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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 11 • Date Nov. 1997

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Displaying Results 1 - 19 of 19
  • Special Issue On Optoelectronics Technology

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1671 - 1672
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  • Focus On The Future

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1673 - 1674
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  • Mac Elwyn Van Valkenburg (1921-1997) [In Memoriam]

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1675 - 1677
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  • Beam Transmission Of Ultra Short Waves: An Introduction To The Classic Paper By H. Yagi

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1857 - 1863
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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  • Beam Transmission Of Ultra Short Waves

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1864 - 1874
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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  • Project Management In Manufacturing And High Technology Management [Book Review]

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1875
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  • Edward W. Herold: A Leader In The Development Of Color Television

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1876 - 1877
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  • Molecular beam epitaxy technology of III-V compound semiconductors for optoelectronic applications

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1694 - 1714
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
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    Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is a highly precise and versatile crystal growth technique. Since the first demonstration of quantum-well and superlattice structures in the early 1970's, MBE has continuously played a pivotal role in the development of innovative key optoelectronic devices. The advances in real-time feedback growth control make the MBE technique suitable for the demanding manufacturing environment. This paper reviews the principle and status of MBE technology with emphasis on III-V compound semiconductors for optoelectronic applications View full abstract»

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  • Future challenges and directions for nitride materials and light emitters

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1750 - 1751
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
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    A review is presented of future issues on wide-bandgap group-III nitride materials and device technology for optoelectronic and high-temperature devices such as LEDs View full abstract»

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  • Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition for optoelectronic devices

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1715 - 1729
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (1)
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    The metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process for electronic and photonic compound semiconductor materials and devices is reviewed. We begin with an introduction to the basic MOCVD chemical reaction process, gas delivery equipment, reaction chambers, and safety. Growth mechanisms, including hydrodynamics, boundary-layer issues, thermal effects, and pyrolysis reactions, are defined, and criteria for growth regimes, growth rate, and alloy composition are described. Material, structural, and dopant considerations, which are particularly important to optoelectronic devices, are presented. Last, a brief description of the selective area epitaxial growth process is presented View full abstract»

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  • High-brightness AlGaInP light emitting diodes

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1752 - 1764
    Cited by:  Papers (32)  |  Patents (11)
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    First commercially introduced in 1990, AlGaInP light emitting diodes (LEDs) currently are the highest (luminous) efficiency visible solid-state emitters produced to date in the red through yellow spectral regime. The attainment of this high-efficiency performance is a result of the development of advanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition crystal growth techniques, which have facilitated the high-quality growth of this quaternary alloy as well as the implementation of complex device designs. Furthermore, the highest efficiency family of AlGaInP devices (based upon a transparent-substrate platform and commercially introduced in 1994) have been realized as result of the development and implementation of direct compound semiconductor wafer bonding technology. As a result, the luminous efficiency of AlGaInP LEDs exceeds or rivals that of unfiltered incandescent lamps and other conventional lighting sources. Further improvements in these techniques (and the realization of efficient, high-power LEDs) are expected to make AlGaInP LEDs even more competitive with conventional lamp technology, thus enhancing the position of LED's in many applications as a preferred lighting source View full abstract»

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  • The semiconductor laser: a thirty-five-year perspective

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1678 - 1693
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
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    Starting in 1962 with GaAs and the alloy GaAsP, the prototype III-V alloy the semiconductor laser developed slowly from a pulse-operated simple p-n junction to a continuously operated (300-K) double heterojunction in 1970. Then, in 1977, in another metamorphosis, it became a quantum-well (QW) device of reduced dimensionality (two dimensional) and improved density of states and performance. The fact that the semiconductor laser is based on an ideal form of “lamp”, a p-n junction of potentially 100% quantum efficiency in conversion of electron-hole pairs to photons, gives it a built-in advantage over all other forms of lasers-all the indirectly excited lasers. Also, being a condensed system, it can be small-smaller than all other forms of lasers-and yet cover a great wavelength and power range, which continue to expand. Because of its third-layer form, a QW heterostructure (the product of more or less easily controlled epitaxial crystal growth) is amenable to modification by relatively simple processing operations such as impurity-induced layer disordering and now “wet” oxidation of Al-based layers, which makes possible a new generation of high-performance vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs). The VCSEL, with its oxide-defined high-Q flat cavity, reduced mode density, and approach now to instant “turn-on” (μA currents), indicates that semiconductor lasers may not become much better than VCSELs, even if there is a change (not certain) in form from two to one to zero dimensional (and, if so, to problems in uniformity and reproducibility). If the technologies of the high-brightness transparent-substrate light emitting diode (LED) and the VCSEL converge much more, it is likely that the VCSEL-LED will become an addressable array (a display), a projection television, or a low- or high-power lamp, perhaps eventually on a large “diameter” Si platform. The study of the semiconductor laser, the first practical QW device, is not complete, nor is its development, which is certain to continue View full abstract»

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  • Micromachining for optical and optoelectronic systems

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1833 - 1856
    Cited by:  Papers (118)  |  Patents (39)
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    Micromachining technology opens up many new opportunities for optical and optoelectronic systems. It offers unprecedented capabilities in extending the functionality of optical devices and the miniaturization of optical systems. Movable structures, microactuators, and microoptical elements can be monolithically integrated on the same substrate using batch processing technologies. In this paper, we review the recent advances in this fast-emerging field. The basic bulk- and surface-micromachining technologies applicable to optical systems are reviewed. The free-space microoptical bench and the concept of optical prealignment are introduced. Examples of micromachined optical devices are described, including optical switches with low loss and high contract ratio, low-cost modulators, micromechanical scanners, and the XYZ micropositioners with large travel distance and fine positioning accuracy. Monolithically integrated systems such as single-chip optical disk pickup heads and a femtosecond autocorrelator have also been demonstrated View full abstract»

