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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 10  Part 2 • Date Oct. 1997

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Displaying Results 1 - 22 of 22
  • Guest Editorial

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1817 - 1818
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Accurate frequency-domain modeling and efficient circuit simulation of high-speed packaging interconnects

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1941 - 1947
    Cited by:  Papers (52)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (184 KB)  

    The paper describes an efficient frequency-domain modeling and simulation method of a coupled interconnect system using scattering parameters. First, low-order rational approximations of the multiport scattering parameters are derived over a wide frequency range using a robust interpolation technique. The method applies frequency normalization, shift, and Householder QR orthogonalization to improve the stability and the accuracy when solving the resulting systems of equations. For interconnects characterized with frequency-dependent parasitic parameters, the order of the rational of approximation is reduced by using appropriate reference system. Then, the generated multiport pole-residue models are incorporated into a circuit simulator using recursive convolution. Thus, the method avoids explicit convolution, numerical transform, and artificial filtering of a large number of points that are often necessary in conventional approaches. Examples with experimental and simulated results are given to illustrate the method View full abstract»

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  • An FDTD-Touchstone hybrid technique for equivalent circuit modeling of SOP electronic packages

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1911 - 1918
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    The electromagnetic-field behavior within electronic packages used for high-speed digital-circuit or high-frequency analog-circuit applications often cannot be accurately modeled by using a quasi-static approximation, and a frequency-dependent analysis is sometimes needed for accurate modeling. In this paper, we employ the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approach, in conjunction with the commercially available software called Touchstone, to model the generic 24-pin silicon on plastic (SOP) package. The model for the package includes many details, such as the plastic encasement, bonding pads, and wires. The frequency responses of the package are tested against the results obtained with only the FDTD algorithm. It is shown that by extracting the equivalent-circuit elements from the field data, the hybrid FDTD-Touchstone technique allows greater flexibility in deriving a circuit configuration at the expense of fine tuning the circuit to reproduce the response of the package. It is hoped that the technique presented in this paper will lead to more accurate circuit simulations of complex packaging configurations than has been possible up to this point, by using quasi-static analyses View full abstract»

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  • The finite-element method for modeling circuits and interconnects for electronic packaging

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1868 - 1874
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB)  

    A full-wave finite-element method (FEM) is formulated and applied in the analysis of practical electronic packaging circuits and interconnects. The method is used to calculate S-parameters of unshielded microwave components such as patch antennas, filters, spiral inductors, bridges, bond wires, and microstrip transitions through a via. Although only representative microwave passive circuits and interconnects are analyzed in this paper, the underlined formulation is applicable to structures of arbitrary geometrical complexities including microstrip and coplanar-waveguide transitions, multiple conducting vias and solder bumps, multiple striplines, and multilayer substrates. The accuracy of the finite-element formulation is extensively verified by calculating the respective S-parameters and comparing them with results obtained using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Computational statistics for both methods are also discussed View full abstract»

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  • Rigorous and simplified models for the capacitance of a circularly symmetric via

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1875 - 1878
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
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    An integral-equation method is presented for analyzing the capacitance of circularly symmetric vias with thick conductors and conical posts. From the numerical data, simple expressions are derived which account for the effect of conductor thickness and cone angle. Use of the approximate expressions allows one to accurately determine via capacitance while using a simpler thin-conductor straight-post via model View full abstract»

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  • MCM packaging for present- and next-generation high clock-rate digital- and mixed-signal electronic systems: areas for development

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1819 - 1835
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
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    This paper will review the manner in which electronic packaging will be driven by the high-level performance requirements of next-generation mixed-signal systems, and by the evolving characteristics of next-generation integrated circuits. Present performance and fabrication limitations of the multichip module (MCM) technology will be discussed, as well as possible approaches to remove or minimize these constraints. Areas fruitful for research by the simulation community will be noted. This review is intended to provide a broad applications-oriented framework for the theoretical and simulation-directed papers in this special issue on interconnect and packaging View full abstract»

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  • Modeling millimeter-wave IC behavior for flipped-chip mounting schemes

