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Consumer Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Nov. 1997

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 43
  • 1997 Index

    Page(s): 1347 - 1372
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Adaptive water marking

    Page(s): 1003 - 1009
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    The watermark is an important protection and identification technique that allows an invisible mark to be placed on top of normal information such as bank note, ID card, magnetic card and valuable documents. Watermarking techniques have been developed to protect digital images against illegal reproduction and illegal modifications when visibility to users is required. Here, we present a new adaptive watermarking algorithm. The adaptive watermark is generated from the image content and can be treated as a digital fingerprint of the image. As a transform based algorithm is used to encode the information in the histogram domain the proposed watermark is robust enough against any degradation, hacking and attack View full abstract»

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  • Real-time PC-based software implementation of H.261 video codec

    Page(s): 1234 - 1244
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    The complexity of a video codec has made it seems impossible to accomplish an audio-visual application without using application specific integrated circuits (ASICs). However, the advances in the computing power of microprocessors have made the development of software-based multimedia applications more feasible. More and more complicated tasks with a heavy computation load can be realized on the basis of the general purpose CPU. A PC-based software H.261 video codec, which is suitable for real-time constraint applications such as the video-phone and video-conferencing, is presented. The whole video codec system works on the Pentium-133 View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid mapping parameter estimation using hierarchical structure in object-oriented coding

    Page(s): 1213 - 1219
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    This paper investigates motion estimation and compensation in object-oriented analysis-synthesis coding. Object-oriented coding employs a mapping parameter technique for estimating motion information in each object. The mapping parameter technique using gradient operators requires high computational complexity. The main objective of this paper is to propose a hybrid mapping parameter estimation method using the hierarchical structure in object-oriented coding. The hierarchical structure employed constructs a low-resolution image. Then six mapping parameters for each object are estimated from the low-resolution image and these parameter values are verified based on the displaced frame difference (DFD). If the verification test succeeds, the parameters and object boundaries are coded. Otherwise, eight mapping parameters are estimated in a low-resolution image and the verification test is again applied to an image reconstructed by estimated parameters. If it succeeds, the parameters and object boundaries are coded, otherwise, the regions are coded by second-order polynomial approximation. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation show that the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) of the image reconstructed by the proposed method lies between those of images reconstructed by the conventional 6- and 8-parameter estimation methods with reduction of the computation time by a factor of about four View full abstract»

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  • Design considerations of the video compression system of the new DV camcorder standard

    Page(s): 1160 - 1179
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    The digital camcorder system DV, which features advanced intra-frame DCT-based video compression, has been successfully introduced for the consumer and semi-professional user. This paper focuses on the design considerations and system issues that have resulted in the final video compression standard applied View full abstract»

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  • Browser-style interfaces to a home automation network

    Page(s): 1063 - 1069
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    The design and implementation of a browser-style interface to a home automation network is described. The interface supports browsing and navigation of network devices and context structures and the user can interact with individual devices on the network and access and control content and object structures within these devices. The interface can be used to access a local home automation network from a standard desktop PC, or from a TV/set-top box system with built-in interface hardware. Furthermore, as the interface is implemented using conventional Internet and home network technology it can provide access and control services to the home network from any computer with an Internet connection View full abstract»

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  • Long time recorder using Mini Disc

    Page(s): 1245 - 1251
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    We have developed a high-performance, small-sized recorder which enables us to record a maximum 48 hours of general sound in addition to enjoying Hi-Fi audio by using Mini Disc View full abstract»

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  • Design of high-integration microcontroller for consumer Internet applications

    Page(s): 1070 - 1073
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    The increasing use and understanding of the Internet has inspired new consumer products which in turn have demanded new types of high-integration/low-cost microcontrollers. This paper describes the integration of a 32-bit RISC CPU and peripherals required for TV-orientated Internet appliance products. The resulting device requires only external ROM, SDRAM and a network interface to complete the hardware platform View full abstract»

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  • Rapid prototyping of a test modem for terrestrial broadcasting of digital television