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  • Gallium-nitride-based materials for blue to ultraviolet optoelectronics devices

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1740 - 1749
    Cited by:  Papers (25)  |  Patents (4)
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    Breakthroughs in materials growth have enabled extremely high-efficiency blue and green GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) to be achieved for the first time. Blue LEDs with external quantum efficiency exceeding 9% have enabled hybrid GaN/phosphor white lamp LEDs. GaN LEDs complete the primary color spectrum and have enabled bright and reliable full-color solid-state displays to be realized. Recently, room-temperature operation of continuous wave current-injection blue-violet lasers emitting at 417 nm has further increased the possible applications for GaN-based opto-electronic devices. In this paper, we review the key technologies for GaN-based materials and devices. Developments in the methods for thin-film deposition by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and molecular beam epitaxy and resulting film properties are highlighted View full abstract»

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  • Vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers: moving from research to manufacturing

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1730 - 1739
    Cited by:  Papers (39)  |  Patents (20)
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    After more than a decade of research, vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) are making the transition into the manufacturing arena. We review unique VCSEL properties found in their structure, growth, fabrication, and performance, which have precipitated their commercial acceptance. The short optical cavity that is formed between two distributed Bragg reflector mirrors is a distinctive VCSEL attribute. The spectral alignment between the resonance of the optical cavity formed by these mirrors and the laser gain bandwidth is shown to influence the VCSEL performance. Thus, epitaxial VCSEL growth by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy aided by in situ reflectance monitoring is discussed with an emphasis on uniformity and reproducibility. We also describe the fabrication techniques and VCSEL structures used to obtain transverse electrical and optical confinement, including etched air-post, ion-implanted, and selectively oxidized VCSELs. For the latter, wet oxidation of AlGaAs to form buried-oxide apertures has enabled record laser performance, such as ultralow threshold current and high efficiency. Numerous applications for VCSELs have been identified that leverage their manufacturing and performance advantages View full abstract»

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  • The display of three-dimensional video images

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1817 - 1832
    Cited by:  Papers (26)  |  Patents (8)
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    Three-dimensional images can be pixellated in three distinct ways: volumetric, holographic, and autostereoscopic. The latter excels if images of opaque objects are to be displayed with wide fields of view, and the quality of view-sequential displays with 1° per view now appears adequate for general applications. Although in principle autostereoscopic pixellation gives a true three-dimensional image, 1/10° per view is needed to avoid flaws in a typical display. This approximately equals the diffraction limit, and the information content is no less than that of a hologram. A hybrid of holographic views and view-sequential multiplexing promises images with the field of view of autostereoscopic images but the significantly greater resolution and depth of holograms. Light valves and high-frame-rate arrays already have the space-bandwidth product needed to display such images, and further advances in photonic switches and gigahertz telecommunications look set to promote the display of such high-quality three-dimensional video images View full abstract»

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  • Principles and techniques of optical data storage

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1780 - 1796
    Cited by:  Papers (21)  |  Patents (1)
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    We review the field of optical data storage and describe the various technologies that either are in use today or are likely to play a role in the near future. Our emphasis will be on optical-disk and holographic optical storage View full abstract»

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  • Lasers and optics in health care

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1797 - 1816
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    Lasers and optics have affected health care in a myriad of ways. This paper surveys their impact on three aspects of health care: (1) surgery and medicine, (2) biology, and (3) biotechnology. In surgery, fiber optics have enabled the development of endoscopes, which allow access to most sites within the body. Endoscopes have, in turn, led to the development of minimally invasive therapy, which is changing the practice of surgery. Optics contributes to biology via new techniques for visualization, measurement and analysis, and manipulation. In biotechnology, broadly defined as the measurement, manipulation, and manufacture of large biologically significant molecules such as proteins and DNA, optical methods have become important in genetic sequencing and pharmaceutical development View full abstract»

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  • Optical fibers and amplifiers for WDM systems

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1765 - 1779
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (9)
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    The development of optical-fiber amplifiers allowed a dramatic increase in the capacity of optical transmission systems while reducing system costs. Capacity increases are possible because the high output powers afforded by optical-fiber amplifiers support higher bit rates, while their broad bandwidth and slow gain dynamics allow multichannel operation. This benefit comes at the expense of having to manage signal-to-noise ratio degradations due to the accumulation of amplifier noise and dispersion distortions accumulated over the total system link. Furthermore, nonlinear optical effects become significant with the use of high power signals over long lengths of fiber, causing cross talk among the different channels and increasing signal distortions. To fully exploit the potential capacity of wavelength division multiplexing systems, the optical characteristics of the fibers and optical-fiber amplifiers must be optimized. The optical amplifiers should have low noise and flat gain, which can be achieved by using 980-nm pump lasers, optimized fiber glass composition, and gain-flattening filters. The optical fibers should have a small nonzero dispersion and large effective area. Both features can be achieved by optimizing the fiber index profile. This paper summarizes the state of the art in these components and points to directions for future exploration View full abstract»

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North Carolina State University