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1919 - 1925
    Cited by:  Papers (16)  |  Patents (1)
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    A circuit topology is presented for modeling flipped-chip-mounted monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC's) at microwave frequencies. The proposed topology especially models the loss of isolation due to the flipped-chip structure. Both coplanar and microstrip flipped chips are circuit modeled and their results compared to full numerical simulations and to scale-model measurements. Both measurements and numerical modeling show resonances in the millimeter-wave range View full abstract»

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  • Application of system-level EM modeling to high-speed digital IC packages and PCBs

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1847 - 1856
    Cited by:  Papers (20)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (436 KB)  

    A system-level electromagnetic (EM) modeling tool combining a three-dimensional (3-D) full-wave finite-element EM-field analysis tool and a time-domain electric-circuit simulator is developed and applied to various geometries such as multilayer printed circuit boards (PCBs), signal lines embedded in a PCB or package, and split power-distribution network. Since the signal integrity is a primary concern of high-speed digital circuits, the noise distributions on various circuit planes are evaluated from the analysis. These noise distributions, often called voice maps, are utilized to identify the location of the major source of simultaneous switching noise (SSN). This information can eventually be adapted for optimum placement of decoupling capacitors to minimize the noise fluctuations on the various circuit planes on an entire PCB View full abstract»

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  • Development of microwave package models utilizing on-wafer characterization techniques

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1948 - 1954
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (192 KB)  

    A package characterization technique using coplanar waveguide (CPW) probes and line-reflect-match (LRM) calibrations for surface-mountable packages is presented. CPW-to-package adapters (CPA) are fabricated on alumina substrates to mount and measure the high-frequency response of plastic packages. Offset CPA standards in conjunction with an LRM calibration are used to de-embed the response of the adapters from the measured S-parameters. Application of this method is demonstrated by characterizing and modeling surface-mount microwave plastic packages View full abstract»

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  • Automatic netlist extraction for measurement-based characterization of off-chip interconnect

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1934 - 1940
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (164 KB)  

    An approach is presented for modeling board-level, package-level, and multichip module (MCM) substrate-level interconnect circuitry based on measured time-domain reflectometry (TDR) data. The time-domain scattering parameters of a multiport system are used to extract a SPICE netlist from standard elements to match the behavior of the device up to a user-specified cutoff frequency. Linear or nonlinear circuits may be connected to the model ports, and the entire circuit simulated in a standard circuit simulator. Two- and four-port microstrip-circuit examples are characterized, and the simulation results are compared with measured data. Delay, reflection, transmission, and crosstalk are accurately modeled in each case View full abstract»

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  • Spiral inductors and transmission lines in silicon technology using copper-damascene interconnects and low-loss substrates

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1961 - 1968
    Cited by:  Papers (85)  |  Patents (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (248 KB)  

    Spiral inductors and different types of transmission lines are fabricated by using copper (Cu)-damascene interconnects and high-resistivity silicon (HRS) or sapphire substrates. The fabrication process is compatible with the concepts of silicon device fabrication. Spiral inductors with 1.4-nH inductance have quality factors (Q) of 30 at 5.2 GHz and 40 at 5.8 GHz for the HRS and the sapphire substrates, respectively. 80-nH inductors have Q's as high as 13. The transmission-line losses are near 4 dB/cm at 10 GHz for microstrips, inverted microstrips, and coplanar lines, which are sufficiently small for maximum line lengths within typical silicon-chip areas. This paper shows that inductors with high Q's for lumped-element designs in the 1-10-GHz range and transmission lines with low losses for distributed-element designs beyond 10 GHz can be made available with the proposed adjustments to commercial silicon technology View full abstract»

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  • Low-profile enhanced-bandwidth PIFA antennas for wireless communications packaging

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1879 - 1888
    Cited by:  Papers (128)  |  Patents (35)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (208 KB)  

