intersymbol interference (ISI)-free matched and nonISI-free Gaussian filters. BER curves for various ratios of the line-of-sight (LOS) power to the multipath power, Doppler spread frequencies, and orders of diversity are presented. It is shown that 16 STAR-QAM outperforms 16 DPSK under the same power-limited condition. For the Gaussian receive filter, a filter bandwidth of about 1.2 times the symbol rate is found to lead to a minimum error probability prior to the appearance of error-rate floors View full abstract»

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  • Cellular radio channel assignment using a modified Hopfield network

    Page(s): 957 - 967
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    The channel-assignment problem is important in mobile telephone communication. Since the usable range of the frequency spectrum is limited, the optimal channel-assignment problem has become increasingly important. A new channel-assignment algorithm using a modified Hopfield (1985, 1986) neural network is proposed. The channel-assignment problem is formulated as an energy-minimization problem that is implemented by a modified discrete Hopfield network. Also, a new technique to escape the local minima is introduced. In this algorithm, an energy function is derived, and the appropriate interconnection weights between the neurons are specified. The interconnection weights between the neurons are designed in such a way that each neuron receives inhibitory support if the constraint conditions are violated and receives excitatory support if the constraint conditions are satisfied. To escape the local minima, if the number of assigned channels are less than the required channel numbers (RCNs), one or more channels are assigned in addition to already assigned channels such that the total number of assigned channels is the same as the required number of channels in the cell even though the energy is increased. Various initialization techniques, which use the specific characteristics of frequency-assignment problems in cellular radio networks, such as cosite constraint (CSC), adjacent channel constraint (ACC), and cochannel constraint (CCC), and updating methods are investigated. In the previously proposed neural-network approach, some frequencies are fixed to accelerate the convergence time. In our algorithms, no frequency is fixed before the frequency-assignment procedure. This new algorithm, together with the proposed initialization and updating techniques and without fixing frequencies in any cells, has better performance results than the results reported previously utilizing fixed frequencies in certain cells View full abstract»

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  • Architecture design, frequency planning, and performance analysis for a microcell/macrocell overlaying system

    Page(s): 836 - 848
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    An innovative hierarchical microcell/macrocell architecture is presented. By applying the concept of cluster planning, the proposed sectoring arrangement can provide good shielding between microcells and macrocells. As a result, underlaid microcells can reuse the same frequencies as overlaying macrocells without decreasing the macrocell system capacity. With the proposed method, microcells not only can be gradually deployed, but they can be extensively installed to provide complete coverage and increase capacity throughout the service area. With these flexibilities, the proposed method allows existing macrocellular systems to evolve smoothly into a hierarchical microcell/macrocell architecture View full abstract»

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  • Multicarrier signal detection and parameter estimation in frequency-selective Rayleigh fading channels

    Page(s): 882 - 890
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    A new joint signal detection and channel parameter estimation scheme is proposed for multiple subcarrier signaling with pilot symbol-assisted modulation (PSAM) schemes. The proposed scheme estimates a pair of parameters associated with the generation process of the fading frequency selectivity, which is common to all the subcarriers. This parameter estimation can effectively extract information regarding the fading frequency selectivity through the pilot symbols received not only by the subcarrier of interest, but by other ones as well. The fading complex envelope with each subcarrier is derived from the estimates of the parameter pair. With the proposed scheme, performances are evaluated through simulations and are compared with the performance of a subcarrier-by-subcarrier detection scheme View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of M-ary phase-shift keying with diversity reception for land-mobile satellite channels

    Page(s): 910 - 922
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    An analytical technique well suited to numerical analysis is presented for computing the average bit-error rate (BER) and outage probability of M-ary phase-shift keying (PSK) in the land-mobile satellite channel (LMSC) with microdiversity reception. Closed-form expressions are found for L-branch microdiversity using both selection diversity combining (SDC) and maximal ratio combining (MRC). These expressions are extended to include both M-ary coherent PSK (M-PSK) and differential PSK [M-differential PSK (DPSK)]. Following previous empirical studies, the LMSC is modeled as a weighted sum of Rice and Suzuki distributions. Numerical results are provided illustrating the achievable performance of both M-PSK and M-DPSK with diversity reception. Using measured channel parameters, the performance in various mobile environments for various satellite elevation angles is also found View full abstract»

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  • Results on turbo-codes for speech transmission in a joint detection CDMA mobile radio system with coherent receiver antenna diversity

    Page(s): 862 - 870
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    Turbo-codes which are applicable to speech transmission in digital mobile radio systems are treated. Three turbo-codes of different complexity are presented. The proposed turbo-codes are suitable for the application to speech transmission in the joint detection code-division multiple access (JD-CDMA) mobile radio system with coherent receiver antenna diversity (CRAD) which are described concisely. The performance of the designed turbo-codes in terms of bit and frame error rates are shown in the case of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels, flat Rayleigh fading channels, and in the uplink of the aforementioned JD-CDMA mobile radio system View full abstract»

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  • Design and analysis of transmitter diversity using intentional frequency offset for wireless communications

    Page(s): 871 - 881
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    Coded modulation (usually with interleaving) is used in fading channel communications to achieve a good error performance. The major benefit from using coded modulation in fading channels is achieved if each code symbol of a codeword (or coded sequence) suffers statistically different fading (preferably independent fading). However, in many applications of mobile communications (e.g., in a metropolitan environment), a low vehicle speed (and hence, a small Doppler spread, f D) is very common. With a small Doppler spread, ideal or close-to-ideal interleaving is no longer feasible and all code symbols of a codeword would suffer highly correlated fading especially in stationary fading (fD≈0). Coded modulations will thus suffer seriously degraded performance. Previous performance analyses based on ideal interleaving are not accurate when a small Doppler spread is encountered and the much used union bound error probability analysis is loose for small Doppler spreads. To rectify this situation, this paper presents an improved performance analysis of coded modulations with correlated fading and pilot-symbol-assisted modulation (PSAM). Transmitter diversity can generate the necessary time-varying fading to maintain the effectiveness of a coded signaling scheme which this paper examines in detail using an intentional frequency offset between antennas. This work found that proper selections of the intentional frequency offset and interleaving depth can lead to good performance with traditional coded modulations (if enough antennas are used) using essentially the same simple demodulation structure as used in the traditional single-antenna PSAM View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology covers land, airborne, and maritime mobile services, vehicular electrotechnology, equipment, and systems identified with the automotive industry.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Yuguang Michael Fang
University of Florida