    Page(s): 1100 - 1109
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    This paper introduces rapid prototyping of a complex system and the difficulties that appear when a real-time prototype of such a system is approached. These concepts are applied to the construction of a test modem for terrestrial broadcasting of digital television, in which orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is the transmission technique. The possibility of reducing the number of sub-carriers in the OFDM signal and obtaining enough information about the system performance in hostile environments (multipath, phase noise, non-linear, …) is considered and discarded. As a conclusion, a non-real time prototype is presented which allows one to optimize parameters, verify the possibility of implementation and evaluate subjective qualities View full abstract»

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  • An efficient lapped orthogonal transform image coding technique

    Page(s): 994 - 1002
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    A fast and computationally less complex coding technique is described which uses partial-lapped orthogonal transform (LOT) computation algorithm and efficiently discards perceptually insignificant high frequency transform coefficients. The coding process involves activity class energy classification, human visual system weighted normalization and quantization. The values of normalization factors are image independent and governed only by the bit-rate and activity index of the image blocks. Zones of various shapes and sizes are chosen for each activity class to perform zonal sampling which efficiently discards high frequency coefficients having zero values. A progressive transmission version of the proposed technique is also given. This technique gives better performance at comparable bit-rate than that obtained by using LOT/CVQ and LOT/VQ schemes View full abstract»

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  • Disk and file system design for MPEG-2 video-on-demand servers

    Page(s): 1220 - 1228
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    This paper proposes a disk and file system design scheme that achieves effective utilization of disk bandwidth for retrieving MPEG-2 programs in a video-on-demand server. The scheme is based on a general two-level disk array architecture that exploits both parallelism and concurrency offered by fine-grain and coarse-grain disk array structures. This paper also presents a design procedure to figure out the optimal disk system configuration for specific requirements View full abstract»

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  • An I-phone system design and implementation with a portable speech coding coprocessor

    Page(s): 1262 - 1269
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    This paper presents a high quality, low bit rate, and portable Internet-phone system. The system consists of a mixed implementation of software and hardware. The hardware includes a portable box that can be plugged into the conventional parallel port. Three major parts are considered in this box: the speech compression unit, the host interface, and the speakerphone module. A low-cost non-delicate speech coprocessor is embedded to process the heavy job of speech coding, a CPLD device is employed to control the host access timing, a 16-bit PCM codec and an audio amplifier with acoustic echo cancellation features are introduced to optimize the speakerphone module. The experimental coding rate is 8.5 kbps. At such a rate, the popular modems can conform to offer full-duplex speech in real time. Modern applications of this system include digital simultaneous voice data (DSVD) transmission, such as net-game's talking and video-conferencing View full abstract»

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  • Motion parameter estimation based on the block recursive algorithm with finite word length

    Page(s): 1124 - 1131
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    A three parameter motion model can better describe the motion trajectory of the picture element in a video sequence. Combining the features of the block process and recursive estimation, a block recursive algorithm is proposed to calculate these three motion parameters with compensation for the variety of block positions to get a better stability. To simplify the hardware implementation requirements, the representation accuracy of the displaced frame difference and gradient that are given is analyzed. From this analysis we propose a quantized block recursive algorithm with quantized gradient to reduce the computational complexity. With this simplification the quantized motion estimation algorithm has a sufficient computational speed to meet the requirement of real time application with the least accuracy loss View full abstract»

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  • Receiver IC-set for digital satellite system

    Page(s): 1305 - 1311
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    A new digital satellite radio broadcast service has been introduced using the L-band frequencies that are allocated for digital audio broadcasting by the WARC-92 conference. The coverage area includes Africa, and most parts of Asia and South America. This direct to home (DTH) service uses digital QPSK-modulation combined with convolutional and Reed Solomon forward error correction (FEC). The sophisticated MPEG 2.5 layer 3 audio data reduction scheme ensures a high audio signal quality, even at low bit rates. A new chip set has been developed for the demodulation and decoding of the signals transmitted from the geostationary satellites. The chip set has been designed to act as the core element of future radios that will be capable to receive that signal. All required digital and analog parts from the IF-A/D converter to headphone/loudspeaker amplifiers are provided on chip. In spite of tight cost constraints, the design was uncompromising with respect to signal reception and audio signal quality. The high error protection capabilities of the system theoretically predicts possible reception under carrier to noise (C/N) conditions where the classical carrier and timing recovery algorithms fail. For this reason a new fast and robust synchronization algorithm has been developed that ensures reliable radio reception even at a poor C/N ratio of the input signal. Starting with a short overview of the technical parameters of the digital satellite radio system and the basic features of future receivers this paper presents the building blocks and some underlying algorithms of the newly developed chip set View full abstract»