    The development of small integrated antennas plays a significant role in the progress of the rapidly expanding military and commercial communications applications. The recent advances in RF and microwave high-density circuit packaging technologies in multifunction wireless communications systems have called for the parallel development of compact and efficient antennas that can be used over a wide frequency range. This paper addresses the development and characterization of several low-profile and integrated antennas with enhanced bandwidth for wireless communications systems. The new radiators are developed by adding parasitic elements or tuning devices to a familiar integrated antenna-the planar inverted F antenna (PIFA). Simulations based upon the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and method of moments (MoM) are used to model the performance of the antennas. Comparisons with measured results on fabricated antenna structures are provided for simulations validation View full abstract»

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  • Coax via-A technique to reduce crosstalk and enhance impedance match at vias in high-frequency multilayer packages verified by FDTD and MoM modeling

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1981 - 1985
    Cited by:  Papers (35)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (488 KB)  

    Large-scale crosstalk at vias and poor via electrical performance are major drawbacks in state-of-the-art high-frequency multilayer first- or second-level integrated-circuit/monolithic-microwave integrated-circuit (IC/MMIC) packages. The coax via design modeled in this paper breaks new ground in achieving more than 30-dB ultrawide-band crosstalk reduction and providing an enhanced impedance match View full abstract»

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  • Time-domain characterization of packaging effects via segmentation technique

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1905 - 1910
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (180 KB)  

    The analysis of a monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) placed in a surface-mount plastic package is presented. Critical issues such as poor grounding conditions and crosstalk are addressed and discussed. The significance of a full-wave characterization of the component is shown. Results are validated with data available in the literature showing good agreement. A segmentation approach is also proposed to efficiently analyze the problem. The package effects are extracted and can be combined with MMIC parameters at the design stage to predict the performance of the packaged circuit View full abstract»

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  • Microwave-circuit modeling of high lead-count plastic packages

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1926 - 1933
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (248 KB)  

    A microwave-circuit model topology for elevated-paddle surface-mount packages is extended to packages with high-lead counts. Features such as irregular lead structures, long wirebonds, smaller pitches, and finite-lead thickness are all examined. The modeling technique is applied to a shrink small-outline package (SSOP-24) with the results compared to measurements of a 25 times size scale model. The circuit model is used to investigate the performance of a matched transition View full abstract»

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  • A new approach for the experimental circuit modeling of coupled interconnection structures based on causality

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1977 - 1981
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
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    In this paper, a time-frequency-domain technique for the experimental circuit modeling of coupled interconnection structures and discontinuities is presented. The technique models and de-embeds all discontinuities and coupled substructures of the device under test (DUT) one by one, and is based on the principle of causality. Validation of each part of the model is done in the time domain, while all calculations are performed in the frequency domain. To validate the accuracy of the circuit models, measured reflection, transmission, and near- and far-end crosstalk are compared with simulated results View full abstract»

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  • High-frequency circuit modeling of large pin count packages

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1897 - 1904
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (268 KB)  

    In this paper, a technique is presented for the high-frequency circuit modeling of coupled conductor structures. The method is, in particular, very useful for the modeling of structures with a varying signal/ground configuration. Structures with a large number of conductors (N+1, N>100) are also easy to model, as the method reduces the modeling of the 2N-port to the modeling of two- and four-port structures. Two- and four-port structures are much easier to model since their equivalent circuit model has fewer parameter values. Examples of multiconductor structures are high-density connectors and large pin count electronic packages. The model accurately simulates the electrical properties, such as reflection and transmission of all conductors, and the backward and forward crosstalk to all other conductors View full abstract»

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  • An all-purpose transmission-line model for interconnect simulation in SPICE

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1857 - 1867
    Cited by:  Papers (22)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB)  

    A new all-purpose multiconductor transmission-line model is described for efficient and robust interconnect simulation using nonlinear circuit simulators such as SPICE. All types of interconnects, i.e., uniform, nonuniform, lossless, lossy/dispersive, can be handled by the proposed model. Furthermore, coupling of electromagnetic radiation to interconnects can be directly modeled without the need for developing a new subcircuit. Another advantage of the proposed model is that it enables sensitivity analysis with respect to both circuit and interconnect parameters, thus facilitating interconnect circuit optimization. Chebyshev expansions for the spatial variations of the interconnect voltages and currents are used to effect highly accurate numerical approximations of the Telegrapher's equations using as small a number of degrees of freedom as possible. A simple rule of thumb is provided for the selection of the order of the approximation given the frequency bandwidth of interest. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed model and illustrate its application to a variety of interconnect-induced noise interactions in high-speed electronic systems View full abstract»