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  • A 10 bit 30 MSPS CMOS A/D converter for a high performance video application system

    Page(s): 1301 - 1304
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    In a video application system, an A/D converter which converts the analog signal into digital codes plays an important role in determining the system performance. In this paper, a high performance A/D converter which has 10-bit resolution and 30 MSPS conversion speed is proposed. It has an architecture of pipeline style. With 0.5 μm double poly and double metal fully CMOS technology, the experimental prototype of the proposed A/D converter has ±0.7 LSB INL, and ±0.5 LSB DNL View full abstract»

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  • Storage- and entropy-constrained classified vector quantization

    Page(s): 1252 - 1261
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    This paper presents a novel variable-rate classified vector quantizer (CVQ) design algorithm for image coding. The design algorithm, termed storage- and entropy-constrained classified vector quantization (SECCVQ) algorithm, is able to control the rate and the storage size of the CVQ. The algorithm allocates the rate and storage size available to each class of the VQ optimally so that the average distortion of the SECCVQ is minimized. Classification of image blocks is based on the edge orientation of each block in the wavelet domain. To reduce the arithmetic complexity of the CVQ, we employ a novel partial distance codeword search algorithm in the wavelet domain. Simulation results show that the SECCVQ enjoys a low average distortion, a low encoding complexity, a high visual perception quality, and is well-suited for very low bit rate image coding View full abstract»

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  • Dual-channel audio equalization and cross-talk cancellation for 3-D sound reproduction

    Page(s): 1189 - 1196
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    Three dimensional (3-D) sound effects depend on psychoacoustic spectral and phase cues being present in a reproduced signal. Dual-channel audio equalization and cross-talk cancellation allow accurate phase and spectral cues to be reproduced over dual-channel loudspeaker systems. This paper presents an innovative dual-stage algorithm that greatly improves the performance in the presence of highly correlated inputs. The first stage uses a modified dual-channel direct path modeling algorithm to model the path network from the loudspeakers to the ears. The second stage uses the direct path model to form the inverse filter network to compensate for the effects of these physical paths View full abstract»

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  • DCT domain filter for ATV down conversion

    Page(s): 1074 - 1078
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    There has been a lot of interest in ATV down-conversion for cheaper implementation of ATV. Instead of expensive high definition monitors, down conversion allows using inexpensive existing monitors such as NTSC or 525 progressive monitors by converting a high definition input picture into a lower resolution picture. Low pass filtering is necessary prior to downsampling. Truncation of high DCT coefficients is a commonly used practice. The proposed DCT filter is a suboptimal filter which is equivalent to a block mirror filter in the spatial domain, but with less hardware View full abstract»

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  • Staircase data broadcasting and receiving scheme for hot video service

    Page(s): 1110 - 1117
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    For a 120-minute popular movie, with 4 video channels, current digital video broadcasting systems can support the movie every 30 minutes. Suppose the set-top box at client end can buffer portions of the playing video on disk. Pyramid broadcasting schemes can support the movie every 19 minutes. We present a new data broadcasting and receiving scheme, which can service the movie every 8 minutes. For a given bandwidth allocation, the new scheme greatly reduces the viewer waiting time. The disk space and transfer rate requirements of the set-top box are also reduced to be feasible View full abstract»

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  • Robust motion-compensated video upconversion

    Page(s): 1045 - 1056
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    The quality of field-rate conversion improves significantly with motion-compensation techniques. It becomes possible to interpolate new fields at their correct temporal position. This results in smooth motion portrayal without loss of temporal resolution. However, motion vectors are not always valid for every pixel or object in an image. Therefore, visible artifacts occur wherever such wrong vectors are used on the image. One effective method to solve this problem is the use of non-linear filtering. In this method, a wrongly interpolated pixel is either substituted or averaged with neighbouring pixels. We introduce and evaluate a new and very robust upconversion algorithm which is based on the non-linear filtering approach. It is unique in that it estimates motion vector reliability and uses this information to control the filtering process. This algorithm outperforms others in its class, especially when we have complex image sequences View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of parallel genetic algorithms on HMM based speech recognition system

    Page(s): 1229 - 1233
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    A hidden Markov model (HMM) is a natural and highly robust statistical method for automatic speech recognition. It has been tested and proved effective in a wide range of applications. The HMM model parameters are used to describe the utterance of the speech segment presented by the HMM. Many successful heuristic algorithms are developed to optimize the model parameters to best describe the training observation sequences. However, all these methods are exploring for only one local maximum in practice. No single method can be recovered from the local maximum and to obtain the global maximum or other more optimized local maxima. In this paper, a stochastic search method called the genetic algorithm (GA) is presented for HMM training. GA mimics natural evolution and performs searching within the defined searching space. Experimental results showed that using GA for HMM training (GA-HMM training) can obtain better solutions than using heuristic algorithms. One of the major drawbacks is that GAs require a lot of computation power for global searching before it can converge. Therefore, in order to outperform heuristic algorithms, a parallel version of GA called the parallel genetic algorithm (PGA) is introduced. Experimental results showed that using PGA in speech recognition systems provides 18% improvement in recognition rate with the same amount of computational time View full abstract»

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  • New schemes for progressive transmission of digital images

    Page(s): 1028 - 1033
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    Two schemes that combine JPEG and segmented image coding (SIC) for the progressive transmission of digital images, are described. Compared to JPEG-based progressive transmission schemes, the new ones produce reconstructed images of better quality across all stages of transmission, while transmitting approximately the same number of bits. The computational complexity of the new schemes is lower than that of the SIC-only approaches View full abstract»

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  • An efficient global motion characterization method for image processing applications

    Page(s): 1010 - 1018
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    A very hardware and computational efficient method for frame motion characterization is presented. The method replaces the time consuming calculation of two-dimensional m×n picture elements with that of two one-dimensional vectors. This is made possible by mathematically operating the luminance values of vertical and horizontal lines as the characteristic values of x and y direction respectively; either by taking simply the weighted average values, or taking only those of the above-threshold values. By comparing these characteristic values taken from two frames in a sequence of moving pictures, one can extract the components of frame changes quantitatively into three factors; the factor caused by the motion of objects, or the factors caused by the panning, or zooming of the camera. The efficiency of this algorithm is examined with some practical examples, and application possibilities in an automatic motion tracking system and image stabilizer are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Automatic flesh tone reappearance for color enhancement in TV

    Page(s): 1153 - 1159
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    Color enhancement of reproduced color images has been a critical problem in TV systems. A flesh tone reappearance circuit is implemented to enhance the flesh tones as a standard reference color. The system consists of a phase detector to detect the flesh tones in real-time from the 3.58 MHz color burst signal and color signal, comparators to discriminate the types of flesh tone, and micom to represent standard flesh tone for races such as Mongolian, Caucasian, and people with sun-tan flesh. The proposed algorithm will improve the automatic flesh tone reappearance and provide a reference color to the viewer View full abstract»

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  • Low complexity fractal-based image compression technique

    Page(s): 987 - 993
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    A fast image compression technique as well as its progressive image transmission (PIT) version using fractals is presented which uses a small pool of domains extracted using visually significant patterns. The affine transformations for an edge block are obtained by using its edge characteristics instead of the minimum mean square error criterion. Simulation studies demonstrate that this method is computationally simple, gives faster encoding speed and achieves good fidelity at relatively higher compression ratios than other fractal based techniques View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The primary purpose for publishing the Transactions of the Consumer Electronics Society is to present to the membership and the engineering community in general, papers on new technology oriented to Consumer Electronics.

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
R. Simon Sherratt
School Director for Teaching and Learning, School of Systems Engineering
The University of Reading
Reading, Berkshire  RG6 6AY  RG6 6AY  U.K.
r.s.sherratt@reading.ac.uk; sherratt@ieee.org
Phone:+44 (0) 118 3788588
Fax:+44 (0) 118 3788583