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  • An integrated CMOS distributed amplifier utilizing packaging inductance

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1969 - 1976
    Cited by:  Papers (31)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (160 KB)  

    An integrated CMOS distributed amplifier is presented. The required inductance needed for the distributed waveguide structure is realized by the parasitic packaging inductance of a plastic surface-mount package. A fully packaged three-stage distributed amplifier fabricated in a 0.8-μm CMOS process is presented. The distributed amplifier has a unity gain cutoff frequency of 4.7 GHz, a gain of 5 dB, with a gain flatness of ±1.2 dB over the 300-kHz to 3-GHz band. At a frequency of 2 GHz the amplifier has an input referred third-order intercept point of +15 dBm and an input referred 1-dB compression point of +7 dBm. The amplifier consumes 18 mA from a 3.0-V supply. The distributed amplifier is matched to 50 Ω at the input and output and has a maximum input voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR) of 1.7:1, and a maximum output VSWR of 1.3:1 over the 300 kHz to 3 GHz band. The amplifier has a noise figure of 5.1 dB at 2 GHz View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid electromagnetic modeling of noise interactions in packaged electronics based on the partial-element equivalent-circuit formulation

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1889 - 1896
    Cited by:  Papers (57)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (204 KB)  

    The partial-element equivalent-circuit (PEEC) method is used to develop a flexible, hierarchical electromagnetic modeling and simulation environment for the analysis of noise generation and signal degradation mechanisms in packaged electronic components and systems. The circuit-oriented approach used by the method for the development of the numerical approximation of the electric-field integral equation leads to SPICE-compatible, yet fully dynamic, discrete approximation of the electromagnetic problem. Contrary to other full-wave formulations, the proposed method has the important attribute of lending itself to a very systematic and physical model complexity reduction on the basis of the electrical size of the various portions of the system. Thus, a hybrid electromagnetic modeling and simulation environment is established for the analysis of complex structures which exhibit large variation in electrical size over their volume, using a combination of lumped-circuit elements, transmission lines, as well as three-dimensional (3-D) distributed electromagnetic models. These models may or may not account for retardation, depending on the electrical size of the part of the structure that is being modeled. These special attributes of the proposed electromagnetic-simulation environment are demonstrated through several examples from its application to the modeling of noise interactions in generic interconnect and package geometries View full abstract»

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  • Determination of complex permittivity of low-loss dielectrics

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1955 - 1960
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (176 KB)  

    A new high-order-mode analytical method is described for calculating the frequency-dependent complex permittivity of a low-loss dielectric in a parallel-plate structure using a planar microwave circuit model. An analytical expression for the complex permittivity is derived in terms of the terminal impedance at a modal resonant frequency of the structure. The derivation provides physical and mathematical insight into the relation between complex permittivity and port impedance. The technique is validated by good agreement between manufacturer's specifications and complex permittivity calculated from measurements near resonant frequencies for a printed circuit board (PCB) View full abstract»

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  • When are transmission-line effects important for on-chip interconnections?

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1836 - 1846
    Cited by:  Papers (169)  |  Patents (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (348 KB)  

    Short, medium, and long on-chip interconnections having linewidths of 0.45-52 μm are analyzed in a five-metal-layer structure. We study capacitive coupling for short lines, inductive coupling for medium-length lines, inductance and resistance of the current return path in the power buses, and line resistive losses for the global wiring. Design guidelines and technology changes are proposed to achieve minimum delay and contain crosstalk for local and global wiring. Conditional expressions are given to determine when transmission-line effects are important for accurate delay and crosstalk prediction View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dominique Schreurs
Dominique.Schreurs@ieee.org

Editor-in-Chief
Jenshan Lin
jenshan@ieee.org